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f 




The University o£ Michigan 




Shakespeare CoUection 

in memory of 

Hereward Thimbleby Price 

1880-1964 

Professor of English 1929— 1950 
Professor Emeritus 1950-1964 

Teacher - Scholar * Friend 



r 



• 1 



SHAKESPEAEE'S BOOKS 



A DISSERTATION ON SHAKESPEARE'S READING AND 
THE IMMEDIATE SOURCES OF HIS WORKS 



BY 



-■J. 



nf E. D. ANDERS 

BX (UNIT. OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPB), FHJ>. (BERLIN tNIV.) 




BERLIN 
PUBLISHER & PRINTER GEORG REIMER 

1904. 






TO 



THE UNIVEESITY OF THE CAPE OP GOOD HOPE 



my alma mater. 



Anders, Sbtkespeaie's books. a 



SHAKESPEAEE'S BOOKS. 



a* 



CONTENTS. 



P««e 

xni 



Pbefacb 

A Synopsis 1 

iNTBODUCnON 3 

Ghaptbb 1. 
Shaeespeabe and THE Classics. 



page 

Sdiool-Books and Latin Anthors. 6 

Introductory 6 

Shakespeare's School-Books ... 8 

The Hom-Book 12 

The ABC Book 12 

Lily's Latin Grammar 13 

JEsop's Fahles 17 

Mantuanus 20 

Caesar 20 

Cicero 21 

Ovid . 21 

Virgil 31 

Horace? 32 

Plautus 32 

Seneca 34 

Livy 36 

Pliny 36 



page 

Lucan 37 

Juvenal? 38 

A Note 38 

Concluding Remarks 39 

Greek Literatnre 40 

Plutarch 40 

Homer 42 

Josephus 42 

Heliodorus 43 

Marianus 44 

Appendix 45 

1. A Reprint of pages 1 — 3 of 
Lily^s Grammar 45 

2. A Note on the Sententiae 
Pueriles 47 

3. A Note on the ABC with the 
Catechism 48 



Freneh Anthors 

Montaigne . . ; 51 

Rabelais 55 

Ronsard 58 

Italian Literatnre 59 

Boccaccio 60 

Bandello 65 

Giraldi Cintbio 66 

Ser Giovanni Fiorentino 67 

Straparola 67 

Gringannati and the Source of 

Twelfth Night, etc. ...... 67 



Chaptbr 2. 
Modern Continental Literatube. 

50 The Italian Drama generali y ... 71 

Ariosto 72 

Petrarca 72 

Spanish Literatnre 72 

Jorge de Montemayor 72 

Appendix — Three Chimerlcal 

Sonrees 74 

1. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza . 74 

2. Another Marens Nest .... 75 

3. Antonio de Eslava 75 



Contents, 



Chaptbb 3. 
The Engush Non-Dbamatic Poute Litbbatube. 



pa«e 

Pre-Elizabethan Authon ... 77 

Geoffrey Ghaucer 77 

John Gower 80 

William Caxton 81 

EUsiOiethaii Avthon 82 

Arthur Brooke 82 

Samuel Daniel 85 

Edmund Spenser 90 

Marlowe*s Hero and Leander . . 90 

Thomas Watson 102 

The Sonnetists 102 

Sir Philip Sidney 102 



page 

John Lyly's Euphues 103 

Thomas Lodge 107 

Robert Greene 107 

Sir Francis Bacon, a note on . . 108 

John Camden? 108 

Samuel Harsnett 109 

Further D<emonologica 112 

Books on Good Manners and on 

Duelling 116 

Shakespeare and the Emblem 

Writers 117 

Gompendiums of English History 117 



Chapter 4. 
The English Drama. 



Dramatic Authon 119 

Ghristopher Marlowe 120 

Thomas Kyd 127 

John Lyly 131 

George Peele 13& 

Robert Greene 136 

George Whetstone 136 

George Gascoigne 137 

Thomas Preston 137 

Ben Jonson . 137 

Samuel Rowley 138 

Fletcher and Beaumont 138 

Sir William Alexander 139 

Anonymous Plays 140 

The True Chronicle Historie of 

King Leir 140 



The Troublesome Raigne of King 

lohn 141 

The Famous Victories of Henry 

the Fifth 142 

The True Tragedie of Richard the 

Tbird 142 

The Taming of a Shrew .... 143 

A Pre-Timon 143 

A Pre-Merchant 144 

A Pre-Gentlemen 145 

Further Old Plays, etc 145 

Some Suggested Sources .... 151 

The *Pseudo-Shakespearean' Plays 151 



Mysteries and Moralities 
Masks 



152 
153 



Chapter 5. 
Populär Literatürb. 



Introductory . 155 

Heroes of Bomauce 157 

The Arthurian Legends 158 

Guy of Warwick 160 

Sir Bevis of Hamptoun 160 

Sir Eglamour 161 

The Squire of Low Degree . . . 161 



Sir Topas 162 

Charlemagne Romances 162 

Folk-Ballads 163 

Robin Hood 163 

A Note on Adam Bell 164 

[reg. Musselburgh Field cf. p. 187, 
and Add. et Corr., p. 270] 



NarratiTe Art-BaUads 

A Song of a Beggar and a King 

(King Gophetna and the Beggar- 

Maid) 

The Constancy of Sosanna . . . 
Jephthah, Judge of Israel .... 
Remarks on the Ballads of Titus 

Androniciis, King Leir, and the 

Jew of Venice 

A Note on Percy's Friar of Orders 

Grey 

Songs and Tones 

On alphabetleal order) 
the Aged Loyer renounceth Love 

(I loathe that I did love) . . . 
Bell my Wife (Take thy Old Cloak 

about thee) 

Galen Gusture Me 

Ganst thott not hit it 

the Gareful Loyer complaineth (A I 

Robyn Joly Robyn) 

Gome o^er the Boume, Bessy . . 
the Growe sits upon the Wall, 

Please one and please all . . . 
Farewell, Dear Loye (Gorydon's 

Farewell to Phillis) 

Fire, Fire 

Fortune my Foe 

the 6od[s] of Loye 

Green Sleeves 

Haye I canght my Heayenly Jewel? 

Heart's Ease 

Heigh ho! for a Husband . . . . 

the Hunt is up 

I cannot come Eyery Day to woo 

Light o' Loye 

Mad Tom 

Monsieur Mingo 

My Mind to me a Kingdom is . . 
My Robin is to the Greenwood 

gone (Benny Sweet Robin) . . 
Death, rock me asleep . . . . 

Mistress Mine 

Sweet Oliyer 

the Passionate Shepherd to his Loye 

(Gome liye with me) 



Contents. xi 

page page 

165 Peg-a Ramsey 179 

a Pleasant New Ballad (0)mplaine, 

my Lute) 180 

165 Sick, Sick 180 

166 a Song to the Lute (where Griping 

167 Griefs) 180 

There was an Old Fellow at 

Waltham Gross 180 

167 Where is the Life that late I led? 181 
Whoop, do me No Harm .... 181 

168 Wülow, Willow 181 

168 Ronnds 182 

Jack, Boy! Ho! Boy! 182 

Thou Knaye 182 

168 Three Merry Men 183 

Popnlar Bhymes 183 

169 Peer out, peer out 183 

169 Pülycock, Pillycock 188 

170 When Adam delved 184 

Your Marriage comes, etc. ... 184 

170 A Spell 185 

170 Fnrther Notes and Comments 

on:— 

171 Gome away, Gome away, Death . 185 
Delphin My Boy 186 

171 How should I your True Loye 

172 know? 186 

172 Jog on, Jog on 187 

173 the Man shall haye his Mare again 187 

174 0[n] the Twelfth Day of December 187 

174 Sleepest or wakest Thou? .... 187 

175 Take, 0, take those Lips away . 187 
175 To-morrow is St. Valentine's Day 188 

175 Was this Fair Face 188 

176 We will be married o' Sunday . 188 

176 Burdens 189 

177 A Note on Strange Fish es and 

177 Monstrosities 190 

177 Popnlar Tales and Light Lite- 

ratnre 191 

178 A Handred Merry Tales .... 191 
178 The Jests of Scogan 191 

178 Robin Goodfellow 191 

179 Gillian of Brainford's Testament . 192 
The Book of Riddles 192 

179 Child Rowland 193 



XU 



Contents. 
page 



page 



An Old Tale (It is not so, nor it 

was not so) 194 

Legends conceming Abel .... 194 

The Owl, a Baker's Daughter . . 194 



Schneewittchen 195 

Beast Fables . . .- 195 

A Note, on *^the humour of forty 

fancies" 195 



Ghapteb 6. 
Thb Bible and THE Pbayeb Book. 

Elizabethan Bibles 196 The Psalms 211 

The Apocrypha 201 Metrical Psalms 217 

French Bible 203 Graces 219 

The Book of Common Prayer . . 204 Appendix 221 

ChaPTEB 7. 

Shaebspeabe's Eabth and Heayen. 



New and Strange Lands, and 

Books and Tales abont fhem . 222 

Magellan^s Circumnavigation of the 

Barth 223 

Cannibals 226 

Guiana and the Acephali .... 228 

England^s First Colonies .... 230 

Arctic Voyages 231 

The Indies 232 

Mexico 233 

Aleppo, and "the Tiger" .... 233 

The Nile , with a Note on Abiogenesis 235 
Prester John, the Great Cham, and 

the Pigmies 236 

A Fabulous Report 237 

Astronomlcal and Astroiogical 

Lore 237 

The Ptolemaic System 237 

Astrology 239 

An Illustrative Passage fromTroilus 

& Cressida 240 



Spheres 240 

Harmony of Spheres 241 

The Eight Spheres, with their 
Planets and Stars; and Astro- 

logical Notions 242 

Substance of Stars 247 

Sphere of Fire 248 

Meteors, Comets, St.Elmo's Fire. 248—'9 
Shakespeare's Enyironments re- 

(lected in his Works .... 250 

London 250 

Warwickshire Names 253 

The Conünent of Enrope . . . 254 

Shakespeare's Travels 254 

itaiy ...... •> •..*. ZoO 

In Conclusion 256 

Appendix 257 

1. A Note on Maps and Globes 257 

2. A Note on the Old Theory 

of Earthquakes 262 



Additional Notes. 

Addenda et Corrigenda 264 More Borrowed Ideas 



272 



Index adfin. 



PREFACE. 

It is my pleasant duty to tbank my friends, my helpers, and all 
those who have farthered this work. My heartfelt thanks are due in 
the first place to Mrs. MariaDne v. Koenen, a truly fine-cultured and 
ffentle woman, to whom I am most deeply indebted. The theme 
was snggested to me by Professor Doctor Brandl, a large-hearted and 
large-minded man, whose original lectares on the English Drama 
and on Shakespeare I had heard. He induced the German Shake- 
speare Society, which he serves with devoted enthusiasm, to give 
its Support towards a proper completion of the work. The readiness 
with which this noble Society responded has laid me under histing 
obligations. 

I have to thank right cordially Mr. P. A. Daniel for bis most 
generous consent to read through the proofs with me and for bis 
friendly criticism. I am furtber indebted to the Rev. J. W. Ebsworth, 
our first living authority on English ballads, who, despite weakness 
and illness against which he had to battle, looked through the fifth 
chapter with care and favoured me (and the reader) with many 
notes from the abundant störe of his knowledge of old ballads 
and songs. My best thanks are also due to Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith, 
of Oxford; to Mr. E. S. Dodgson who suggested some alterations; to 
Dr. Furnivall; to Dr. Garnett; to Herr Kawerau, and others. I have 
also to thank the trustees of the Libraries for the great liberality and 
hospitality extended to me, — the Royal Library of Berlin, the British 
Museum Library (a paradise for scholars), and the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford. I was also allowed a liberal use of the choice collection of books 
in the English Seminary Library at Berlin, which owes its existence to 
the eflTorts of Professor Brandl, and of which he is justly proud. 



XIV Prtfact. 

The present work was intended to serve as an introduction to a 
new edition of Collier-Hazlitt's ''Shakespeare's Library". This explains 
the tendency, plan, and scope of the dissertation. It explains, for 
example, why Cinthio, on p. 66, occupies only four lines, while Ra- 
belais, whose influence on Shakespeare is inconsiderable, takes np two 
fall pages. In an edition of '^Shakespeare's Library" the importance 
of the former author in relation to 'Othello' would be brought home 
by reading Cinthio's novel; whereas of Rabelais's connexion with Shake- 
speare, which has been treated exhaustively on pp. 56 — 7, nothing 
forther need be said. The amount of space occupied is therefore not 
always a true indicator of the quality or importance, either in this or 
in any other book. But I have generally tried to see and present 
things in their true proportions. 

Mr. Daniel pointed out to me the disproportionate amount of space 
I devoted to a discussion of the sources of Cymbeline (pp. 60 — 64). 
Perhaps I should have made it part of the appendix to the chapter. 
The average reader may omit this section containing controversial 
matter. A longer discussion was occasioned by Ohle's work, which 
has influenced some commentators. 

In the fifth chapter I have given many bibliographical details. 
This is due to the fact that the materials are widely scattered. A 
collective volume containing all the old ballads and songs, quoted or 
referred to by Shakespeare, together with the old music, and a short 
analysis of the plots of the romances, etc., in question, will be publish- 
ed by the German Shakespeare Society. This work which I refer to 
as the "later volume" (cf. p. 155) will form part of "Shakespeare's 
Library" (cf. p. 5). 

Mr. Daniel said to me, that I had given too many references 
throughout. I admit I have given many. But they are not superfluous. 
References, generally speaking, are of two kinds. The one sort serves 
to shuflfle off the Shoulder of the writer the responsibility of his assertion. 
"If you", he means, "want to bother about investigating this question, 
you can study the article there or there. Do it if you like. As for 
me, I shall not teil you whether I read it; but I know about it". 
The other sort of reference is given by the writer who has honestly 
read the work referred to himself, and who refers to it, if it is deserving 
of mention. He gives in nuce what he considers important for his 
purposo and only refers the reader to it for further information, or as 
the source whence he derived his knowledge. Nor is a writer of this 
sort addicted to the vice of giving exhaustive bibliographical information 



Preface. Xy 

which önly serves to puzzle the reader. Bat he prefero td drown 
worthless books deeper than plümmet did ever sonnd. In fine, an 
ideal writer is not one who imposes his learning on the reader, bat 
one who does the work for htm. 

The immense literature which centres around the name of Shake- 
speare renders a work of the present nature rather trying. It meant 
tough fighting to grapple with this sea of books which threatened to 
drown all independence of thougkt, For it has been my constant aim 
not to accept a Statement without convincing myself of its truth. I 
have tried hard to lift the subject-matter beyond the sphere of mere 
leamed cumbronsness. And I have endeavoured, as much as possible, 
to excinde dubious matter and to avoid all guesses. The reader may 
form an idea of the extent of the Shakespeare literature from the bare 
fact that a very able and hard working scholar, Mr. Furness, is spcnding 
his tohole life in collecting all the more important comments on the 
great poet, without the prospect of finishing the work singlehanded. 
He is now about seventy years of age and has only finished 13 out 
of the 37 plays. But by the time it is finished it will no longer be 
up to dato, because of the many excellent recent editions by Dowden, 
GoUancz, Brandl, Craig, Hart, Herford, etc., etc., not to speak of the 
ever-increasing Shakespeare-criticism published every year. An act of 
Parliament ought to be passed forbidding the publication of new com- 
ments, until Mr. Fumess's New Variorum Edition is finished and all 
the material thoroughly digested. — But, happily, it is not necessary 
to know all the comments for an intelligent understanding of Shake- 
speare, any more than it is requisite to acquire all the theological 
learning for a healthy understanding of the Bible. It is sometimes 
better not to know it. Shakespeare speaks to the Shakespeare in us, 
and unless we have this apprehensive and sympathetic soul, no com- 
ment will bring him nearer to us. 

A long stay on the Continent (such as mine was), however benc- 
ficial in other respects, can hardly be said to improve one's style. 
Any defects in this direction in the present work will, I trust, be 
condoned on other grounds. 

The quotations in this work are nearly all given at first band. 
It involved much labour, but it was worth it. The quotations in 
Malone's Variorum Edition which have been repeated without change 
by numerous commentators are surprisingly inaccurate. The old ortho- 
graphy has been generally adhered to; but the typographical irregularities 
respecting u and t? have been disregarded. 



XVI Pre/ace. 

I have taken into consid^ration all the works of 'Shakespeare' 
incladed in the Globe edition, from which I quote. We are, however, 
safe in asserting that Shakespeare did not write every line contained 
in this edition. Pericles (not in the first Folio) is not his work in 
its entirety. He is not the sole author of Henry VUI. and 1. Henry VI. 
Nor do Timon and Cymbeline seem to be whoUy his. We have a 
few interpolations in Macbeth and perhaps elsewhere. * Bat the main 
portion of the works issued under Shakespeare's name in 1623 is his. 
Of course, this is a truism. Bat perhaps it is well to State it. 

In some few cases 'we may feel some difficulty, whether this or 
that item should be treated as Shakespearean, as I have done in the 
present treatise, or whether it should not be regarded as having been 
taken over from an older substructure of the play in question, or 
added by another hand. But, on the whole, the older eoctant plays, 
known to, or rehandled, by Shakespeare^ give us a clear insight into 
his manner of working and thinking; and, in general, one piece 
of evidence we have adduced so strongly Supports the other, that 
the main results of our investigations must be regarded as per- 
fectly safe. 

It is exceedingly improbable that Shakespeare was the owner of 
a private library of large dimensions. In the absence of public libraries 
in those days, it becomes natural to ask where the poet found the 
volumes he required. It has been suggested that the libraries of his 
patron, the Earl of Southampton, of Jonson, Camden, and of others were 
thrown open to him. This is possible, though he was not dependent on 
their generosity. In Shakespeare's days each bookseller's shop was a sort of 
public library. Of these shops there was no lack in London, especially 
round about St. PauPs. 

In conclusion one word about Shakespeare's sources and his ori- 
ginality. I look upon Shakespeare as the great architect, who gifted with 
a truly divine talent gave the materials their beautiful shape. The ar- 
chitect can never be made by the things. But he does not raake the 
things either. The materials are given, not created by him. In so far, he 
is dependent on them. But more than this. His very conceptions and 
designs, however original they may be, are influenced by previously 
conceived plans and existent structures. In brief, originality is not 
Creative production but novel combination. 

* Hymen in As You Like It seems to be a later addition. — And who knows 
exactly how many songs are non-Shakespearean? 



PrefacB^ , XVll 

AU this applies to Shakespeare. However great a genius he was, he 
wa& dependent on his %aterials\ He would never have become what 
he was, had he lived, say, in China from 1564 to 1616; or in England 
in the times of Hengist and Horsa. As a child of the western world 
he imbibes with his mother's milk certain ideas and modes of thought; 
as a child bom in England in 1564 he is the inheritor of a langaage 
ready made, of all the literature of centnries, and of the culture and 
art of the Island. A heaven-born artist thongh he was, he had to 
learn mnch froin his predecessors, many of them geniuses and men 
of the first rank. Their lessons he did not despise. He stndied their 
writings carefuUy and diligently, until he became a truly welUread man. 

A poet may at times be nnconscions of the inflaences acting on 
him. Bat they are ever-present. And it is possible for a critic ta 
know more abont these influences than the poet himself. 

The foUowing qnotations from Eckermann's Conversations with 
Goethe may serve as an apology for the present treatise: — 

People (said Goethe) are always talklng aboat originality; bat what 
does tbat mean? As soon as we are bom, the world begins to act on ns, 
and this goes on to the end. And, after all, what can we call our own 
except energy, strength, and will? If I could give an acconnt of all that 
I owe to great predecessors and contemporaries, there would be bnt a 
small balance in my favoar.^ 

Again, on the 17 th February 1832 Goethe uttered the following 
weighty words very applicable, mviatis mutandia^ to ourinvestigation: — 

We then spoke further of Dnmont; particularly of the memoirs which 
he wrote with reference to Mirabeau, and In which he reveals the various 
expedients (Hilfsquellen) which Mirabeau had contrived to employ, and 
also mentions by name many persons of talent, wbom he had set in motion 
for his purposes, and with whose powers he had worked. 

"I know no more instructive book", said Goethe, "than these memoirs; 
by means of which we get an insight into the most secret recesses of that 
time, and by means of which the wonder Mirabeau becomes natural to us, 
while, at the same time, the hero loses nothing of his greatness. But 



' I am quoting from the translation in Bohn's Standard Libr. 1874. Th& 
translation is not of Superlative quality. I have made a few alterations. The above 
conversation is dated 18*25, 12 th Muy. — It is unfair to ask the question, wbo 
was the greater of the two, Shakespeare or Goethe. Their messages were quite 
different. The one is the exponent of the human heart, the other of nature at 

I large. The one is more of the great artist and psychologist, the other of th& 

I intaitive adyanced modern thinker. 



XVin ♦ Prefaee. 

now we have the latest critics of the French joarDals, who tbink a little 
differently on this point. These good folks think that the author of these 
memoirs wants to spoil their Miraheau, hecause he uiiveils the secret of 
his soperhuman activity, and allows other people a share In the great 
merit which, until now, the name of Miraheau had monopolized. 

'^be French look upon their Mirabean as their Hercnles — and they 
are perfectly right. Bat they forget that even the Golossos consists of 
individual parts, and that even the Hercules of antiquity is a collective 
being— the idealized performer of his and others^ deeds. 

'^But, in point of fact, we are all collective beings, do what we may. 
For how little have we, and are we, that we can strictly call our own 
property? "We must all receive and learn both from those who were 
before us, and from those who are with us. Even the greatest genius 
would not go far if he willed to draw everything out of his own internal 
seif. But many very simple-minded men do not comprehend that; and 
they grope in darkness for half a life, with their dreams of originality. 
I have known artists who boasted of baving followed no master, bat of 
being indebted to their own genius for everything. Fools! as if that were 
possible at all; and as if the world did not force itself upon them at 
every step, and make something of them in spite of their own stupidity. 
Yes, I maintain that if such an artist were only to survey the walls of 
this room, and cast only passing glances at the sketches of some great 
masters, with which they are hang, he would necessarily, if he had any 
genius at all, quit this place another and a higher man. And, indeed, 
what is there good in us, if it is not the power and the inclination to 
appropriate to ourselves the resources of the outward world, and to make 
them subservient to our higher ends. I may speak of myself, and may 
modestly say what I feel. It is true that, in my long life, I have done 
and achieved many things of which I might certainly boast. But to speak 
the honest trutb, what had I that was properly my own, save the ahility 
and the inclination to see and to hear, to distinguish and to select, and 
to enliven with some wit what I had seen and heard, and to reproduce 
it with some degree of skill. I by no means owe my works to my own 
wisdom alone, but to a thousand things and persons around me, who 
provided me with material. There were fools and sages, minds enlightened 
and narrow, childhood, youtb, and mature age — all told me what they 
feit, what they thought, how they lived and worked, and what experiences 
they had gained ; and I had nothing f urther to do than to put out my band 
and reap what others had sown for me. 

^4t is, in fact, utter folly to ask whether a person has anything from 
himself, or whether he has it from others; whether he operates by himself, 
or operates by means of others. The main point is to have a great will, 
and ability and persistencc to carry it out. All eise is indifferent. Miraheau 



Prefaee, XIX 

was iherefore perfectly right, when he made what nse he coald of the 
oater world and its forces. . . . This very pecoliarity, that he understood 
how to act with others, and by others, — this was his genias — this was his 
originality — this was his greatness". 

Lest we, in oar eagerness to enqaire into the sources, should 
overlook the all-importance of the architectonic Soul, the voG^ 
which brings Harmony into Chaos, I quote the foUowing passage. — 
Eckermann having stated that it were ridicalons to hunt up the 
sources of an author and then deny his originality, Goethe replied: 

^^That is very ridiculous; we might as well question a robast man 
about the oxen, sheep, and swine, which he has eaten, and which have 
given him strength. 

"We are indeed born with faculties; bat we owe our development to 
a thoasand inflaences of the great world, from which we appropriate to 
onrselyes what we can, and what is saitable to os. I owe mach to the 
Greeks and French; I am infinitely indebted to Shakespeare, Sterne, and 
Goldsmith; bat in pointing out these I have not exhaasted the soarces of 
my caltnre; the enquiry would proceed ad infimtum and were annecessary. 
The Chief tbing is to have a Sonl which loves the true, and which im- 
bibes it wherever it is foand. 

"Besides, the world is now so old, so many eminent men have lived 
and thoaght for thoasands of years, that there is little new yet to be dis- 
covered or said."* 

The transcendent works of the great poet can never be said to 
be explained by the sources, he used. The same books were available 
to all his contemporaries, the same influences were at work every- 
where, — why did the age not prodnce more than one Shakespeare? 
Why did his later contemporaries, with Shakespeare's example before 
their eyes, not write as great or greater works? Can all the sources 
we discover give the secret of those marvellous delineations by Shake- 
speare, of his fine poetic frenzy, of those *skyey sentences, — aerolites, — 
*whicli seem to have fallen out of heaven'?' 

In dealing with the problem of the sources of a poet, we con- 
stantly have to keep in mind that identity in thought in the pro- 
ductions of two writers need not necessarily imply dependence of one 
OD the other. Neither a solitary parallelism nor a number of parallelisms 
prove anything, unless further corroborative evidence can be adduced: 



1 Dato, Dec. 16, 1828. 

' Emerson, Essay on Shakespeare. 



XX Prefaee, 

"The World," said Goethe', '^always remains the same; the conditions 
are repeated; one people lives, loves, and. feels like another; why, then, 
shoold not one poet write like another? The sitaalions of life are alike; 
why, then, should those of poems be anlike. 

This we have not lost sight of. 

Many . of what are called Shakespeare's sources contain the mere 
embryos of his works. How despicable, for example, is 'The Famous 
Victories of Henry V.' in comparison with Shakespeare's Henry IV. 
and V. None the less, it is a production of perennial interest now, 
as showing the wonderful transformation which the subject received 
ander the great master's hauds. In other cases Shakespeare foUows 
his source very closely. Nothing can be more interesting and instructive 
than an hour spent in Shakespeare's studio, where we can watch him 
actually at work upon his materials. We get into closer touch with 
him and we arrive at a better understanding. Would Goethe not have 
altered some of his judgments concerning Shakespeare, if he had known 
more of his environments and antecendents? 

What were Shakespeare's chief sources!! — The answer to this qnestion 
which I have been frequently asked is: English dramatic works and 
the English Literature generally inclusive of the populär literary pro- 
ductions, Holinshed in special, Plutarch, the Bible, and Ovid. 

^Shakespeare never will become populär', says one. I think, he 
will become more and more populär, not by study, not by learned 
comments and dissertations, but by good acting on the stage, which 
is the only true Interpreter of his works.' 

Go little book, to subtle world, 
And show thy simple face, 
And forward pass, and do not turn, 
Again to my disgrace. 

London, 

September, 1903, 



^ Jan. 18, 1825. 

^ It is only some months back, tbat I saw for the iirst titne Twelfth Night 
acted, at Berlin. Now I understand the play; before I did not. But acting 
Shakespeare well is as hard as playing Beethoven well. 



A SYNOPSIS 

OF THE FOLLOWING ESSAY. 
I. The Main Sources or Shakespeare's Plot-Books. 

[N B. 

— signifles tbat there is some probability of th« former existence of a moro dlrect sonrca 
{pouibly an early play) than the one mentipned. 
* signifies : lost. 
? si^ifles: more or lt*ss doubtful.] 

Shakespeare* 8 Worh». Tkeir Sources. 

Julius Cffsar North'« Plutarch. 

Goriolanus North's Plutarch. 

Antony and Cleopatra North's Plutarch. 

King Riebard 11 Holiushed. 

Macbeth Ilolinshed. 

King Henry VI. Parts I., II., & 111. . Holinshed and Hall.» 

King Richard III Holinshed and Hall.' 

King Henry VIII Holinshed and Foxe. 

King Henry IV. Parts I. <fe II. . . . 1 „ ,. , , , ,. , 
^. „ y > Holinshed and old play. 

Gymbeline Holinshed (for bist, framework); ^old 

play(?) (for the love story, ultimately 
derived from Boccaccio). 

King John old play. 

King Lear old play. 

The Taming of the Shrew old play. 

Measure for Measure old play. 

The Comedy of Errors — Plautus. 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark *old play. 

The Merchant of Venice *old play. 

Timon of Athens *old play, and North's Plutarch. 

Twelftb Night »old play(?), or Riche(?). 

^ Hall, probably as embodied in Grafton's Chronicle. 
Anders, Shakespeare's books. 1 



2 The foUowing etiay in a nutshell. 

Shakespeare*a Works, Their Soureew, 

The Two Gentlemen of Verona . . . . MontemayortransH.by Yong;or*oldplay. 

Much Ado About Nothing — Bandello. 

Othello, the Moor of Venice — Cinthio. 

The Merry Wives of Windsor .... — Italian tales. 

AU's Well that Ends Well Boccaccio transld. by Painter. 

As You Like It Lodge's Rosalynde (Engl, romance). 

The Winter's Tale Oreene^s Pandosto (Engl, romance). 

Romeo and Juliet Arthur Brooke^s poem. 

Troilus and Cressida Chaucer and Gaxton. 

Pericles (only in part by Shakespeare) Gower and Twine. 

Titos Andronicus . apparently not founded on any plot-source. 

Love^s Labour's Lost do. ,, do. „ 

A Midsummer-Night^s Dream do. „ do „ 

The Tempest do. „ do. „ 

Poems: 

Venus and Adonis Oyid. 

The Rape of Lucrece Liry and Ovid. 

A Lover's Gomplaint in the vein of DaniePs Rosamond. 

Sonnets English Sonnetists. 

The Phoenix and the Turtle. 
The Passionate Pilgrim (contains some 
Shakespearean pieces.) 

II. OtHEB BoOKS AND LlTERABY PbODUCTIONS, REFLECTBD IN 

Shakespeabe's Wobks. 

The Plays of Marlowe, Lyly, Kyd, Peele, Greene, Gascoigne, Preston, Alexander, etc. 

Mysteries and Moralities. 
Poems of Marlowe, Daniel, Chaucer, Sidney, etc. 
Pfose Writings of Lyly, Sidney, Ilarsnet, Ralegh, Eden, etc. 
School-books and Ctassical Auihors. The Horn-book, ABC-book with the Gatechism, 

Lily's Latin Grammar, iEsop's Fables, Mantuanus's Eclogues, Ovid, Ciesar, 

Seneca, Plautus (see above), Pliny, etc. Ovid he certainly knew both in the 

original and in the English translation; but Plutarch (see above) and Hello- 

dorus in English dress alone. 
French Auihors, Montaigne in Florio's Translation, Ronsard, Rabelais. 
As to Spanish and Italian authors comp, above. 
Religious Books, The Bible (with the Apocrypha)— no work is more often quoted or 

alluded to by Shakespeare— ,Book of Common Prayer, with the metrical Psalms. 
Romantic Stories of Arthur, Guy, Bovis, etc. 
Baüads of Robin Hood, Cophetua, Susanna, Jephthah, etc. 
Many Songs; Roundelays; Populär Rhymes; Populär Tales; Proverbs; FoUc-lore, 

Much of his knowledge and Information Shakespeare, of course, derived from 

the Ups of other men.~(Comp. also Contents.) 



INTRODÜCTION. 

The first attempt at investigating the sources whence Shakespeare 
drew the plots of his dramas was made by Gerard Langbaine, who 
gave some notes on the Originals of most of our poet's plays in his 
'Momus Trinmphans: or the Plagiaries of the English Stage', 1688,* 
and faller notes in his scholarly work, ^An Account of the English 
Dramatick Poets', printed 1691. The section on ^William Shakespear', 
in the latter work, has been reprinted by the New Shakspere Society, 
Ser. IV, 8, pp. 318 — 331. Langbaine's remarks are of considerable 
interest to the stadent. The editors of Shakespeare of the eighteenth 
Century were no doubt all indebted to his notes. In 1753 — 4 Mrs. 
Charlotte Lennox published a collection of alleged sources used by 
the poet, under the title of 'Shakespear illustrated or the Novels and 
Histories on which' the Plays of Shakespear are founded, collected, 
and translated, etc.', 3 vols. This work was the precursor of 
'Shakespeare's Library' edited by Collier in 1843, and re-edited by 
Hazlitt in 1875. The collection entitled *Six old Plays on which 
Shakespeare founded [some of his plays]', published by Nichols in 
1779 at the Suggestion of Steevens, is the forerunner of Part II. of 
CoUier-Hazlitt's *Shakespeare's Library'. A work important for the 
study of the old drama was Robert Dodsley's 'Select Collection of 
Old English Plays', 12 vols., 1744. (The second edition prepared by 
Isaac Reed appeared in 1780, the third by J. P. Collier in 1825, the 
fourth comprehending 15 vols. by W. C. Hazlitt in 1874.) 

The interest in Shakespeare had never ceased in England, but it 
was increased and deepened when the romantic movement set in 
towards the middle of the eighteenth Century. Instead of the application 

1 Dict. of N. Biogr. gives the date 1687. 



4 Introduetion. 

of classical Standards to Shakespeare, as had been done of old, we 
now notice the clear and definite endeavour to understand and explain 
faistorically the great dramatist. The more distiguished Shakespearean 
scholars of the latter part of that centurj^ to whom many valuable 
remarks on the literary inflaences acting on Shakespeare are dae, are 
Steevens, Malone, Capell, Reed, Douce, etc. 

In Germany, vfhere the study of Shakespeare was taken up with 
enthusiasm, the following work was of importance for source enquiries: 
Karl Simrock, 'Die Quellen des Shakspeare', Bonn 1870; the first 
edition having appeared in 1831.* 

The nineteenth Century, the Century of clubs and companies, of 
alliances and föderal unions, has seen the birth (and also the death) 
of numerous Shakespeare Societies. The study of Shakespeare generally, 
of the sources of his works, and of the old drama has been furthered 
especially by the Old and New Shakespeare Societies, now extinct, in 
England, and by the Deutsche Sh. Gesellschaft, still vigorously alive. 
The best Shakespearean scholars have been members of these societies. 

The literature which has sprung up around the name of 
Shakespeare has swelied to an enormous extent. Months are necessary 
for general orientation and years for a füll coinmand of the subject. 
People sometimes forget that it is better to read Shakespeare himself 
than works about him. And, alas, so much dilettantism is rife. Let 
US insist on the 7ie multa sed multum. — Paucis opus est literis ad 
mentem bonam. Our and future generations will only be able to 
glean stalks on the field of Shakespearean research. The splendid 
harvest has been gathered into the barns. But there is enough work 
still to be done. The sheaves must be thrashed out. The chaff, of 
which there is but too much, has to be winnowed from the grain, 
and the com to be sifted and prepared for use. 

It is now time that we should collect, utilise, and summarize 
the results of the labours of other men. Some work of this kind has 
been done; witness Alexander Schmidt's Lexicon, Sidney Lee's Life 
of Shakespeare, Halliwell-Phillipps' Outlines, Dowden's Priraer. Mr. 
Furness is editing a new variorum edition. He will never finish it. 
But his son, who has re-edited his 'Macbeth', will carry it on. Malone's 
variorum edition was ably utilised by Delius in his stereotyped 

* I ought to mention two essays of which I have availed myself, and whicli, 
I hope, I have now made superfluous, tbe one on 'Shakespeare's Library', the 
other on Shakspere's *Glassical Attainments', both of which appeared in *Noctes 
Shaksperianae', published by the Winchester College Shaksp. Society, 1887. 



Introductton. 5 

edition of Shakespeare. We need another Delius to give us the gist 
of Fnrness's variornm edition. Other books are waiting io bewritten: 
A füll Sbakespeare-Bibliography; a scientific History of Elizabethan 
Literatare; a carefully revised edition of Fleay's History of the Stage', 
which will honestly give its authorities, and st<ate its guesses; an up 
to date edition of Simrock's 'Quellen'; and a revised edition of 
Collier-Hazlitt's *Shakespeare's Library', which the German Shake- 
speare Society hopes to call into being before long. A working index 
to Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Registers, and general indexes 
to the publications of the Shakespeare and Ballad Societies, are mach 

needed. 

• 

' I hear that a work of tbis kind is in preparation. — I may also mentioD, 
that Dr. Furnivall is cditing, and Prof. Liddel printing, * Shakespeare in Old 
Spelling". This is the work which scholars will quote for scientific purposes. I 
am still obliged to quote the text of the Globe edition. 



CHAPTER 1. 
SHAKESPEARE AND THE CLASSICS. 

An enquiry into Shakespeare's Knowledge and his sources has to 
give an answer to each of the following questions: Was Shakespeare 
acquainted with the classical authors? What education had he received? 
What modern languages did he know? What were his acquirements 
in English literature? 

The question regarding the poet^s education and learning has 
proved of remarkable attraction from the first. The learned Ben 
Jonspn, in his commendatory verses prefixed to the First Folio, 1623, 
Said, • 'though thou hadst small Latin and less Greek', — a verdict 
which is not devoid of a smack of superciliousness. That Shakespeare 
was no match for Ben Jonson, as far as knowledge of the ancient 
classics is concerned, goes without saying. Bat that he had no need 
to be ashamed of his classical attainments, wo shall soon see. For 
generations, however, it became a Standing phrase that Shakespeare 
lacked Learning and Art.* 

At a later dato men like Upton, Wlialley,' Pope, and Warburton 
were persuaded that Shakespeare was far more indebted to the ancients 

' Compare Milton's 'native wood-notes wild' (I/Allegro, 1. 134). \Ve may 
add *a quotation from the Theatrum Poetarum of Milton's nephew Edward Phillips, 
'published in 1675. Milton had been dead a year; but he had traincd Phillips 
*and forraed his tastes in poetry, and had probably helped him with hints for 
'this very book. "In Tragedy", says Phillips of Shakespeare, "ncver any expressed 
'"a more lofty and tragic highth, ncver any represented nature more piirely to 
*"the life; and where the polishments of art are most wanting, as probably his 
* "learning was not extraordinary, he pleases with a certain wild and native 
***elegance."' (Masson's ed. of Milton, vol. III, 1874, p. 377.) 

' Peter Whalley, An Enquiry into the Learning of Shakespeare, 1748. An 
unsatisfactory and rambling booklet it is. 



Ben Jonsofiy Farmer^ Baynet^ etc. 7 

than had been commonly allowed. Against critics of this school, who 
claimed an amount of classical learning for the poet more than really 
belonged to him, Dr. Farmer levelled his heavy guns in his Essay on 
the Learning of Shakespeare (1767). But while refuting his opponents 
he feil into an error of the opposite extreme. In his essay, which, 
serviceable thongh it was, has been over-estimated by many people 
whose eyes were dazzied by its hyper-learnedness, he arrived at the 
following conclusion, which long remained a dogma of many Shake- 
spearean scholars: ^He remembered perhaps onough of his school-boy 
'learning to put the Big, kag^ hog^ into the mouth of Sir Hugh Evans; 
'and might pick up in the writers of the time, or the coui*se of his 
*conversation, a familiär phrase or two of French or Italian; but his 
^studies were most demonstratively confined to nature and his cum 
^languageJ* 

It was therefore consistent for men of this belief to make diligent 
search among English translations, mouldy chap-books, and dusty 
Pamphlets. When, for example, no translation of Ovid's Fasti was 
discoverable, the Stationers' Registers were thumbed in the hope of 
finding traces of an old bailad of Lucrece, or Painter's free translation 
of Livy's Version of the story was proclaimed as the source of Shake- 
speare's poem on the same subject. 

Farmer's view was successfully contested by Dr. Maginn in Fraser's 
Magazine, Sept. 1839, and by Joseph Hunter, in his New Illustrations 
to Shakespeare, 1845, vol. II., pp. 313 ff. The enquiry into the poet's 
education and learning was further pursued from a different and better 
Standpoint of view by Prof. Thos. S. Baynes, whose papcrs on 'What 

'Shakespeare learntatSchool'arewell-knownto the Student of Shakespeare. 
They first appeared in Fraser's Magazine 1879 — '80 and have since 
been published posthumously in Baynes's ^Shakespeare Studies', 1894. 
Before entering on the subject we have set ourselves in the 
present chapter, I desire to make one short remark. This essay, as 
all essays are, more or less, is one-sided. It deals only with Shake- 
speare's book knowledge and with literary influences generally as 
visible in his works. The more important and powerful influences, 
however, on Shakespeare's young mind did not emanate from books. 
Nor was he a bookworm at any time, though he read a great deal 
in later Hfe, digesting thoroughly and assimilating all ho read. About 
Shakespeare the boy, let me quote Dr. Furnivall's golden words:' 

1 Introd. to the Leopold Shaksp., p. XII. An entertaining book of 256 pages 
on Shakespeare the Boy has been written by W. J. Rolfe, London, 1900. 



g Chapter 1, Shakespeare und the Classics, 

'Shakspere, and his life as a Stratford lad, must be left to the fancy 
'of every reader .... Taking the boy to be the father of the man, 
'I see a square-built yet lithe and active feilow, with ruddy cheeks, 
%azel eyes, and auburn hair, as fall of life as an egg is fall of meat, 
impulsive, inqairing, sympathetic; up to any fan and daring; into 
W'apes, and oat of them with a laugh; making love to all the girls; 
'a favourite wherever he goes — even with the prigs and fools he 
'mocks; — untroubled as yet with Hamlet doubts; bat in many a 
'quiet time communing with the beauty of earth and sky aroand him, 
*with the thoaghts of men of old in books;* throwing himself with 
'all his heart into all he does." 

Bat whatever the yoang genius with the best brains in England 
did in his hours of freedom, he certainly spent a great part of the 
day in the school-room. He received some mental training there. 
Of what nature was it? and what did he learn there? What were 

HIS SCHOOL-BOOKS?^ 

Yoang Will Shakespeare probably entered the Grammar School 
of Stratford in 1570 or 1571 at the age of six or seven years. In 
1571 Shakespeare's father was chief alderman of the town. In 1568 
he had been chosen bailiff (mayor) for a year. The boy was therefore 
of a very respectable Stratford family. There is some reason to 
suppose that he left school about 1578. The attendance was free of 
Charge.' 

^ *I don't press the books point', says Dr. F., 'except they were story-books, 
*such as then existed.' Story books such as Captain Cox possessed. Robert Ashley 
('an esquire's son', born 1565, at school in SouthamptoD) 'Heils us that when a 
*boy he delighted in readirg 'ßevis of Hampton', 'Guy of Warwick', 'Valentine 
"and Orson', 'Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table', and afterwards the 
"'Decameron of Boccace' and the 'Heptameron of the Queen of Navarre.'" (Dict. 
Nat. Biogr., s. v. Rob. Ashley.) 

'-• Speaking of Sh. when he first came to London, Dr. F. says: 'I believe 
'in life and go as the essence of young Shakspcre. HeM have wiped boots with 
'a shoeclout, cleand a horse, cominanded the channel-tleet, the army, or the nation, 
'or written a sermon for any Romanist or Puritan, to say not hing of poems and 
'plays for young nobles and the stage.' (Furn., ut sup., p. XVI.) 

' For information on Shakespeare's school work 1 am largely indebted to 
Prof. Thomas Spencer Baynes {ut sup.) and to Lupton's letter in the Athenaeum 
1876, 7th Oct; see Furnivall, Introd. to the Leopold Sh., pp. XI <fc CXXIV. Lupton's 
Life of Dean Colet contains some valuable notes. A highly interesting list of 
school books will be found in Arber's Transcript of the Stat. Registers, vol. IIL 
669— '70. The entry is dated 1620. Gonceming the Horn-Book, see Tuer's 
History of the Üom-Book', 1897.— A list of Latin, Greek, French, Italian, and 



Shaktiptaret Sehaol-Book: 9 

The boy first had to learn reading by aid of the hom-book, 
wbich consisted of a slab of wood (or of other substance) in size 
usaally ratber less than 5x3 in., with a handle at one end. A 
printed sheat, containing the criss-cross, the aiphabet, the vowels, 
some Clements of spetling like ab, ba etc, and the Lord^s Prayer, 
was gined down to the wood and covered by a thin plate of transparent 
hörn. Here is a reproduction ol' 'a line horn-book, indeed, in condition 
'almost perfect', as shown in cnt 131 of Mr. Tuer's Book. 'It was 
'made in the days of Charles II.' Earlier examples of wooden horn- 
books are all damaged moro or less. The horn-books of aboat 1570 
were no doubt all in black letter. 



-■1 Hor„.l}.jok (rcJnced lize). 

A first reading-book given to tho young was ihe 'ABC book' 
which contained rcading cxercises and religious mattors with the 
catechism.' The two other U's had to bc Icarnt loo, ofconrse. Copy- 
books had been already introdnced, to judgo from I-ove's Labour's 
l.ost, V, ]i, A'i: "Fair aa a text It in a copy-book". Counters, that 
is to say round piecea of metal, were characteristic atds of earlier 

.Spanish words in Shakespeare's worhs bas been drawn up by A. Schmidt in Iho 
Appendix to his Sh.-Le.iicon.— Stapfer's '.Shakcspeire et rantii|iiitB' and Sarrazin's 
'Shakespeare ^a Lehrjahre' deserre to be mentioned too. 
> See below, p. 48. ' 



JO Chapter' i. Shakespeare and the ClaMsics, 

days in arithmetical Operations. Shakespeare alludes to them in several 
passages, notably in Wini. Tale, IV, ii, 33 AT., where the clown confesses, 
"I cannot do't without counters"/ 

As soon as the boy had mastered the first rudiments, which were 
apparently taught by a pupil teacher or 'A-B-C-darius',' he was ready 
for the higher curriculum of the grammar-school.' What the curriculum 
of a school of a smaller town would consist of has been carefuUy 
studied by the late Prof. Thomas Spencer Baynes, whose guidance 
we are safe in following. I shall qnote his own words, inserting 
Avithin Square brackets a few remarks which are in fall harmony 
with other passages in Baynes's paper and with Lupton and Furnivall's 
list. 'From these various sources, contemporary and quasi-contemporary, 
'we may form a trustworthy general estimate of Shakespeare's course 
'of instruction during his school days. At the time, as we have seen, 
'boys usually went to the grammar school about six or at latest seven 
'years of age, and entered at once upon the Accidence. In his first 
*year,* therefore, Shakespeare would be occupied with the Accidence 
'and grammar [namely, Lily's Grammar]. In his second year, with 
'the elements of grammar, he would read somo manual of short 
'phrases and familiär dialogues, and these committed to memory would 
'bo coUoquially employed in the work ol the school [some manual 
'like Sententiae Pueriles, Pueriles Confabulatiunculae, Corderius's 
'Colloquies] ; in his third year, if not before, he would take up Cato's 
'Maxims* and jEsop's Fables; in his fourth, while continuing the 

» Comp, too Troilus, II, n, 28; Äs You Likelt, II, vir, 63; Caesar, IV, in, 80; 
Cymbelme, V, iv, 174; Othello, I, i, 31. 

^ Shakespearc's parents could not have tauf^ht hitn writing, as they could 
not even sign their naraes. To think of a modern raayor who could not write 
his narae! — The second schoolmastcr at Chigwell, Essex, had to be 'skilful in 
*cyphering and casting of accounts' and to *write fair secretary and Roman hands'. 
(Lupton, Athen., ut sup,) 

' In Hotherhaiu, e. g., *the custom was to enter boyes to the Schoole one by 
,one, aa thei/ were fit for Avcidenis,'' (Fras. Mag., 1879, p. 618.) 

* The Word *year' used in the following sentences should not be taken too 
literall y. At any rate, Horace, Juvcnal, Persius, and Seneca are mentioned by 
Iloolc and Brinsley (Baynes's authorities) as works read in the highest class, the 
boys of which were about 15 years of age, or in their 8^h school-year, If we suppose 
that Shakespeare left school at an earlier date (for which supposition, however 
thcre is no cogent reason, seeing that his father had nothing to pay for the in- 
struction of his son) he could scarcely have been very familiär with these authors. 

* On Cato's Disticha de Moribus see Warton, Hist. of Engl. Poetry, III, 
pp. 133 ff. On the Sententiae Pueriles see below, p. 47. 



Shakupeare* B Sehool-Books. W 

'Fables, he woald read the Eclognes of Mantuanus, parts of Ovid, 
'some of Cicero's Epistles, and probably ono of his shorter treatises; 
'm his fifth year he would continae the reading of Ovid's Meta- 
'morphoses, with parts of Virgil and Terence; and in the sixth Horace, 
'Plautus, and probably part of Juvenal and Persius, with some of 
^Cicero's Orations and Seneca's Tragedies. In going throagh such a 
'conrse, nnless the teaching at Stratford was exceptionally inefficient, 
'the boy mnst have made some progress in several of these authors, 
*aüd acquired sufficient knowledge of the language to read fairly well 
'at sight the more populär poets and prose writers such as Ovid and 
'Cicero. [The Greek grammar, if any, in use at Stratford, would most 
likely be Clenard's 'Institutiones, absolutissimae in Graecam linguam.'] 
'The masters of the school during the time Shakespeare attended it 
'would seem, however, to have been at least of average attainments 
'and ability as they rapidly gained promotion. No fewer than tbree 
'held the post during the decade from 1570 to 1580. In the first 
'two years Walter Roche, for the next five, the most important in 
'Shakespeare's school history, Thomas Hunt, and during the last three 
'years Thomas Jenkins were headmasters in the school.' Of geography, 
history, etc., probably a smattering was given, but I know no authority 
on the point. The chief subject of a grammar-school was Latin, and the 
principal book the Latin grammar. Hence the name 'grammar-school'. 

Shakespeare probably learnt singing as a member of the Stratford 
charch choir. The Bible and the Common Prayer-Book are very 
familiär to him. (See a separate chapter on this subject.) 

On Baynes's essay Dr. Furnivall gives the foUowing comment: 
'He makes out a fair case'. But, adds Dr. F., 'what would Stratford 
'provincials do, in Shakspere's day, with the large doses of Latin that 
'the profest curriculums of larger town schools provided?' Dr. Furnivall 
does not appear to me to hit the nail on the head. Prof. Baynes 
continualiy refers to towns, such as Rotherham and Ashby-de-la-Zouche, 
which were certainly not large towns. But after all, Dr. FurnivaU's 
list of Shakespeare's school-books (Leopold Sh., p. XI) does not 
materially differ from Baynes's list.* 

' While the present chapter is passing throiigh the press, the first part of 
Mr. J. C. CoUins's article ■Ilad Shakespeare read the Greek Tragedies?" is ap- 
pearing in the Fortnightly Review (April 1., 1903). Collins refers us to the 
curriculum drawn up for the Ipswich Grammar School in 1528, where the follo- 
wing authors and books were prescribed: Lily's Grammar, ^sop, Terence, Virgil, 
Cicero, Sallust, Caesar, Horace, Ovid, Donatus^s Commentaries. 



12 Chapter 1. Shakespeare and the Classks. 

WhAT TRACKS OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED SCHOOL-BOOKS do WC 

find in Shakespeare's works? 

Beginning with the inevitable 

HORN-BOOK ' 

with its 'ba', consonants, and the five vowels, we have an interesting 
reference to it in Love's Labour's Lost, V, i, 47 ff.: 

Armada [To Ilolofernes] : Monsieur, are you not lettered? 

Moth, Yes, yes; he teaches boys the horn-hook. What is a, b, speit 

backward, with the hörn on bis head? 

Hol. Ba, pueritia, with a hörn add^d. 

Moth, Ba, most silly sheep with a hörn. You hear bis learoing. 

Hol. Quis, quis, thou consonanl? 

Moth. The third of the ^\q vowels, if you repeat them: or the fiftb, if I. 

HoL I will repeat them, — a, e, i, — 

Moth. The sheep: the other two concludes it.— o, u. 

The aiphabet, as we have seen, was preceded by a cross. Ilence 
it was called Christ-cross-row, er criss-cross-row, or simply cross-row. 
Compare Richard III., Act I, i, 54: 

He hearkens after prophecies and drcams; 

And from the cross-row plucks the lelter 0, 

And says a wizard told bim tbat by G 

Ilis issue disinherited should be. 

THE ABC BOOK WITH THE CATECHISM ' 

is referred to in King John, I, i, 192 ff. 

Why then I suck my teeth and catechize 
My picked man of countries: ^My dear sir\ 
Thus, leaning on mine elbow, I begin, 
'I shall beseech you'— that is question now; 
And then comes ans wer like an Absey book: 
'0 sir', says answer, 'at your best command; 
'At your employment; at your service, sir:' 
'No, sir', says question, *I, sweet sir, at yours:' 
And so, ere answer knows what question would, 
.... It draws toward supper iu conclusio'n so. 

Compare, too, The Two Gentlemen, II, i, 23: 

to sigh, like a school-boy tbat bad lost bis ABC. 

But this may refer to the horn-book. 

* Comp, ante^ p. 9. 
2 See pp. 9 and 48. 



Th€ Born- Book. The ABC Book. Lily'a Orammar. lg 

LILY'S LATIN GRAMMAR. 

William Lily (1468? — 1522) was one of the earliest Greek scholars 
in England, a friend of Thoraas More, Erasmus, and John Colet, who 
appointed him the first high niaster of St. Paul's School. About 1509 
Colet wrote an Accidence of the Latin language (*Coleti Aeditio' with 
the rules in English), to which'was added a short Syntax by Lily, 
also in English. About 1540 this Grammar underwent a thorongh 
revision. A copy of the year 1568, when Shakespeare was four years 
old, bears the following title; 'A Shorte Introduction of Grammar 
'generally to be used: compiled and set forth for the bringjng up of 
'all those that intende to attaine the knowledge of the Latine tongue'. * 
The title of the copy of the year 1577, in the Britsh Museum, is the 
same, excepting some differences of spelling.* From this edition I shall 
quote. I have also compared the text of earlier and later editions. 
The 1577 copy is partly in black letter and partly in Roman type. 
After a few pages of preliminaries, begins the Accidence or 'Introduction 
'of the eyght partes of Latine Speaclie', which answers to Colet's 'Aeditio'. 
On folio 19. commences the Syntax ('The Concordes' and 'The 
Construction of the eyght partes of speache') which ends on leaf 27. 
This is based on Lily's Syntax added to Colet's Accidence. After 
some pages of Latin precepts and prayers we come to the Second Part, 
the title page of which is wanting in our copy. From other copies 
of the Grammar we know it ran thus; 'Brevissima Institutio seu 
'Ratio Grammatices cognoscendae', etc. This part, to some degree a 
complete grammar of itself, is written entirely in Latin, while part 1. 
is in English. Nothing corresponding to this second part is found in 
the early editions of Colet and Lily's Grammar before 1540. This 
'Brevissima Institutio' is compiled from Lily's 'de generibus nominum, 
ac verborum praeteritis et supinis regulae', to which T. Robertson 
made additions; from Lily's Syntax, with rules in Latin, entitled 
'Absolutissimus de octo orationis partium Constructione libellus', a 
work entirely diiferent from the Syntax referred to above, and in the 
composition of which Erasmus had a band; and from other writings.^ 

The further history of Lily's Grammar does not concern us here. 
Sofficeit to say that it long remained the national grammar of England, 
Having passed through various phases it finally developod into the 
Eton Latin Grammar of to-day. 

* Title given by Halliwell-Phillipps, ia Notes and Queries, 6*1» Ser., II, p. 462. 

' Compare po*/, page 47, note. 

' Compare Joha Ward's Preface to Lily^s Grammar, published ia 1752. 



14 Chapter i, Shakespeare and the Clcusics. 

Shakespeare's acquaintance with Lily's Grammar, commonly 
known as the Accidence, is satisfactorily proved by the catechetical 
scene in The Merry Wives of Windsor, Act IV., sc. 1. Sir Hugh 
Evans asks the boy, William, 'some questions in his ac€idence\ 
The ans wer to Evans's query, 'how many numbers is in nouns?' will 
be found on the first page of the grammar proper: 'In Nounes be 
'two Numbers, the Singalar, and the Plurall. The Singular Number 
'speaketh of one: as Lapis^ a stone. The plurall number speaketh 
'of mo than one; as Lapides^ Stones'. Compare The Merry Wives, 11. 32: 

Evans . . . What is ^lapis\ William? 

Will. A stone. 

Evans. And whai is 'a 8tone\ William? 

Will A pebble. 
Evans, No, it is Hapis"', I pray yoa, remember in your prain. 

WilL Lapis, 

Again, 11. 26-30: 

Evans , . . What is 'fair', William? 

Will, Pulcker. 

Mrs, Quickly. Polecats! there are fairer tbings than polecats, sure — 

refers to the same page, where ^ Bonus, Good; Pulcher, Fayre' are 
given as instances of adjectives. 

On page 2. of Lily's Grammar we read: 

Articles. 
Articles are borowed of the Pronoune, and be thus declined. 






Nominativo hic^ hcec, hoc, 
Genitivo huitis, 
Dativo huic, 

Accusativo hunc, hanc, hoc. 
Vocavito caret, 
Ablativo hoc, hac, hoc. 






Nominativo Äe, hce, hcec, 
Genitivo hör um, harum, horü, 
Dativo his, 

Accusativo hos, has, hmc. 
Vocativo caret, 
Ablativo his. 



Compare with this The Merry Wives, ut sup,, 11. 39 ff: — 

Evans , . . What is he, William, tbat does lend articles? 
Will, Articles are horrowed of the pronoun, and he thus declined, 
Singulariter, nominativo, hie, haec, hoc. 

Evans, Nomi7iativo,hig,hag,hog\ pray you, mark: genitivo, hujus. Well, 
. what is your accasative case? 
Will, Accusativo, hinc, 

Evans. I pray yoa, have your remembrance, child: accusativo, hung, 
hang, hog. 
Quick, 'Hang-hog' is Latin for bacon, I Warrant yoa. 



Lily^a Latin Grammar. 15 

Evans. Leave your prabbles, 'oman. What is the focative case. William? 
Will. 0, — vocaiivo, 0. 
Evans. Remember, William; focative is caret. 
Quick. And that's a good root. 
Evans. 'Oman, forbear. 
Mrs. Page. Peace! 

Evans. What is yonr ganitive case plural, William? 
Witt. Genitive case! 
Evans. Ay. 

Will. Genitive. — horum, harum, horum. 

Quick. Vengeance of Jenny's case! fie on her! never name her, child, if 
she be a whore. 
Evans. For shame, 'oman. etc. 

William's hesitative answer, "0, — vocativo^ 0", finds its ex- 
planation on page 2. of the Grammar, where we read: ^The Vocative 
'case is knowne by calling or speaking to: as magister, mayster'. 
Thus we find in the paradigms: ^Vocativo 6 musa^ ] ^Vocavito 6 lapis\ 
and the like. — Some pages further we have the declension of the 
prononn: qui, quce^ quod, referred to by Evans, 11. 76—81. 

In 1. Henry IV., Act U, i, 104, there is the foUowing quotation 
from the Grammar (p. 1.): 

hämo, is a common name to all men. 

On folio 19. there is a section"*on Interjections, of which the 
grammar gives examples like the following: 'Some are of myrth: as 
^Evojp, vah. Some are of . . . Laughing: as Ha ha he . . . Calling: 
^d^Eho, oh^ to\ etc. — Compare Mach Ado Ab. Nothing, Act IV., i, 22: 

How now! interjections? Why, then, some be of laaghing, as, ab, ha, he! 

The phrases, Diluculo surgere, saluben^mum est, and Vir sapit, 
qui pauca loquitur, to be found on leaf 20. of Lily's Grammar, are 
referred to in Twelfth Night (II, in, 2) and in Love's Labour's Lost 
(IV, II, 82) respectively. 

The line, Redime te captum quam queas minimo, in The Taming 
of the Shrew (I, i, 167) is not taken from Terence direct, but from 
Lily (see Part. IL, Abi. post verb.\ where the quotation is given 
in the altered form which we find in Shakespeare, — the original 
words in Terence's Eunuchus (I, i, 30) being: 

* This witty reference to the Grammar may have been suggested by George 
Lyly's Endymion, where we find the following allusive passage:— ^an interjeetion, 
Srhere of some are of mouming, as ehol vahV Cp. also 'Motber Bombie', 111, n: 
^inteijections like winde, as eho, ho, to\ 



lg Chapter i. Shakespeare and the Classies. 

Quid agas^ nisi ut te redimas captutn quam queas Minimo^ 

Nävi hominem tanquam te (Love's Labour's Lost, V, i, 10) and 
the phrase (zd unguem (ibid., 1: 84) may have also been taken from 
the Grammar (cp. Part II., Syntax of Adv^; and folio 28-, verso). 

Lastly, in Titus Andronicus, IV, ii, 20—3 we find quoted the 
lines of Horace: 

Integer vitaey scelerisque purus^ 
Non eget Mauri jaculis^ nee arcu. 

Chiron, on hearing them, observes: '0, 'tis a verse in Horace; I know 
'it well: / rmd ü in the grammar long ago.^ — The couplet Stands 
twice in Lily^s Grammar: on leaf 23., as an instance of the Ablative 
case, and in Part IL, under the head of ^De generüms carminum^ 
where Horace is named. 

From which maniial Shakespeare learnt his vocabularies and 
elementary phrases, I cannot say with certainty. But we find ample 
illustrations of Latin exercises and dialogues, such as would be 
practised at school, in Love's Labour's Lost, IV, ii; and V, i. The 
foUowing passages will serve as examples: — 

Holo/ernes: The deer wa^, as you know, sanguis, in hlood; ripe as the 
pomewater, who now hangeth like a jewel in the ear of caelo^ the sky, 
the welkin, the heaven; and anon faileth like a crab on the face of terra, 

the soil, the land, the earth, 

(Love's L. L., IV, ii, 3—7.) 
Again, 

Naihaniel: Laus Deo, hone, intelUgo. 

Hol, Bonel — hone for betie:'^ Priscian a little scratched, 'twill serve, 

Nath. Videme quis veniti 

Hol. Video, et gaudeo, 

(Love's L. L., V, i, 30-34.) 

Compare, too, The Taming of the Shrew', Act III, sc. i. 

' Quoted from two Elizabethan editions of Terence. The line is cited aud 
Englished thus by Udall in bis 'Floures for Latine speakyng selected and gathered 
oute of Terence, and the sarae translated into englyshe' (L'iGO): Redimas te captum 
quam queas minimo^ Redeeme or rannsome thy seife, beynge taken prisoner, as good 
chepe [as cheaply] as thou malest, or, if you be in any daunger, come out agayne 
as well as you maie. — Udall seenis to have copied the sentence with the trans- 
lation from the ^Bihliotheca EUotae,' 

^ This line is corrupt in the Folio, which reads: . . . 'bene intelUgo, PeJa, 
^Bome boon for boon prescinn^ a little scratcht'. I have given Theobald's emendation. 
The Globe edition reads: . . . M>eue intelllgo. Bon, bon, fort boni' 



Lily^B €frcmmar, jEsop's Fahles, '\1 



iESOFS FABLES. 

Gloucester's hint, in 3. Henry VI., Act V, v, 23, that the mas- 
caline queen, Margaret, should have always "wom the petticoat, And 
"ne'er have stol'n the' breech from Lancaster", is met by the young 
Prince with the foUowing canstic retort, containing an allusion to 
Gloucester's figure crooked like that of .Esop: 

Let j^sop fable in a winter's night; 

His currish riddles sort not with this place. 

Strange to say, Henry Green ^ infers from this passage that Shakespeare 
had a low estimate of ^sop's fahles. But the expression "His currish 
"[=malicious] riddles" in np wise Warrants this inference. The words 
mnst be taken cum grano aalia as referring to what Gloucester had 
jost remarked, and not as derogatory from iEsop. The apt illostrations 
which Shakespeare drew from the famous fables leave no doabt that 
the poet had no mean opinion of them. 

1. The fable of the Countryman and a Snake* is alladed to in 
2. Henry VI., Act HI, i, 343: 

I fear me you but warm the starved snake, 

Who, cherishM in yoar breasts, will sting your hearts. 

Compare, too, Richard U., Act III, ii, 129—131: 

K. Eich. villains, vipers, damuM without redemption! . . • • 
Snakes, in my heart-blood warmM that sting my heart! 

And Act V, III, 57: 

Forget to pity him, lest Ihy pity prove 
A serpent that will sting thee to the heart. 

2. The Crow and the Boirowed Feathers is allnded to by Shake- 
speare (who, by the way, was himself once called 'an upstart crow, 

> Shakespeare and the Emblem Writers, 1870, p. 302. 

' Agrieola & Anguis, Repertum anguem frigore pene mortuum agricola 
misericordia motus, foTere sinu, & subter alas recondere. Anguis recreatus calore, 
vires recepit, ac confirmatus, agricolae, pro merito ipsius summe, letale vulnus 
inflixit. — Fabula demonstrat eam mercedem, quam rependere pro beneficiis mali 
consuevere. 

I quote this from an edition of ^sop published in 1592, with forewords 
by Philippus Melanchthon, with the following title: Fabellae Aesopicae quaedam^ 
notiores, et in scholU uaitaiae . . . a J. Camerario. 1592. Lipsiae. The fable is 
of course, also contained in other editions of ^sop of the sixteenth Century, 
some of which I have examined. 

Ander f, Sbakespeare's bcM)ks. 2 



Jg Chapter i, Shakespeare and tke CUustcs. 

^beautified with our feathers', by the dying Greene) in 2. Henry VI., 
Act III, I, 69 ff. 

King . . . Oar Kinsman Gloacester is as innocent 

From meaning treason to our royal person 

As is the sacking lamb or harmless dove ... 

Q^een . . . Seems he a dove? hü feathers are bul borrow^d, 

For he's disposed as the hateful raven: 

Is he a lamb? etc. (cf. below.) 

And again in Timon of Athens, II, i, 28: 

I do fear, 
"When every feather sticks in bis own wing, 
Lord Timon will be left a naked gull,' 
Which flashes now a phoenix. 

The allusion is not very piain if we think of the fable in the 
Version with which we are probably most familiär. Ilere a jackdaw 
assumes the feathers of a peacock and is stripped bare by the birds 
it imit^ited. The allusion in Timon, however, becomes more pertinent 
if we compare the fable as it is told, for example, in the Latin iEsop 
(p. 17) referred to above. 

De Cornice superbiente aliaram avium pennis. Gornicula collectas 
pennas de reliquis avibus sibi commodavorat, & snperba varietate illa, 
reliquas omnes piae se aviculas contemnebat. Tum fort^ birundo notata suä 
pennä, advolans illam aufert, quo facto & reliquae postea aves quaeq. suam 
ademere cornici: ita illa risum movit omnibus, furtivis nudtata coloribus, ut 
alt Horatius. — Significat fabula, commendicatam speciem lieq. diu durare, 
& perle vi momento dissolvi. 

3. The Ass in a lAorCa Skin. This fable we find referred to in 
King John, II, i, 139—146: 

Bastard . . . 111 smoke your skin-coat, an I catch you right , . . 

Blanch, 0, well did he become that lion^s rohe 

That did disrobe tbe lion of that robe! 

Bast, It lies as sightly on the back of him 

As great Alcides^ shows upon an ass: 

But, ass, ril take that burthen from your back, 

Or lay on tbat sball make your Shoulders crack. 

4. The Wolf in a Sheep^a Skin^ seems to be referred to in 2. 
Henry VI., Act HI, i, 77—9: 

1 Gull ^ unfledged bird. 

' Lupue, Induerat pellem ovis lupus, atq. cum ita ignoraretur, aliquantisper 
impune in gregem fuit grassatus. Sed pastor mox animadversa fraude, necatum 



jEtopU Fahles. X9 

Is he a lamb? His skin is surely lent him, 
For he's inclined as is the ravenous wolf. 
Wo caonDot steal a shape that means deceit? 

Bat perhaps it is better to sappose that Shakespeare had in mind 
Matthew VII, 15. 

5. The Fox and the Grapes. This well-known fable is alluded 
to in AU's Well, U, i, 71 ff: 

Lcfjeu . • . Will yoa be cured of your infirmity? 
King, No. 

Lqf. 0, will you eat no grapes, my royal fox? 
Yes, bat yoa will n)y noble grapes, an if 
My royal fox coald reach them. 

6. The Hunter and the Bear^ is probably the fable Shakespeare 
had in mind, when he wrote Henry V., Act IV, iii, 91 — 94: 

Bid them achieve me and theo seil my bones. 

Good God! why shoald they mock poor fellows thus? 

The man that once did seil the Ilonas skia 

While the bcast lived, was killed with huatiag bim. 

7. The Oak and the Reed. Of this fable, relating the overthrow 
of the oak which resisted the tempest, while the yielding reed (or the 
willow, according to other versions) received no härm, there may be 
a possible reminiscence, as Green snggests, in Cymbeline, VI, ii, 267: 

To thee the reed is as the oak — 
and in Love's Lab. Lost, IV, ii, 112: 

Those thoughts to me were oaks, to thee like osiers bowM. — 
It is hardly necessary to refer to such general allusions as: 

A lion and a king of beasts. (Rieh. IL, Act V, i, 34). 

And to passages like, 

thoa hast entertain'd 
A fox to be the shepherd of thy lambs (Gentlemea, IV, iv, 9G^, 
or, 

The fox barks not when he woald steal the lamb 

(2. Henry VL, Act lil, i, 55), 

we might easily cite illustrative passages from ^sop. The Greek 
fable writer, however, makes wolves, not foxes, the dangerous enemies 
of the lambs. 

hune de arbore suspendit. Hoc qui pelle decipiebantur admirantibus : Pellis 
qnidem est, pastor inquit, OYis, sed sab hac lupus latebat. — Habitus et Tultus 
indicia non babenda pro certis, fabula docet: ideoq. facta <& rem spectari oporter?. 

2* 



'20 Chapter 1, Shakespeare and the ClasMtcs, 

From the above remarks it is clear that Shakespeare was familiär 
with some JSsopian fahles. I regret to say that I could not meet 
with a Latin edition of them printed in England in the sixteenth 
Century, excepting the editions of 1502 and 1503, in the British 
Moseum. 

MANTUANUS. 

The Bucolica of Battisto Spagnuoli, a Garxnelite monk (d. 1516), 
called Mantuanus after his birthplace Mantna, enjoyed mach popa- 
larity, and was established as a text-book in many schoob both in 
England and on the Continent. The opening words of the first eclogue 
are quoted by Holofernes in Love's Labour's Lost, IV, ii, 95: 

Fauste, precor, gelida quando pecus omne sub umbra Ruminat, — and so 
forth. Ah, good old Mantuan! I may speak of tbee as the traveller doth 
of Venice; 

Venetia, Venetia, 

Chi non ti vede non ti pretia. 

Old Mantuan, old Mantuan! Who understandeth tbee not, loves tbee not. 

CiESAR. 

The foUowing passage in 2. Henry VL, Act IV, vii, 65 — 68: 

Kent, in the Commentaries Caesar writ, 
Is term'd the civirst place of all this isle: 
Sweet is tbe country, because füll of riches; 
The people liberal, valiant, active, wealthy— 

seems to contain a reminiscence of an early school book, the Com- 
mentaries or De Bello Gallico. In the fourteenth chapter of the Fifth 
Book, which gives an account of the second Invasion of Britain by 
Caisar together with a short description of the Island, we find the 
following sentence, obviously alluded to: 

Ex his Omnibus longe sunt humanissimi, qui Cantium incoluut.^ 

To the Commentaries we find another reference in Richard III., 
Act III, I, 84- 

That Julius Caesar was a famous man; 
With what his valour did enrich his wit, 
His wit set down to make his valour live: 
Death makes no conquest of this conqueror; 
For now he lives in fame, though not in life. 

* Lyly, in his Euphues (Arber, p. 247), repeats Caesar's remark; *0f al the 
^Inbabitants of this Isle, the Kentish men are most civilest'. But the author of 
2. Henry VI. knowi that this is from Ceuar*§ Commentaries, 



Mantuanut^ Ccuar. Cicero, Ovid, 21 

CICERO. 

i) In 2. Henry VI , Act IV, i, 108, there is a reference to "Bargulus 
"the strong Illyrian pirate'V of whom Shakespefire inay have read in 
Cicero's ^De Officm^x *Bargulu8, Illyricus latro, de quo est apud 
'Theopompum magnas opes habuit'. Malone, in his Variorum Edition, 
II, 104 n., points out that this book was much read in schools. 

ii) In Titus Andronicus, IV, i, 12 — 14, Titus says of Lavinia: 

Ab, boy, Cornelia never with more care 
Read to her sons tban she bath read to tbee 
Sweet poetry and TuUys OrcUor. 

The title, at least, of Cicero's De Oratore was therefore familiär 
to the author of Titus Andronicus. I need scarcely remark that 
'Tully', and not 'Cicero', was the usual name by which the Roman 
author was known in Shakespeare's days. 

OVID. 

It is my purpose to show that Ovid,' a favourite author with 
Shakespeare, was known to him both in the original and in the English 
translation, and to supply further evidence of his familiarity with the 
Roman poet. 

I) OVID IN THE ORIGINAL. 

On the title-page of 'Venus and Adonis' Shakespeare put as a proud 
motte the following couplet from Ovid's Amomm Lib, I., Eleg. XV, 35: 

Villa miretur vulgus; mihi flavus Apollo 
Pocala Castalia plena ministret aqua. 

From ^ Metamorphoses^ (i, 150) is derived: 

Terras Astrasa reliquit. (Titus, VI, in, 4). 

From Heroides (II, 66): 

Di faciant, laudis summa sit ista taae! 

(3. Henry VI., Act I, iii, 48). 

From Ueroid. (I, 33): 

Hie ibat Simois; hie est Sigeia tellus; 

Hie steterat Priami regia celsa senis. (Shrew, III, i, 28). 

* Tbe Quartos read: ^'mighty Abradas, the great Macedonian piratc^\ 
' In the Bodleian Library there is a copy of Ovid's Metamorphoses in the 
Latin text, printed by AJdus, Yenice, 1502. On the title-page is the signature 
W.m Sb.r. (cp. Shakesp. Jahrb. XVI, 367). It is not certain whcther the autograph 
is genuine. 



22. Chapier i. Shakespeare and ihe Classics. 

Baynes, Fraser's Magaz., 1880, pp. 101 — 2, has shown that the 
name ^Titania' for the fairy queen in Mids. N. Dream gives evidence 
of Shakespeare^s intimate kno^Iedge of Ovid in the original, for the 
name is not to be found in Golding^s translation.' 

A passage in King John, V, vii, 25 — 27: 

For you are born 
To set a form upon that iodigest 
Which he hath left so shapeless and so rüde.— 

reminds us of the following words, referring to Chaos, in Afetam. I, 7: 

rudis indigestaque moles, — 

for which Golding has: 

a hüge rade heape, and nothing eis bat even. 

Shakespeare probably knew in the original Ovid's Ars Amatoria^ 
of which there appears to have been no early translation. It is read 
by Lucentio in The Taming of the Shrew (IV, ii, 8): 

I read that I profess, the Art to Lore, — 

Compare, in conclusion, 'Romeo' II, ii, 92: 

At lovers' perjaries 
They say Jove laughs, — 

and Ai^s Am, I, 633: 

Japiter . . . perjuria ridet amantam. 

II) OVID IN THE TRANSLATION. 

Of Ovid there e&isted the following translations in Shakespeare^s 
days: 

The Metamorphoses translated by Golding (first complete edition, 
1567); the Elegies (Amores) by Marlowe (printed circa 1597); the 
Ileroical Epistles by Turbervile (1567); the three first Bookes of Ovid 
de Tristibus by Thomas Churchyard, 1580. Besides these, other portions 
of Ovid were translated. (Cp. Malone I, 381, and Warton's Hist. of 
Poetry IV, 293 fr.) 

That Shakespeare had in his mind a passage from Golding's Ovid 
when he penned Prospero's incantation in The Tempest, V, i, 33, was 

1 Malone, Yar. Ed. II, 337, asserts that Oberon and Titania had been introduced 
in a dramatic entertainment exhibited bcfore Queen Elizabeth in 1591, when she 
was at Elvetham in Hampshire. This statemeiit is not correct 'Auberon' is, 
indeed, referred to there as the Fairy King; but the 'Fayery Quene' calls herseif 
,Aureola', not Titania! See Nichols's Progr. of Q. Eliz., III, 101 ff. (As to Oberon 
see posty s. Y., Charlemagne Homances.) 



Ovid. 23 

poiDted out by Farmer. The whole passage will be found in Malone's 
Variorum Edition, XV, 160, to which I refer the reader. The proof of 
Shakespeare having used Golding rests especially upon the comparison 
of the following verses: 

Temp: "Ye elves of kills^ brooks, standing lakes and groves!" 

Ovid (Met. VII, 197): ^Auraeque et venti, montesque amnesqae lacusque, 

^Dique omnes nemorum, dique omnes noctis adeste\ 
Golding: 'Ye aires and winds, yee elves of hills, of brooks, of woods alone, 

'Of Standing lakes, and of the night approach ye everichone.' 

Not quite so striking is the verbal agreement between Shakespeare's 
*Venus and Adonis', where he says of the boar, — 
Y. 619: On bis bow-back he hath a battle set 

Of bristly pikes, that ever threat bis foes; 
His eyes, like glow-worms, sbine when he doth fret. 
V. 625: His brawntj sides, with hairy bristles arm'd, 

Are better proof tlian thy spear's point can enter, etc.,— 

and Golding's translation of Metam, VIII, 284 f., where the Calydonian 
boar is described as follows: 

His eyes did glister blood and iire, right dreadful was to see 
His brawned back; riglit dreadful was bis halr which grew as thick 
With pricking points as one of them could well by other stick: 
And like a front of armed pikes, set close in battle ray, 
The stardy bristles on his back stood staring np alway. 

In the original we read: 

Sangaine, et igne micant oculi. riget horrida cervix; 
Et setae densis similes hastilibus borrent; 
Stantq velut vallum, velat alta bastilia setae. ^ 

The AcTiKON myth and Golding. 

In Mids. N. Dream, IV, i, 107 fiF., Theseus orders the hounds to be 
unconpled in order that Ilippolyta may hear their music. The queen 
then relates: 

I was with Hercules and Cadmus once, 
When in a wood of Crete they bay'd the bear 
With hounds of Sparta: never did I hear 
Such gallant chiding; for, besides the groves, 
The skies, the fountains, every region near 
SeemM all one mutual cry: I never heard 
So mnsical a discord, such sweet thunder. 

1 I quote these lines from Aidus^9 edition, 1502. 



24 Chapter /• Shakespeare and (he daseics, 

Theseus: My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, 
So flew^dy so sanded . . , 

In illustration of these verses the commentators quote from Ovid's 
" narrative of Acta?on, grandson of Cadmus (Cadmus, by the way, 
occurs also in The Km'ght's Tale by Chaucer), in Golding's translation. 
In the original text we read: 
(Met. III, 208) Gnosius Ichnobates, Spartana gente Melampus. 
(Met. III, 223) Et patre Dictaeo, sed matre Laconide nati 

Labros et Agriodus, et acutae vocis Uylactor, 
Qaosqae referre mora est. 

Golding, referring to the two dogs of v. 208, says: 
'The latter was a honnd of Crete^ the other was of SpartJ* 

In the Latin original of the Acta^on narrative the name Crete 
(or Creticus, etc.) nowhere occurs. The verses 223 — 4, quoted above, 
are translated very freely by Golding: 

. . . with olher twaine that had a sire of Crete, 

And dam of Sparta: tone of them cald iolliboy a great 

And hrge flewd honnd: the tother chorle who ever gnarring went, 

And ring-wood with a shrill Iowd mouth the which he freely spent, 

With divers mo, whose names to teil it were bat losse of time, 

These coincidences, noteworty though they are, can scarcely be 
looked upon as singularly striking. There is yet another passage in 

The Merry Wives which, taken in connection with the verses just 

quoted from Golding, calls for a remark. In Act II, i, 121 — 2 of 
this drama, Pistol is made to say, 

Prevent, or go thou 
Like Sir Actceon he, with Ringwood at thy heels. 

Ilere, it might be supposed, we have a clear proof of Shakespeare 
having used Golding. But it is probably not so. If the dramatist had 
referred to Golding the allusion would appear rather pointless. Who 
would have understood it? And how should we suppose Shakespeare 
to have hit upon Ringwood^ one of a large number of hounds recorded 
by Golding. The truth seems to be, the connexion with the translator 
of Ovid is of an indirect kind. In a song entitled 'Mad Tom', or 
'New Mad Tom of Bedlam', there occur the following lines: 

Poor naked Tom is very dry — 
; A little drink for charityl 

Hark! I hear Actason^s hounds! 

The huntsmen wboop and hallo we; 

^Ringwood^ Royster, Bowman, Jowler', 

All the chase now foUow. 



Ovid, 25 

Now the allusion seems more intelligible. Here we have a song 
in which Ringwood is the first named dog at the heels of Actason, 
while in Golding's list of hounds he is in no wise prominent. The 
song is to be found in Percy's Reliqnes; Ballad Soc, Roxb. Ball., 2, 
p. 259; and Chappell's Old Pop. Mus. The names of the honnds (excepting 
Jowler) are all in Golding's version. There can be no doubt that 
the writer of the song had an eye to this translation of Ovid. The 
exact date of the poem is not known. 'One of the ballads, directed 
'to be sung to the tune of Mad Tom^ and which is in the same measure 
'as the song [referred to] above, adds to the direction — **as it was 
'lately sung at the Curtain, Holywell"; and the Curtain Theatre would 
'appear to have been already in disuse in 1625' (Chappell, 1893, I, 
p. 181). Fleay says, in disuse in 1623. This gives us the downward, 
and Golding's Translation the upward, limit. Ben Jonson, in The Devil 
is an Ass, 1616, mentions a Tom o' Bethlem'. Bat this may be 
another song. Having said so much about the myth of Acticon, I 
may here record two more allusions to it in Shakespeare: 'Merry 
Wives', III, II, 44; Titus' II,iii, 61—5. 

III) FÜRTHER TRACKS OF OVID IN SHAKESPEARE'S WORKS. 

Holofernes, in Love's Lab. Lost, IV, ii, criticizing Biron's verses,says: 

let me supervise the caozonet. Here are only numbers ratified; bat, 
for the elegancy, facility, and golden cadence of poesy, caret. Ovidius Naso 
was the man : and why, indeed, Naso but for smelliug out the odoriferous 
flowers of fancy, the jerks of invention? 

In 'The Shrew', I, i, 31—3, we read: 

Let's be no stoics nor no Stocks, I pray; 
Cr so devote to Aristotle's checks 
As Ovid be an outcast qiiite abjured. 

Ovid's biography must have been known, in part at least, to 
Shakespeare, as appears from As You Like It', III, iii, 8 — 10: 

I am here with thee and thy goats, as the most capricious poet, 
honest Ovid, was amcng the Goths. 

Shakespeare's 'Venus and Adonis' is inspired by Ovid's Version 
of the same story in Metam., X, 519 — 559, and circa 704 ad finem.* 
Bat Shakespeare seems to be also indebted to two other Ovidian fahles. 

* The sweete wittie soule of Ovid lives in mellifluous and hony-tongued 
'Shakespeare, witnes his Venus and Adonis, his LucrecOi his sugred Sonnets among 
'bis private friends, etc' Meres, Palladis Tamia, 1598. 



26 Chapter i, Shakespeare and the Ciatsics, 

From the Hermaphboditus and Salmacis story ' (Metam., IV, 285 — 388) 
he took the relactance of Adonis; and from the hunting in Calydon 
(Metam., VIII, 270 ff), the description of the boar (cf. ante), 

It is worthy of note that the Venus and Adonis sonnet« in The 
Passionate Pilgrim', especially Poem VI., contain a clear recollection of 
the fable of Hermaphroditus. 

I may here remark, without insisting on any connection with 
Shakespeare's poem, that the story of Venus and Adonis had been 
treated before by Spenser in his Fairy Queen, III, i, 34 — 8; and that 
noteworthy allusions to the fable are to be found in Marlowe's 'Hero 
and Leander' (P^ Sest., vv. 11 — 14), in Lodge's 'Scillaes Metamor- 
phosis', 1589, (cf. the stanzas quoted in the Shakesp. Soc, Papers, 1847, 
val. III, 143), and in Robert Greene's 'Never to Late', 1590 (cf. Malone 
XX, p. 87). II[enry] C[onstable]'s *Sheepheard's 'Song of Venus and 
Adonis' which has much in common with Sh.'s poem appeared in 
'England's Helicon' in 1600. No earlier edition of Constable's 'Song' 
is known. It has the appeai'ance of being a tame copy of Shake- 
speare's populär poem, the first heir of his invention. From Marlowe's 
and Greene's allusions to the old myth, we see that Shakespeare was 
not the first to represent Adonis as cold and disdainful of love. 

The PiiiLOMELA AND Tereus fable (Met. VI) is frequently referred 
to. In Titus Andromicus, IV, i, 41, we read: 

TU, Lucius, what book is that she tosseth so? 
Young Luc, Grandsire, 'tis OvicCs Metamorphoses] 
My mother gave it me. 
Marc, For love of her that's gone, 

Pcrhaps she calPd it from among the rest. 

Tit. Soft! see how busily she turns the leaves! 

What woald she find? Lavinia, sball I read? 

This is the tragic tale of Philomel, 



^ The following verscs from the story of Salmacis (Met. IV, 320f.), in Goldiug: 
' . . . right happie folke are tbey 

*By whome thoii camst into this world; right happie is (I say) 
*Thy mother and thy sister too, (if any be:) good hap 
That woman had that was thy nurse, and gave thy mouth hir pap. 
*But far above all other, far more blisse than these is she 
'Whom thou for thy wife and bedfellow vouchsafest for to bee.' — 
ought to be compared with 'The Shrew', IV, v, 39—41: 

*'Happy the parents of so fair a child; 

"Happier the man, whom favourahle stars 

"AUot thee for his loyely bedfellow!"- 



OvitL 27 

And treats of Tereus' treason and bis rape; 

And rape, I fear, was root of thine annoy. 

Marc. See, brother, see; note how sbe quotes the leaves. 

Tu, Lavinia, wert tbou tbus surprised, sweet girl, 

Ravisb^d and wrong^d, as Fhilomela was, 

Forced in tbe ratbless, vast, and gloomy woods? 

See, see! 

Ay, sucb a place tbere is, where we did hnnt— 

0, had we never, never bunted tbere! — 

Pattern'd by tbat the poet bere describes, ^ 

By nature made for murders and for rapes. 

Compare Act II; scenes 3. and 4. — 

Like Philomela, who had informed hör sister of Tereus's crime 
by means of some words woven into a piece of cloth,* the dishonoured 
Lavinia, deprived of her tongue, makes known the truth by way of 
writing. And as Procne serves up before Tereus the flesh of his child, 
so Titus revenges himself by making Tamora eat of her sons ^baked 
*in a pie'. 

The Story is distinctly referred to in Titus Andronicus, Act II, in, 
43; II, IV, 26, 38—43; IV, i, ut sup; V, ii, 195—6. Other allusions 
will be found in Cymb., II, ii, 44—6; Mids. N. Dr. II, ii, 13, Lucrece, 
1079, 1128 ff.; Sonnet, 102, 7; Pass. Pilgr., 197. 

Lear's words (Lear, U, iv, 280 — 5): 

And let not women's weapons, waterdrops, 
Stain my man^s cbeeks! No, you unnatural bags, 
I will bave such revenges on you botb, 
Tbat all tbe world sbali — I will do sucb tbings,— 
Wbat tbey are, yet 1 know not; but tbey sball be 
Tbe terrors of the earth . . . 

contain a probable reminiscence, conscious or otherwise, of Ovid's 
verses 610 — 618, of which I quote: 

. • . Progne, fletum sorroris 

Corripiens 'non est lacrimis hoc' inquit ^agcnduro, 

Sed ferro . . . 

magnum quodcumque param 

Quod sit^ adhuc dvbiio! 

The Story of Pybamus and Thisbe, the subject of the w^ell-known 
borlesqne interlude in Mids. N. Dr., was no doubt familiär to Shake- 
speare in the accoant given by Ovid (Metam. IV). The story is also 

' Comp. Titus, II, iv^ 39—43. 



28 Chapter 1, Shakespeare and the Classics, 

told by Chaucer in his Legend of Good Women. Other versions of 
the fable need not occupy cur attention, as Shakespeare does not appear 
to be under obligations to them. The myth is also alluded to in Titus 
Andronicus, II, in, 231: 

So pale did shine the moon on Pyramus 

When he by night lay bathed in maiden blood, — 

in The Merchant of Venice, V, i, 6: 

In such a night 
Did Thisbe fearfully o'ertrip the dew 
And saw the lion's shadow ere himself 
And ran dismay'd away, — 

and in 'Romeo' II, iv, 45: 

Laura to his lady was but a kitchen-wench; . . . Thisbe a grey 
eye or so, but not to the purpose. 

The Story of Jason, Medba, and ^Eson. (Metam. VII, 1 — 293.) 
Medea's incantation (vv. \91seq.) is echoed by Prospero in The Tempest, 
V, I, 23 ff., as I have said above. 

The circumstiintial account of her magical ceremonies (Met., VII, 
262 — 274)' probably supplied suggostions for the witch scene in Macbeth 
(Act IV, sc. i). Medea, as Ovid records, goes round about the altars 
with dishevelled hair, brews a magic concoction in a cauldron into 
which she throws Thessalian roots, seeds, ilowers, Juices, stones fetched 
from the farthest East, sea-sand, rime or dew caught from the moon, 
ilesh and wings of the owl, entrails of the wolf, scaly skin of the 
snake, liver of a live stag, head of an old crow, and many nameless 
things. 

Further allusions to the Medea myth we find in Merch. of Ven., 
J, I, 172; III, II, 244; V, i, 13-14; 2. Henry VI., Act V, ii, 59. 
(cf. Tristia III, 9.) 

^ It seems tbat Shakespeare had read this passagc in the original In Macbeth, 
III, ▼, 23—25, Hecate says: 

"üpon the Corner of the moon 
"There hangs a vaporous drop profound; 
"l'Il catch it ere it come to ground" etc. 
This may be paralleied by the following verses from Ovid (Met. VII, 268), 
who says of Medea: 

'Addit et exceptas luna pernocte pruinas*, 
Golding translates thus: — 

^She put thereto a deaw that feil upoQ a monday night\ 
The drop from the moon was therefore decidedly not taken from Golding. 



Ovid. 29 

The STORY of Lücbecb. The problem of the source of Shake- 
speare's Lucrece has been minately iuvestigated by Dr. Ewig in 
Anglia XXII (Shakespeare's Lucrece, eine litterarhistorische Unter- 
sachang). He arrives at the foUowing trustworthy conclusion (p. 32): 
Shakespeare's poem is based upon Livy's version (Bk. L, eh. 57, 58); 
probably also the Ovidian (Fasti II, 721 ff.) and perhaps too the 
Chaucerian versions were made use of. Whether Livy's and Ovid's 
influence is of a mediate or immediate kind, it is impossible to 
decide with certainty. Bat, I thihk, there ought to be no doubt that 
Shakespeare had recourse to the Latin writers direct.^ 

Further traces of the legend of Lucrece will be found in The 
Shrew, II, i, 298; Twelfth Night, II, v, 104; II, v, 116; As YouLike 
It, III, II, 156; Titus, IV, i, 63; Mach., II, i, 55, Cymb., II, ii, 12. 

Shakespeare's mind was richly furnished with the antique 
MTTHOLOGY,' to which WO find innumerable allusions, introduced with 
perfect ease and naturalness, throughout his works. Much of his 
knowledge of the ancient fables and legends Shakespeare must have 
acquired through the medium of Ovid's Metamorphoses, a veritable 
storehouse of the old mythological lore. 

Without aiming at exhaustiveness, we may note the foUowing 
myths, which Shakespeare would find in Ovid's attractive work: — 

Narciasus and Echo: Venus, 161; Lucrece, 285; Antony, II, v, 
96; Romeo, II, ii, 162. 

Pkaeton: Gentlemen, III, i, 153; Rieh. IL, Act. III, m, 178; 3. 
Henry VI., Act I, iv, 33; Act II, vi, 12; Romeo, III, ii, 3; — etc. 

' Dr. Ewig refers on p. 10 (see also p. 32) to Max Koch for a further proof 
of Shakespeare^s acquaintance with Livy. The reference is worthless, as Koch 
gives no reasons for his Statement — On the other hand, Dr. Ewig takes no notice 
of what Dr. Furnivali says in his Introd. to the Leopold Sh.» p. cxxvi, *the story 
*of Lucrece is fully told in Barnabe Googes Prouerbes of Lopez de Mendoza, 
englisht 1575, leaves 58—60, 70 bk., 71 bk., from the Tuscan of M. John Galenis'. 
—I have looked at a copy in the British Museum, dated 1579, but can find no 
eyidence that Shakespeare made use of it. 

Shakespeare's *Venus and Adonis' and *Lucrece' are discussed by Wyndham, 
'Shakespeare's Poems', 1898; by Sachs, Sh. Jahrb., XXV, 132; and by Baynes 
utsup,), Dumhofer has written a weak dissertation on the former poem, Halle, 1890. 

» Delins contributed a paper on Shakespeare's mythology to the *Shakesp. 
Jahrb.' XVIII, 81 ff. But the subject is by no means treated exhaustively. Much 
more could be made of it.~Thomas Cooper's 'Thesaurus Linguae Romanae & 
Britannicae' contains an appendix of Proper Names with brief notes. Comp., 
too, Warton IV, 351—2. 



30 Ckapier 1. Shctkespeare and the Ciassict, 

Niobe: Hamlet, I, n, 149; Troilus, V, x, 19. 

Dcedahis and Icarua: 3. Henry VI., Act V, vi, 18 — 26; 1. Henry 
VI., Act IV, VI, 55; vii, 16. 

Philemon and Baucis: Much Ado, II, i, 99; As Y. Like Itj III, 
iii, 10—11: 

Protem: Gentlemen; 3. Henry VI., Act IH, ii, 192. 

Orpheus: Gentlemen, III, ii, 78; Merchant, V, i, 80; Henry VUL, 
Act III, I, 3; Lucrece, 553; Mids. N. Dr., V, i, 49. 

Pygmalion: Meas f. Meas., III, ii, 47. 

Prosei^pina: Wint. Tale, IV, iv, 116; Troilus, II, i, 37. 

Deucalion: Wint. Tale, IV, iv, 442; Coriolanos, H, i, 102. 

Daphne: Mids. N. Dr., U, i, 231; Shrew, Ind., ii, 59; Troilus 
I, I, 101. 

Herculesy Nessus^ and Lichas: Alls Well, IV, in, 281; Antony, 
IV, XII, 43; Merchant, II, i, 32; Hamlet, I, iv, 83; — etc. 

Laoviedon^s Datighter: Merchant, III, ii, 55. — The bloody Centaurs' 
feast of 'Titus', V, ii, 204, refers to the conflict between the Lapithce 
and Centaurs at the nuptials of Pirithous and Hippodamia. (Metam. 
XII, 210ir.) 

Several of the names, like Autolycus, Lavinia, Chiron, etc., are 
derived from Ovid's Metamorphoses. 

In conclusion I desire to draw attention to some further parellelisms. 
Cymb. I, III, 1 — 22 ought to be compared with Metam. XI, 460 ff. 
(Alcyone taking leave of her husband). Ovid's grandiose description 
of the tempest (Met. XI, 480ff.) seems to have made an Impression 
on Shakespeare's mind. Compare 'The Tempest', I, i. The foUowing 
Verses in Othello, II, i, 188: 

May the winds blow tili they have wakenM death! 
And let the labouring bark climb hüls of seas 
Olympus-high aud duck againe as low 
As heirs from heaven! 

come very close to Ovid's verses, Englished thus by Golding: 

One while as from a mountaines top it [the ship] seemed downe to looke, 
To vallies and the depth of bell, another while beset 
With swelling surges round about wbich neere above it met 
It looked from the bottome of the whiripoole up aloft, 
As if it were from hell to heaven. i 



* Steevens compares a passage in Sidney, Arcadia, Bk. II, eh. 7, p. 131, verso, 
of Sommer's edition. 



Ovid. VirgiL 31 

Compare, too, 2. Henry IV., Act III, i, 21 : • 

. • . winds, 
Who take the ruffian biliows by the top, 
Carling their monstrous heads and hangiog them 
With deafening clamour in the slippery clouds, 
That, with the hurly, death itself awakes. 

With Metam., ut sup,^ (v. 497): 

The snrges mounting np aloft did seeme to male the skie, 

And with their sprinkling for to wet the clouds that hang on hieJ 

Regarding Ovid's influence on Shakespeare's style and technique in 
'Venus and Adonis' and 'Lucrece', compare Baynes and Wyndham(w^8wjt>.)- 

VIRGIL. 

'The Rape of Lucrece' contains evident marks of indebtedness to 
the Second Book of the jEneid for some details in the description of 
Troy (Lucr., vv. 1366 ff.). Sinon is painted altogether like VirgiFs 
Sinon. Compare, too, Titas Andronicus V, iii, 80 — 7. 

From the First Book of the iEneid (v. 11) Shakespeare quotes the 
following words:— 

Tantaene animis cöelestibas irae? 

in 2. Henry VI., Act II, i, 24. In the same play (IV, i, 117) there 
occnrs the following passage 

Gelidas timor occupat artas, — 
which the commentators illustrate by iEneid VII, 446: 

Subitus tremor occupat artus. 
Bat this same latter phrase occars also in in OüicTs Metamorphoses 
Iir, 40; and Lucan I, 246: 

gelidus pavor occupat artus^ 

comes still closer to Shakespeare's words. 

For the figure of the Harpy introdaced in The Tempest, III, iii, 
Shakespeare may be ander Obligation to JEneid III. Compare especially 
the following lines: 

' Arthur Brooke, in bis Romeus and Juliet, v. 1361, says: 

'As when the winter fiawes with dredfull noyse arise, 

'And heaye the fomy swelling wares up to the starry skies\ 
Compare, too, Lucan^s 'Nubila tanguntur yelis et terra carina' (v. 642). 

' I have also compared cid editions of Lucan^s Pharsalia, published in 156^ 
and 1574.— What can the Pine in the Folio of 1623 mean? Did the compositor see 
and misread Latinty or an abbreviation of it, in the MS. from which he printed? 



32 Chapier i. Shaktipeare and the dasticM, 

Ariel ... the elements, 

Of whom your swords are temperM, may as well 

Wound the loud winds, or with bemockM at stabs 

Kill the still-closing waters, as diminish 

One dowle that's in my plume: my fellow-ministers 

Are like iDvulneiable — 

with Aeneid III, 234 ff., translated thus by Phaer (ed 1584): 

Their swords by them they laid . . . 
And on the filthy birdes they beat, that wild sea rocks do breede, 
Bat fethers none do from them fall, nor wound for stroke doth bleede, 
Nor force of weapons hart them can. 

Regai*ding 

TERENCE 

see above under Lily's Grammar. 

Had Shakespeare read 

HORACE? 

I have already discussed Integer vitae^ etc. under the heading of 
Lily's Grammar. Irafuror brems est^ Timon, I, ii, 28, is from Epist. I, 
II, 62. But the phrase seems to have enjoyed proverbial currency. 
In Love's Labour's Lost, IV, ii, 104, Holofemes remarks: "or rather, 
"as Horace says in his — " Here Holofemes cuts short his own sentence, 

PLAUTUS. 

The subject of The Comedy of Errors, as is well known, is the 
same as that of the Mencechmi of Plautus. Probably Shakespeare had 
no need to read the Roman play in the Latin original. Considerable 
as Plautus's influence was on the Elizabethan drama — a subject which 
has not been worked out in detail yet — the Menoechmi^ being peculiarly 
adapted for representation, must have been produced on the London 
stage, before Shakespeare tried his band at the play. This we might 
be fully warranted in inferring on general a priori grounds, even if 
we did not possess a notice of the Performance of 'The Historie of Error' 
at Hampton Court in 1576 — 7.^ The Comedy of Errors is therefore 
probably a rifacimento of an older play. 

* *The Historie of Error, showen at Hampton Court on New yeres daie at 
'night [1576—7]; enacted by the children of Powles' (Malone, III, p. 387). Ward, 
in his Uist of Engl. Dram. Lit. vol. II, p. 74, cautions us not to be too hasty in 
identifying this play with the 'pre-ErrorsV He refers us to Bacon^s Advancement 



Horaee, Plautua, 33 



In the 1623 folio we find the names 



Antiphol{;}8[^7^*^^}and 



A. 'Sereptus'. The latter is a corruption of 'Surreptus', the sumame 
of the one Mensechmus of Plautus. 'Erotes' looks like a compromise 
between ^EroliviWi\ the name of the courtezan in Plautus, and ^Sosicl^s^ 
the sumame of the other Menaßchmus. 

The Suggestion that the designations found in the first folio were 
taken over from the old pre-Shakespearean play seems very plausible. 

Whether the translation of the Menaechmi by W. W. (probably 
William Warner) which appeared in 1595, having been licensed for 
printing on the lOth of June 1594, was ready about 1591, the probable 
date of the Comedy of Errors, is uncertain. Malone observes: *from 
'the printer's advertisement to the reader, it appears that, for some 
'time before [1595], it had been handed about in MS. among the 
Hranslator's friends'. But there is no internal evidence of Shakespeare 
having used this translation. 

The play mentioned in the 'Gesta Grayorum' as the ^Comedy of 
'Errors like to Plautus his Menechmus', and acted in Gray's Inn on 
Dec. 28., 1594, must have been Shakespeare^s drama. 

Some motifs of Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors are derived from 
yet another Plautine Comedy: the Amphüi^iu)^ which supplied hints 
for the twin servants; as well as for several farcical scenes and 
situations. Mercury, for example, 'keeps the real Amphitruo out of 
'his own house, while Jupiter, the sham Amphitruo, eujoys the real 
'one's wife, Alcmena\ This is like Act III, scene 1. of the Comedy 
of Errors, where Antipholus of Ephesus canuot gain admittance into 
his house, while his brother and his own wife are at dinner within. 
The doubts which the Syracusan Dromio is led to eutertain regarding 
his own identity (Act II, ii) are from the same play of Plautus.^ 

The names Gmmio and Tranio for the servants in The Taming 
of the Shrew occur in Plautus's Mostellana, where two slaves bear 
the same names, but there the resemblance ends. The mistaken 
identities in Twelfth Night are thoroughly Plautine in character and 

of Leaming and to Burton's Anatrof Mel. for the term *comedy of errors'. But 
these two works seem to be too late to prove anything. In 1583, Jan. 6., there 
was prodaced before Queen Elizabeth by the Lord Chamberlain's Servants: 'A 
'Historie of Ferrar'. Dyce and others propose to read * Error' for Ferrar. But 
Fleay queries: 'Ferrara'or written^by Ferrars?' * 

> Further resemblances are noticed by Paul Wislicenus in 'Die Literatur', 
1874, Nr. 1 and S.^Comp. Shakesp. Jahrb. IX, p. 330. 

Anders, Shakespeare's books. 3 



34 Chapter /. Shakespeare and the Clasncs. 

do not appear to be sufficiently accounted for by reference to the 
source of the plot. 

SENECA. 

On the inflaence of Seneca on Shakespeare and the Elizabethan 
tragedy generally we possess a treatise by Dr. Cunliffe.* Unhappily 
the 'writer does not pay sufficient attention to indirect inflaences which 
may have acted on our poet.' Plaatus and Seneca were accoanted 
the best for classical Cömedy and Tragedy by the Elizabethans. It 
is evidently significant that Shakespeare should make a reference to 
the two Roman dramatists in Hamlet, II, ii, 419, though throngh the 
mouth of Polonins, who is made to say: — 

Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Plautus too light 

We should thus have reason to suppose that Shakespeare had 
read an author, who, as I have said, was considered to be the model of 
cla^ical tragedy. This supposition receives confirmation from some traces 
of Seneca in the works of the great dramatist, especially in Titus 
Andronicus. The following passage in this play (Titus IV, i, 82): 

Magoi Dominator poli, 
Tarn lentus audls scelera? tarn lentus vides? 

is a quotation, somewhat modified, from Ilippolytus, 1. 671 (Act II): 

Magne regnator deum, 
Tarn lentus audis scelera? tarn lentus vides? 

The words in Titus Andronicus, II, i, 133 — 5: 

Sit fas aut nefas ... 

Per Styga, per manes vehor, 

have been compared with Hippolytus^ 1180: 

Per Styga, per amnes igneos amens sequar!' 

The subject and style of the whole play of Titus Andronicus is 
thoroughly Senecan in character, though it ought to be remembered 
that it is not the first of the tragedies of blood and revenge of the 
Elizabethan period. Prof. Brandl thinks that the horrible feast in 
Titus Andronicus, V,''ii and ni, contains reminiscences of Thyestes.^ 

^ The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy. An Essay by John 
W. Cunliffe. London. 1893. 

^ Compare Robertson, Montaigne and Shakspere, pp. 73—81. 

3 Shakesp. Jahrb., IV, 65. 

* Gotting. Gelehrte Anzeig., 1891, Nr. 18, pp. 72-2—5, 



Seneca. 85 

There is a striking, thongh not conclusive, parallelism between 
Richard IH., Act U, ni, 42—4: 

By a divine instinct men's minds mistrast 

Ensaing daDgers; as, by proof, we see 

The waters swell before a boisterous storm, — 

and T^yestes 958—961: 

Mittit laetus signa futuri 
Mens, ante sni praesaga mali. 
Instat nantis fera tempestas, 
Cum sine vento tranquilla tament 

Prof. Brandt points out a remarkable resemblance between the 
first Monologae of Seneca's Medea and Macbeth I, v, 41 — 55. Macbeth's 
wife, a veritable Medea herseif, says: 

Come, yoa spirits 
That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, 
And fiil me from the crown to the toe top-full 
Of direst cruelty! make thick my blood; 
Stop up the access, and passage to remorse, 
That no compunctious visitings of natare 
Shake my feil parpose, nor keep peace between 
The effect and itl Come to my woman's breasts. 
And take my milk for gall, you murdering minlsters, 
Wherever in your sightless substances 
You wait on natnre's mischief! Come, thick night, 
And pall thee in the dünnest smoke of hell, 
That my keen knife see not the wound it makes, 
Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, 
To cry 'Hold, hold!' 

Compare Medea's Monologue, from which I quote the following verses 
in the English Translation, printed in 1581: 

... Juno ... Pallas ... Titan . . . Hecate . . . 
And yee on whom Medea may with safer conscience call, 
Dangeon darke, most dreadfuU den of everlasting night, 
... I conjare you^ grisly Ghostes appeare . . . 
If any lusty lyfe as yet within thy soule doe rest, 
If ottght of aoncient corage still doe dwell within my brest, 
Exile all foolysh Female feare, and pity from thy mynde. 
And as th'untamed Tygers use to rage and rave unkynde, 

. . . permit to lodge and rest. 
Such salvage brutish tyranny within thy brasen brest. 

' The Schlegel-Tieck Translation, ed. 1899, vol. VI, 1S8. 



3^ Chapter 1. Shakespeare and the CUusics, 

What eyer hurly-barly wronght doth Pbasis nnderstand, 

What mighty monstroas bloudy feate I wrought by Sea or land: 

The like in Corynth shalbe seene in most outragious guise. etc. 

The Pre-Hamlet was largely influenced by Seneca's dramas, as 
Nash teils us in bis Epistle prefixed to Greene's Menaphon, 15S9: 
^English Seneca read by candle light yeeldes manie good sentences, 
^as Blond is a begger', and so foorth: and if you intreate him faire 
'in a frosty morning, he will afiFoord you whole Hamlets^ I shonld 
say handfuUs of tragical speaches.' The Hamlet Tragedy, as we have 
it, still bears marks of Senecan influence. The appearance of the 
Ghost crying for Revenge is dae to the Roman tragedian. Madness, 
murder, the guilty wife are all moti/s which pervade the dramas of 
the]^ Seneca; but they are also present, or fore-shadowed, in Saxo- 
Belleforest. 

LIVY. 

See under Ovid, the legend of Lucrece. (A translation of Livy 
by A. Nevill was entered on the Stationers' Registers in 1577 (Arber's 
Transcr. II, 312). Malone, I, 385, mentions a translation by Anth. 
Cope, 1545; and one by Holland in 1600.) 

PLINY. 

With Pliny's Historia Naturalis Shakespeare seems to have been 
acquainted in some form or other. Philemon HoUand's English 
translation appeared in 1601. But if the passage in As You Like It 
(1599) quoted below contain a reminiscence of Pliny, Shakespeare 
must have familiarized himself with the Natural History before the 
publication of Holland's translation. This he may have seen in MS. 
Or did he acquire a knowledge of Pliny through some other medium? 

Book I. is nothing but a table of contents of the whole work. 
Book II. contains an interestmg account of the world, the earth, and 
the sea, and their wonders. 

i) The eighty-third chapter,' which' has the heading 'Monstrous 
'Earthquakes seene never but once', records 'a great stränge wonder 
'of the Earth', which happened 'whiles L. Martins and Sex. lulius were 
'Consuls' : 

for two hilles encountred together, charging as it were, and with 
violence assaulting one another, yea* and retiring againe with a most 
mightie noise. 

Compare As You Like It, III, ii, 194: 



Livy. Pliny. Luean,- 37 

Lord, Lord ! it is a hard matter for friervds to meet; but moantains 
may be removed with earthqoakes and so encounter. 

ii) Book IL, chapter 97. concludes with the following sentence: 

And the sea Pontus evermore floweth and ranneth out into Propontis, 
bot the sea never retireth backe againe within Pontus. 

Compare Othello, III, iii, 452: 

lago. Patience, I say; yöur mind perhaps may change. 

Oth. Never, lago. Like to the Pontic sea, 

Whose icy current and compnisive course 

Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on 

To the Propontic and the Hellespbnt, 

£ven 80 my bloody thoughts, wilh violent pace, 

Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love, 

Till tbat a capable and wide revenge 

Swallow them up. 

iii) Shakespeare is supposed to have derived his knowledge of 
the Nilometer, to measure tiie fall and the rise of the waters of the 
Nile (Alltony, II, vii, 20 ff.), from Pliny, Book V, chapt. 9, or from 
Leo's History of Africa, translated by John Pory, in 1600 (see Malone's 
Var. Ed.). But this seems uncertain. Compare a later chapter. 

iv) There is a curious coincidence between King Lear, IV, vi, 

182—4: 

we came crying hither: 

Thou know'st, the first time that we smell the air, 

We wawl and cry — 

and the following passage in the Proem to the Seventh Book of 
HoUand's Pliny: 

man alone, poor wretcb, she [nature] hath laid all naked upon the 

bare earth, even on his birth-day, to cry and wraxde presently from the 

very first houre that he is borne into this world. 

LUCAN. 

There is some resemblance between Timon's verses on the curse 
of the gold (Tim. IV, iii) and the following passage from Lucan's 
Pharsalia^ bk. 1., vv. 161 seq.^ in Afarlowe's translation,* published 
in 1600: 

. . . wealth flow'd, 

And then we grew licentious and rüde; 

The soldiers' prey and rapine brought in riot; 

* vol. III., p. 259 of Bullen's editon of Marlowe. Marlowe translated only 
the Ist book of the Pharsalia, 



33 ChapUr 1. Shakeäpeart and ihe Classict. 

Men took delight in jewels, houses, plate, 

And scorn'd old sparing diet, and wäre robes 

Too light for women . . • 

Qaarrels were rife; greedy desire, still poor, 

Did vild deeds; then 'twas worth the price of blood, 

And deemM renown, to spoil their native town; 

Force mastered right, the strengest govemM all; 

Hence came it that th'edicts were over-rul'd, 

Tbat laws were broke, tribunes with consnls strove, 

Säle made of Offices . • . 

But Lucan's words are tarne compared with those of Timon. 
Perhaps there was a passage to the same effect in the pre-Timon. 

JUVENAL. 

Warburton supposed that *the satirical rogue' of Hamlet, II, iii, 
198, from whom the hero of the play professes to be quoting, is 
Javenal, who gives a description of old age in Sat. X, 188. This 
seems very likely. 

For the 

GESTA ROMANORÜM 

comp. Giovanni Fiorentino, po^t. 

A NOTE. 

Lord Say hath gelded the common-wealth, and made it an eunuch. 

(2. Henry VI., Act IV, n, 174). 

This expression occurs in Cicero, De Oratore, bk. III, 41: Nolo 
dici morte Africani castratam esse rem publicam. Qnintilian quotes 
it, 'Institutio Oratoria', bk. vm., 6. I find the expression also in 
Talaeus's Rhetoric, a book used in schools in the sixteenth Century.* 
'Geld' in the sense of diminishing or curtailing is, however, by no 
means peculiar to Shakespeare. Compare also 1. Henry IV., Act III, 
I, 110; Love's Lab. Lost, II, i, 149; Rieh. IL, Act II, i, 237. A writer 
in Notes and Queries, April 14. 1900., thinks that the following lines 
in Henry V., Act III, v, 50: 

Rash on bis host, as doth the melted snow 

lipon the Valleys, whose low vassal seat 

The Alps doth spit and void bis rheum upon — 

1 S. Baynes, Fräs. Mag., 1880, Jan., p. 90 f. 



Juveiud, A Note, Concluding lUmarks, 39 

allade to the conceit of Furius Bibacülus, quoted as far-fetched by 
Qnintilian (ut 9up.), and jeered at by Horace (Sat. II, 5, 41): — 

Jupiter hlbernas cana nive conspait Alpes. 

Bat on looking at the two passages carefuUy, I find that, though 
there is a slight resemblance, the diiference is far greater. It is absurd 
to say 'Jopiter spits upon the Alps with vfhite snow', when you mean 
'it snows'. But it does not sound so ridicalous to hear the French King 
comparing himself to the high Alps, and his enemy to the low Valleys 
which the mountain can spit upon in contempt. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

As the reader will have noticed, I have made no attempt 
at drawing a hard and fast line between school-classics and Roman 
authors whom Shakespeare may have perused in later life. The 
distinction would be practically impossible. 

Taking a final review of the matter already dealt with in the 
present chapter, we may now safely assert, that Shakespeare's 
knowledge of the Latin langaage was considerable, and that he must 
have read some of the more important Latin authors. Besides the 
reasons already adduced, there are others which confirm this view. 
Even Ben Jonson allows that he knew 'small Latin', — where the word 
'smair should not be underlined. Malone gives us further, indirect, 
evidence on the point in his Prolegomena (vol. IL, 102), where he 
refers to letters written by one Sturley (High Bailiff of Stratford in 
1596) to Richard Quiney of Stratford (Iligh Bailiff in 1601), a friend 
of Shakespeare's, whose daughter Thomas Quiney, the son of Richard, 
married in 1616.' These letters by Abraham Sturley are interlarded 
with Latin sentences, and one is entirely in Latin (Malone II, 561), 
and surely Sturley would not have written what his brother-in-law 
could not understand. Moreover, Malone draws attention to a Latin 
letter (probably a school exercise) written by Richard Quiney, the son. 
The inference by analogy which Malone draws in Shakespeare's case 
seems perfectly legitimate. 

Alexander Schmidt, in his Shakespeare Lexicon (Appendix), gives 
a long list of Latin words and 'phrases in Shakespeare's plays. Further 
evidence of Shakespeare's knowledge of Latin is supplied by English 

1 A letter written by Richard Quiney, the eider, to Shakespeare is still 
ext^ni 



40 ChapUr i. Shakespeare and ihe Ciassics, 

words like the following: — disjanct^ acerb, sequent, exsaffiicate, indign, 
segregated, cadent, intenible, extirpate, pedascule, pudency, pestiferous, 
antre, admired Miranda, mnltipotent, etc. 

Lastly, Shakespeare has the ancient mythology and history at his 
fingers' ends, and throughout his plays and poems we find frequent 
allosions introduced with ease and naturalness. 

GREEK LITERATÜRE. 

On Shakespeare's knowledge of Greek there is less to say. Ben 
Jenson teils us that the poet had small Latin and less Greek, What 
Jenson meant by 'less Greek' each reader mnst Interpret for himself. 
We have no evidence that Shakespeare read any Greek author in the 
original. Alexander Schmidt gives only two Greek words in his list: 
misanthropos (Timon, IV, iii, 53) which Shakespeare conld find in a 
marginal note to Plntarch's Life of Antonios and in the text of the 
Life of Alcibiades; * and the word threnos^ a snperscription in 'The 
'Phoenix and the Turtle', while we have 'throne' in the text, v. 49. 
Words like cacodemon (Rieh. IIL, Act I, iii, 144), and anihropophagi 
(Othello I, III, 144), may be taken as indicative of the poet's knowledge 
of a few simple Greek terms, at least. 

PLUTARCH. 

Plutarch's celebrated biographies were known to Shakespeare in 
North's English translation, as Farmer satisfactorily proved. Halliwell- 
Phillipps, in his Ontlines II, p. 285, points ont that the great dramatist 
most likely used the edition of 1595, which is mnch the same as the 
first edition published in 1579.' The third edition appeared in 1603 
with fifteen additional lives, and the fourth in 1612.' 

On the Lives of Julius Caesar^ Marcus Brutus^ and Marcus 
Antonius^ Shakespeare founded his 'Julius Caesar'. This play, written 
about 16Q1, could not be indebted to North's Life oi Augustus^ which 

> Skeat, Shakespeare's Plutarch, 1892, pp. 216, 296. 

' The title of the 1595 edition is this: 'The Lives of the Noble Grecians 
'and Romanes, compared together by that Grave Learned Philosopher and 
'Historiographer, Plutarke of Chaeronea: Translated out of Greeke into French 
'by lamcs Amiot, . . . and out of French into English, by Thomas North. Imprinted 
'at London by Richard Field for Bonham Norton. 1595.' 

' It has been asscrted, but not proved, that a copy of the 1612 edition, 
now in the Greenock Library, with the Initials W. S., was the poet's property. 



Qreek Liter Mure: Piutarch. 41 

was first added to the edition of 1603. According to Skeat, Shakespeare 
also read the Life of Cicei^o, The biographies of Marcus Antonitis 
and Caius Martins Coriolanits supplied the materials for *Antony and 
Cleopatra' and 'Coriolanus' respectively. 'Timon of Athens', too, is 
indebted to the Life of Antorhrns^ as well as to that of Alcibiades,^ 
(Compare Skeat's Introd. to Shakespeare's Platarch, pp. XV ff.) 

We also find traces of Platarch ontside of the Roman plays and 
Timon. Some hints of 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' are clearly 
derived from the Life of Theseus, which Stands first in North's work 
(Skeat, p. xiii). As this play seems to have been written in 1594, 
the poet must have used the edition of 1579; unless we should 
suppose him to have seen the first sheets of the new edition, which 
came from the press of Richard Field, the friend of Shakespeare, and 
printer of his 'Venas and Adonis' and 'Lucrece'. Skeat points out 
a considcrable number of proper names adopted by Shakespeare from 
Platarch. The following are further examples of hints and snggestions 
obtained from the Greek biographer. Macbeth, III, i, 54 — 7: 

There is none bat he 
Whose being I do fear: and, ander him, 
My Genias is rebuk'd; as, it is said, 
Mark Antony's was by Caesar — 

apparently contains a reminiscence of a passage in Platarch (Skeat, 
p. 181) which was certainly in the poet's mind, when he wrote Antony 
and Cleopatra, Act II, iii, 18 — 22. Again, in Imogen's bedchamber 
(see Cymbellne, II, iv, 66 ff.) was to be seen represented in tapestiy 

Prond Cleopatra, when she met her Roman, 
And Cydnas swelFd above the bauks, or for 
The press of boats, or pride. 

Compare Skeat, pp. 174 — 5 and Ant. and Cleop. II, ii, 191 ff. The 
ominous presages of the "mightiest" Caesar's death related by Platarch 
(Skeat, p. 97) are referred to by the great poet in Hamlet, I, i, 113 ff., 
and 'Caesar', Act II, ii. "Cato's daaghter, Bratas' Portia" is mentioned 
in the Merchant of Venice, I, i, 166. These, I think, are the chief 
points deserving of notice. 

' Though Shakespeare may have known Painter's novel on Timon, Plutarch, 
and not Painter, is a source of Shakespeare's play, as is evident from a comparison 
of the two accounts with the drama. 



42 Chapter 1, Shakespeare and the Classics, 



HOMER. 

Dr. Small/ has adduced arguments in favour of the belief that 
Shakespeare derived some features of the play of 'Troilus and Cressida', 
which is probably to be assigned to 1601 — 2, from Chapman's Translation 
of Homer, seven books (1. 2. 7—11) of the Iliad having appeared 
in 1598. Small is certainly correct in his assertion that Shakespeare's 
play contains Homeric features. Bat he has not proved that the poet 
used Chapman's Translation. A translation of the iirst ten Books of 
the Iliad by Arthur Hall had appeiired as early as 1581. And a play 
of 'Troy' had been acted in London in 1596. See Henslowe's Diary, 
where mention is also made of a play 'Agamemnon' 1599, which has 
been said to be identical with 'Troilus and Cressida', 1599, of Henslowe's 
troupe (or troupes).' These plays may have contained Homeric traits. 
Fleay identifies the Troy play of 1596 with Heywood's First Part of 
the Iren Age (pr. 1632), which Ward also assigns to an early period of 
Heywood's career. Certainly, the resemblances to Shakespeare's 'Troilus 
and Cressida' are very striking, and all the more important Homeric 
features of this play, pointed out by Small, appear there. That 
Shakespeare must have been familiär with the classical story of the 
Trojan war before Chapman's Translation appeared, is clear from 
Lucrece, vv. 1366 seq. 

JOSEPHUS.» 

In King John, II, j, 378 flf. the Bastard says: 

Do like the mutincs of Jerusalem, 
Be friends awhilo and both conjointly bend 
Your sharpest deeds of malice on this town . . . 
Tbat done, dissever your united strengths, 
And part your mingled colours onee again, etc. 

'The reference to 'the mutines of Jerusalem' must have been derived, 
'directly or indirectly, from Josephus, who in his Jewish War (V. 6, 
'§ 4) gives an account of the manner in which the leaders of the 
'factions in Jerusalem, John of Giscala and Simon bar Gioras, ceased 

' The Stage-quarrel. Kölbiog's Forschungen I, pp. 164 ff. 

' Or is 'Agamemnon' based on Sencca's play? If so, prol>ably not o»/y on 
Seneca. 

' Josephus's History of the Jewish War was originally written in Aramaic, 
but was afterwards translated by its author into Greek, and it is this version 
alone which we now possess. 



Homer, Joaephus, Heiiodorus» 43 

'their assanlts npon each other to combiDe in resisting the Roman 
'attack. No translation of Josephus into English appears to have 
'existed before 1602, bnt the spnrions Hebrew narrative of Josippon, 
'or Joseph ben Gorion, had been translated at least in part by Peter 
'Morwyng as early as 1558, and several editions were published before 
*the end of the 16^** Century. From this, if from no other source, as 
'Malone has shewn, Shakespeare might have derived his knowIedge\ 
(Wright, Clarend. Press ed., p. 104.) Pei^haps the story of the siege 
of Jerusalem had been dramatized and acted on a London stage. 
Henslowe's diary mentions a play 'Jerusalem' acted 1591. Another 
play in which this subject may have been treated is called Hittus and 
Vespacia'. But on this, as on other questions^ the information we get 
from Henslowe's diary is extremely unsatisfactöry. Books on the 
destmction of Jerusalem were printed by Wynkyn de Werde and by 
Pynson. No doubt ministers of the gospel would refer to those events 
in their sermons. So Shakespeare may have easily got his knowledge 
at second band. 

HELIODORUS. 

In Twelfth Night, V, i, 120—3, the following words are placed 
in the mouth of the duke: 

Why should I not, had 1 the heart to do it, 
Like to the Egyptian thief at point of deatb, 
Kill what I love? — a savage jealousy 
That sometimes savours nobly. 

Here we have a piain allusion to the adventures of the Egyptian 
robber Thyamis, who, brought to bay by his enemies, purposed to kill 
Chariclea, the objeet of his affections; but, luckily for her and thereaders 
of the story, stabbed the wrong person. The romance, of which this 
is an episode, is entitled A^Oicuirtxwv ßcßXia osxot, composed by Heliodorus, 
a writer of the third Century of the Christian era. 

The jEthiopica enjoyed a great deal of popularity on the Continent 
and England alike. An English rendering by Thomas Underdowne 
from a Latin Version was issued in 1569, and again in 1587, 1606, 1622. 
The romance, of which Theagenes and Chariclea are the heroes, was 
also dramatized and performed on the English stage as early as 
1572 — 3, as we know from the 'Accounts of the Revels at CourtV 

» See Old Shakespeare Society, 1842, pp. 34—35. Fleay, Bist, of the Stage, 
p. 30 and note; also Gohn, Sh. in Germany, p. CX 



44 ChapUr 1, Shakespeare and the Classics» 

where we find mention of 4i speares for the play of Cariclia ... An 
'awltar [altar] for theagines, ... the picture of Andromadas [for 
*Chariclea]'. Stephen Gosson, too, in his 'Plays confated', c. 1582, 
informs os of the dramatic treatment of the story (Malone III, 40).^ 

MARIANUS. 

To von Friesen and Hertzberg' we owe the curious discovery of 
the probable source of Shakespeare's last two sonnets, which show 
marvellonsly close resemblance to a Greek epigram of six lines by 
the Byzantine Marianus, who probably lived in the fifth centary. It 
was Latined in 1529, and several times afterwards. How it reached 
Shakespeare is a puzzle. 

On 

ANACREON, LUCIAN, PLATO, etc., 

see later chapters.' 

' The popularity of the ^thiopica on French seil is testified by the ten 
editions through wbich Amyot^s French translation passed in the second half of 
the sixteenth Century. Racine is said to have known the story by heart, and 
to have formed the plan of dramatizing it. Nor is there lack of further evldence 
of its popularity in England. In 1567 James Sandford published a short 
account of the story ^gathered for the most part out of Heliodorus a Greeke 
,Authour' in his ^Amorous Tales', etc. The first few pages of the ^thiopica 
were metrified by Abraham Fraunce, and published in this form in 1591. Sidney's 
Arcadia, we know, was influenced by Heliodonis: and William Wamer's 'Pan his 
Syrinx', 1585, was written somewhat in the manner of the Greek romance. I find 
the story alluded to by Greene (Huth Libr. ed., 11, 67, 91; IX, 80), Sidney (Apology, 
repr. by Arber, p. 28), and Reginald Scot (Disc. of Witchcr. ed. by Dr. Nicholson, 
p. 503). These allusions, which occur to mc, are probably only a few out of 
many. — Further information on Heliodorus, than I can give here, may be found 
in Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, 1876; Oeftering, Heliodor und seine Bedeutung 
für die Literatur, Berlin, 1901; Dunlop, Uist. of Fiction. Underdowne's Translation 
appeared in the *Tudor Translations', vol. 5, 1895. 

» Shakespeare Jahrbuch XIII, 158—162. 

' In Part IL of^his paper (see ante, p. 11 note), Mr. CoUins will endeavour to 
show that Shakespeare was acquainted with the Greek classics through Latin 
translations, which certainly did exist. He has already pointed out a noteworthy 
parallelism between ^Troilua and Cresaida^ III, in, and Plato's Älcibiades L I hope 
I shall be able to touch upon some of the more important points suggested by 
Mr. Collins in a later chapter H)n borrowed thoughts in Shakespeare\ Mr. Collins 
will, I am conüdent, also discover coincidences between Shakespeare and Greek 
classics of which Latin translations did not exist. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 1. 

I — A Reprint of Pages 1. and 2. and part of p. 3. of 

Ljly's Grammar, ed. 1577. 

AN INTRODUCTION OF THE EYGHT PARTES OF LATINE SPEACHE. 

In Sprach be thesb byqht partes folowing. 



Nonne, 
Prononne, 
Verbe, 
Partidple, 



declined. 



Adverbe, 
Coninnction, 
Preposition, 
Interiection, 



undeclined. 



OF THE NOÜNE. 

A Nonne is the name of a thing, tbat may be söene feit, hearde, or 
nnderstande: As the name of my bände in Latine is Manus: the name of 
an house is Domus: the name of goodnesse is Boniias, 

Of Nounes, some be Substantives, and some be Adiectives. 

A Nonne Substantive is that standeth by himselfe, and requireth not 
an other woorde to be ioyned with him: as Homo, a man. And it is 
declined with one Article: as Ilic magister, a mayster. Or eise with twoo 
at the most: as Hie j* hcec parens, a father or mother. 

A Noune Adiective is that can not stände by himselfe, but reqoireth 
to be ioyned with an other woorde: as Bonus, Good. Pulcher, Fayre. 
And it IS declined eyther with three Terminations: as Bonus, bona, bonum: 
or eise with three Articles: as Hi^, hcec, ^ hoc FgeUx^ Happy. Hie i* 
h<ßc levis, j- hoc leve, Light. 

A Noune Substantive eyther is proper to the thing that it betokeneth: 
as Edtutrdus, is my proper name, or eise is common to mo: as Homo, 
is a common name to all men. 

NUMBERS OF NOUNES. 

In Nounes be twoo Numbers, the Singular, and the Plurall. The 
Singular Number speaketh of one: as Lapis, a stone. The plurall number 
speaketh of mo than one: as Lapides, Stones. 



46 



Chapter 1, ShaktBpcare and the Ciaitic*. 



CASES OF NOÜNES. 

Noanes be declined with sixe cases, Singalarly, and Plurally, the 
Nominative, the Genitive, the Dative, the Accusative, the Vocative, and 
the Ablative. 

The Nominative case commeth before the Verbe, and aunswetreh (sie) 
to this question, Who or what: as Magister docet, The mayster teacheth. 

The Genitive case is knowne by this token Of, and annswereth to 
this question, Whose, or where of: as Doctrina magistri, The learning of 
the mayster. 

The Dative case is knowne by this token To, and aunswereth to this 
qnestion, to whome, or to what: as Do librwn magistro, I give a booke 
to the mayster. 

The Accusative case followeth the Verbe, and aunswereth to this 
question, whome or what: as Arno niagistrü, I love the mayster. 

The Vocative case is knowne by calling or speaking to: as O magister, 
mayster. 

The Ablative case is commonly ioyned with Prepositions serving to 
the Ablative case: as De magistro, Of the mayster. Coram magiMrOy 
Before the mayster. 

Also In, with, through, for, from, by, or then, after the Comparative 
degree, be signes of the Ablative case. 



ARTIGLES. 
Articles are borowed of the Pronoune, and be thus declined. 



•'S 

I 



Nominativo hie, haee, hoc, 
Genitivo huius, 
Dativo huic. 

Accusativo hunc, hanc, hoc. 
Vocaiivo careU 
Ahlativo hoc, hac, hoc. 



i\r. 



2 



Nominativo hi, ha:, hcec, 

Genitivo horwn, harum, horü. 

Dativo his. 

Accusativo hos, has, hcec, 

Vocativo caret, 

Ahlativo his. 



GENDERS OF NOUNES. 

Genders of Nounes be seven: the Masculine, the Feminine, the Nenter, 
the Commune of twoo, the Commune of three, the Doubtfuü, and the 
Epicene. 

The Masculine Gender is declined with this Articie Ilic: 2iS Hie vir, 
ä man. 

The Feminine Gender is declined with this Articie Ucee: as Hcec mulier, 
a woman. 

The Neuter gender is declined with this Articie Hoc: as Hoc Sa.vum, 
a stone. 



Appendix (Lily*» Qrammar; Senienttas Pueriles), 47 

The Commune of twoo is declined with ä'c, and Ucee: vls Hie fy 
h(Kc Parens, a father or mother. 

The Commune of three is declined with Hie, hcee, and Hoc: as HiCy 
hege 4" hoc FobliXy Happy. 

The DouhtfuU Gender is declined with Hie or Hase: as Hie ml hasc 
DieSy a Day. 

The Epicene Gender is declined with one Article, and under that one 
articie both kindes be signified; as Hie passer, a Sparrow. Hcee aquila^ an 
Äegle, both h^e and sh^e. 

THE DECLENSONS (sie) OF NOUNES. 
There be five Declensons of Nounes. etc. etcJ 

II — A Note on thk SENTBNTiiE Pueriles. 

The Sententiae Pueriles^ mentioued so frequently as a Shakespearean 
school-book ever since Malone wrote bis observations on the point (Var. 
Ed. II, 1Q4), deserves a passing notice. It is a little manual consisting of 
brief Latin sentences coUected from divers authors by Leoohard Calmann 
of Krailsheim and completed probably not long before 1544. The '•sententia[e] 
^pueriles in laten' was entered on the Stationers' Registers in 1569-70 
and is referred to in a document of 1584 (Arber I, 418; II, 789). In 1612 
the book was translated into English by John Brinsley. Halliweli-Phillipps, 
in bis 'Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare', p. 53, writes: 'The Sententiae 
'Pueriles was, in all probability, the little manual by the aid of which he 
'first leamed to construe Latin, for in one place, at least, he all bat literally 
'translates a brief passage, and there are in his plays several adaptations 
'of its sentiments.' I cannot say exactly what the 'brief passage' is, which 
Halliwell-Phillipps refers to. The followiog are some sentences which have 
a resemblance to passages in Shakespeare. But tbey are so general in 
character, tliat we can scarcely infer anything definite from them. 
Belli exitus incertus, Compare Coriol., V, iii, 140: 

"Thou know'st, great son, 
"The end of war's unceitain." 
Doloris medicus tempus. Comp. Gent, of Ver., III, n, 15: "A little time, 
"my lord. will kill that grief." Comp, too, Act III, i, 243; and 
Cymbeline III, v, 37: "The eure whereof, my lord, 'Tis time 
**must do." 



* 1 have compared a copy of Lily's Grammar published in 1566—7, in the 
Bodleian Library; but I can find no difference, apart from variations in spelling, 
between this and the copy of the edition of 1577 in the British Museum. 
The Latin part is, however, bound before the English portion, which is exceptional. 
A copy of 1572, of the Bodleian, is also identical with the copy I am quotiug from. 



48 Chapier i, Shakesptar^ and the Ciassiet, 

Varia et mutabilis semper Jcemina. Gompare 1. Henry IV., Aet IT, in, 111: 

"constaot you are, But yet a woman." 
Sammis mortis inmgo, Compare Cymb., II, ii, 31: "0 sleep, thoa ape of 

"death;" or Macbeth, II, in, 81: ^'sleep, death's counterfeit." 
A carious dlMculty in connexion with the Sententiae Pueriles is 
presented by the foliowing passage in George Peele's 'Edward V: "Tis an 
'old Said saying, I remember I read it in Gato's Pueriles, that CarUabit 
^vacuus cor am lairone viator; a man^s purse-penniless may sing before a 
'thief.' Now, this quotation occurs neither in Cato's Disticha de Morihus 
nor in the Sententiae Pueriles. But it occurs in Lily's Grammar (Part IL, 
Syntax of Adverbs), where Juvenal is mentioned as the author of the 
plirase. Peele, therefore, scems to have snffered a lapsus calaviu 

III — A Note on thb ABC with the Catechism. 

No Elizabethan ABC Book with the Catecliism seems to be extant, 
though thousands, if not millions, were produced. The Bodleian Library 
possesses a fragment of four leaves printed in 1549. In the library of 
Saint Cuthbert'ß College, Ushaw, is an ABC of the year 1553 (?). The next 
extant copy of an ABC with the Anglican Catechism is, so far as I am 
aware, of the year 1680, in the Bodleian. The catechism in both copies of the 
Bodleian Library is the short church catechism, as contained in the Common 
Prayer Book. ^ Now, Mr. W. H. AUnutt, in his Introduction to an old ABC 
in Latin (see post\ makes the foliowing Observation: 'c. 1585^ The ABC 
'with the Catechisme, printed by the assigns of John Day. A fragment 
'of four leaves in the Library of Worcester College, Oxford.' This entry 
seemed to me so important that I made personal enquiries at Worcester 
College. Mr. Daniel, however, as well as the Librarian, Mr. Pottinger, 
informed me, that Mr. Allnutt's statement was, so far as they either o 
them knew, erroneous. Mr. Allnutt could no longer give information on 
the point. lle had joined the majority just a fortnight before I came to 
Oxford, and his mouth was closed for ever. Mr. Daniel has been so 
obliging as to make diligent search, but without success yet. 

Meanwhile we must rest satisfied with what information we can 
derive from those glorious records of the Stationers' Company and other 
documents, which have escaped the tooth of time: — 

Under the date 1561-2 we find the foliowing entry: 'Recevyd of 
'Thomas purfoote for his lycense for pryntinge of an A,bc for chyldren, 
'iiij d.' (Arber, Transcr. I, 182). In 1577 John Day and his son Richard 

^ NowelPs 'Small Catechism' in English is nearly the same as the small 
Church Catechism, but has some additional matter. However, no copy is known 
of it earlier than 1574 (?), see Dict. of Nat. Biogr.— Traces of the catechism in 
Shakespeare's works will be poiuted out in a later chapter on the Bible and the 
Prayer Book. 



» 



Appendix (The ABC Book). 49 

Day obtained Letters Patent for the sole privilege to print "the ABC with 
^*ihe Utile Catachüme seit forth hy her Maiesties Iniunctiom for the Imiruccon 
^^of ChildrevL\ And in 1582 one Roger "Warde is proceeded against in the 
Star Chamber for an infringement of this Patent, when he confesses to 
printiag *Twentie Reames of paper' = 10,000 copies. In 1585 another 
case is broaght into the Star Chamber against Thomas Dünne and Robarte 
Robeason for printing '^Tenn Thoasand of the bookes cauled the Ä.B.C. 
''with the lyttdl Caihechime in Englishe". In 1620 the "A.B.C with the 
"Cathechism'* was entered in the Stat. Reg. along with many other school- 
books. (See Allnutt, ut in/ra, P- 12; Arber, Stat. Reg. I, 111; II, 753, 
790; and III, 670.) 

For more Information, see Mr. H. Bradshaw's paper on Hhe ABC as an 
^Antborised School-book in the Sixteenth Century^ in the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Communications, vol. III., 1875, pp. 363 — 373; — E. S. Shuck- 
bnrgh's Preface to his facsimile reprint of an ABC of c. 1538 (London, 
1889); — and W. H. A[llnutt], 'An Early Sixteenth-Century ABC in Latin', 
1891.» 

The ''ABC with the sroalier Catechism", I ought to add, was printed 
until very recently in Scotland (cf. Tuer, lU sup,, p. 373), where the 
catechism is, of course, that of the Presbyterian Church, beginning with 
the famous question: '^What is the chief end of mau?'\ On this point see 
A. F. Mitchell, 'Catechisms of the Second Reformation', 1886. 



> Privately printed, alasl Kot even the British Museum has a copy. The 
Bodleian Library, of which Mr. Allnutt was a member, possesses only the 
Introduction to the reprint 



Anders, Shakespeare 's books. 



CHAPTER 2. 

MODERN CONTINENTAL LTTERATÜRE. 

FRENCII AUTHORS. 

Whether Shakespeare knew French, is tlie first question we mast 
try to answer. 'King Henry V.', as is well-known, contaius numerous 
PVench words and phrases and one enlire scene in that language. 
Over and above this, we find a considerable number of French frag- 
ments in other plays, which Schmidt lias coUected in his Shakespeare- 
Lexicon. His list goes to show that of the modern Continental 
langaages French must have been the most familiär to the great 
dramatist. It is, of course, possible that he received assistance from 
some one conversant with French, when penning Henry V.; bat there 
is no ground for doubting his acquaintance with the language. It is 
curious to note, that, while Farmer attributed the French dialogue of 
the play to another band, other critics made Shakespeare a bad pro- 
uouncer of the language' on the score of the foUowing passage, 
Act IV., IV, 17-21: 

French Soldier: Est-il impossible d'echapper la force de ton brasf 
FHstol: Brass, cur! 

Thou damned and luxurious mouutain goat, 

Offer'st me brassl 

Impossible though this pun may be with our modern pronunciation, 
in Shakespeare's days there could be no objection to it, as the final 
s was still audible in words before a pause, though gradually dropping 
out of use. See Thurot, 'De la Prononciation Fran^aise depuis le 
Commencement du XVP siecle' (1881—3, II, 35—36), a work to 
which I was referred by Professor Dr. Tobler, of the University of Berlin, 

^ Evea Farmer is so inconsistent as to support this view. 



French Äutkora: Montaigne. 51 

one of the first anthorities, if not the first, on Romance Philology. 
This learned professor, having, very obligingly, also examined Act lU, 
sc. IV, and Act V, ii, of Henry V. for me, with regard to their correct- 
ness, observes: 'If in Act III, iv, fooi and gonrn sound nearly like 
^fotUe and co», we ought to bear in mind that the lady-in-waiting 
'is a French woman, who may pronounce the English in a ludicrous 
'manner. In Act V, ii, the French of the king is clamsy, but this is 
'evidently the poet's intention'. * 

Knowing, therefore, that Shakespeare's text contains no blunders, 
we may rest in measnreless content. That the great poet, who com- 
manded his own language, as no one before or after him, could have 
fonnd no difiicalty in acquiring a foreign language like the French, 
cannot be doubted. But whether he devoted much time and energy 
to a deeper study of it, is another question, which I am inclined to 
answer in the negative, seeing that no markedly great influence of 
French literature is discernible in his writings. 

MONTAIGNE. 

Michel de Montaigne's Essays Shakespeare must have had lying 
before him on his table, when he penned *Tempest', Act II, i, 143 flF., 
where Gonzalo repeats, with a fine touch of humour, the ideas of the 
French author on a natural commonwealth. In the 'Archiv für das 
Studium der neueren Sprachen', vol. CVII., p. 181, I have endea- 
voured to make good the belief (held and expressed long before) that 
Shakespeare used Florio's translation of the Essais^ in the thirtieth 
chapter of which, entitled 'Of the Caniballes', we find the foUowing 
passage, paraphrased by the poet: — 

All things (saith Piaio) are produced eiiher by nature, hy for- 
tufie, or by arte. The greatesi and fairest by one or other of the two 
first, the hast and imperfect by the last. These nations seeme therefore so 
barbarons UDto mee, because they have reeeived very-little fashion from 
bamane wit, and are yet neere their originall naturalitie. The lawes of 
natare do yet commaand them, which are but little bastardized by ours. 
And that with such puritie, as I am sometimes grieved the knowledge of 

' The rhyme *pardonne moi': 'destroy' (Richard IL, Act V, in, 119—120) and 
the quibble with *no point' in Love's Labour's Lost, II, 190 and Act V, ii, 277, 
may be defended on the ground, that phrases and words like these in question 
had become fashionable and lost their native sound. Compare Romeo, II, iv, 35: 
•these fashion-mongers, these perdona-mi's" (Folio: 'pardon-mee's'). Cf. Hunter, 
New lllastrations, II, 321 seq. 

4* 



52 Chapler 2. Modern Continental Literature, 

it came no sooner lo light, at what time ther were men, tbat better thao 
we coald have judged of-it. I am sorie, Licurgus and Plaio had it not: 
for me seemeth tbat what in tbose nations wee see by experience, doth 
not onelie exceede all tbe pictures wberewitb licentious Poesie baib 
prowdly imbellished tbe golden age, <&al bir quaint inventions to faine 
a bappy condition of man, but also tbe conception & desire of Pbilosopbie. 
Tbey coald not imagine a genaitie so pure and simple, as we see it by 
experience; nor ever beleeve our societie migbt be maintained with so 
little arte and bumane combination. It is a nation, would I answerc 
Plato^ tbat batb no kinde of traffike, no knowledge of Letters, 
no intelligence of numbers, no name of magis träte, nor of p'olitiko 
superioritie; no use of service, of riches, or of poverty; no con- 
tracts, no saccessions, no dividences, no occopation but 
idle'; no respect of kinred, but common, no apparrell but naturall, no 
manuring^ of lands, no use of wine, corne, or mettle. The very 
words tbat Import lying, falshood, treason, dissimulation, covetousnes, 
envie, detraction, and pardon, were never beard of amongst-them. How 
dissonant would hee finde bis imaginary common-wealth from tbis per- 
fection? (Florio, p. 102.)' 

For convenience' sake I place here tbe whole passage from The 
Tempest, II, i, 143 seq, — 

Gorizalo, Had I plantation of tbis isle, my lord, — 
Antonio. He'ld sow't with nettle-seed. 
Sebastian. Or docks, or mallows. 

Gon. And were tbe king on't, what would I do? 
Seb. 'Scape being drunk for want of wine. 
Gon. V tbe Commonwealth I would by contraries 
Execute all tbings; for no kind of traffic 
Would I ad mit; no name of magistrate; 
Letters should not be known; riches, poverty, 
And use of service, none; contractu succession, 
Bourn^ bound of land, tilih, vineyard, none; 



^ Shakespeares Mine, *'No occupation: all men idle, all", is unquestionably 
'a Version of Florio, whose "no occupation but idle" did not seem to mean what 
*it stood for—"nulles occupations qu'oisifves", no occupations but idle ones\ The 
Tempest, edited by H. Morley in GassePs National Library, p. 164. 

' manure = tili. 

' I am quoting from Florio^s first edition, 1603. The italics have bcen re- 
tained, and more important words and phrases made prominent by mcans of 
spacing out of the letters. The edition of 1632 (reprintcd in the Tudor Trans- 
lations, 1892-3) differs slightly from that of 1 603— Mividences' is changed to 
'partitions\ instead of Dissimulation^ we have Dissimulations\ 



I 



French Authon: Montaigne, 53 

No use qf metoU^ com^ or wine, or oil; 

No occupation; all men idle^ all; 

And women too, bat innocent and pure; 

No sovereignty; — 

Seb. Yet he woold be king on't. 

Ant Tbe latter eud of bis Commonwealth forgets the beginning. 

Gon. All things in common nature shoold produce 

Withoat sweat or endeavonr: treason^ felony, 

Sword, pike, knife, gan, or need of any engine, 

Woold I not bave; but nature should bring forth, 

Of its own kind, all foison, all abnndance, 

To feed my innocent people. 

Seb. No marrying 'mong bis subjects? 

Ant, Nene, man; all idle; whores and knaves. 

Gon. I would with such perfection govem, sir, 

To excel the golden age. 

Seb. God save bis majesty! 

Ant. Long live Gonzalo! 

Gon. And, — do you mark me, sir? 

Alon. Pritbee, no more: tbou dost talk nothing to me. 

Gon. I do well believe your highness; and did it to minister oc- 

casion to these gentlemen, etc. 

In Illustration of vv. 159 — 164, 'AU things . . . natura should 
produce, etc.', I ought to quote the foUowing passages from Mon* 
taigne's chapter, the whole of which Shakespeare must have read: — 

They yet enjoy that naturall ubertie and fruitfulnesse, which without 
labouring-toyle, dotb in such plenteons aboundance furnish them with all 
necessary things^ that they neede not enlarge tbeir limites. (Fiorio, p. 104.) 

Again (p. 104.): — 
They are even savage, as we call those fruites wilde, which nature 
of hir seife, and of hir ordinarie progresse hath produced. 

Once we know with certainty that Shakespeare read Montaigne, 
we may readily infer that this original and stimulating author, one 
of the most advanced of Renaissance thinkers, could not but have 
exercised further influence on the great dramatist. We possess several 
books and articies dealing with this problem. Jacob Feis is the 
author of Shakespeare and Montaigne', 1884, — an extravagant book — , 
and John Mackinnon Robertson^ wrote a verbose work with nearly the 
same title, London, 1897. 

* A writer perhaps better known now as the author of 'Wrecking the Em- 
pire', 1901.— Robertaon's ^Montaigne and Shakspere' was rcYiewed by Prof. Brandl 



54 Chapter 2, Modern Continental Ltterature. 

Both Feis and Robertson agree in attributing to Montaigne a 
considerable amount of influence on the English poet, and, especially, 
in finding many suggestions for the character and play of Hamlet in 
the Essais. Though their position appears exaggerated sometimes, 
we find po difficulty in conceding a general and broad resemblance 
between the play just referred to and Montaigne's work, both of 
which are characterized by a rellective, introspective, and occasionally 
pessimistic tone, or (to use Shakespeare's langnage) by a pale cast of 
thought. * 

The following are some parallelisms, which have been pointed 
out. But they are hardly conclusive. 

If It [death] be a consummation [=aaeantissement] of ones being, it 
is also an amendement and entrance into a long and qniet night. Wee 
finde notbing so sweete in life, as a quiet rest and gentle sleepe, and 
witbont dreames. (Florio, Bk. 111, eh. 12, p. 627.) 

Here we have the same idea which we find in Hamlet's famous 
monologue, 'To be or not to be'. But Montaigne is confessedly re- 
peating Socrates's thoughts on Death, which may have reached 
Shakespeare by another Channel. (Cf. a later chapter on Borrowed 
Ideas.) 

The following passage, too, is illustrative ofHamlet's soliloquy: — 

My consultation doth somewhat roughlie hew the matter, and by it's 
first show, lightly consider the same: the maine and chiefe point of the 
worke, I am wonte to resigne to heaven. (Florio, Bk, III, eh. 8, p. 559.) 

For further parallelisms, compare Robertson's 'Montaigne and 
Shakspere'. 

Regarding Montaigne's influence on Hamlet, we have to face 
another problem. In what version would Shakespeare have read the 
Essais f Florio's translation appeared in 1603; while Hamlet was 
written sometime before, probably in 1600 — 1. Of course, Shakespeare 

in Shakespeare Jahrbuch, 1899.--Feis's work was discussed, rather uncritieally, by 
Karl Blind, in Das Magazin für die Litleratur des In- und Auslandes, Nov., 
1884 (also in *Shakesperiana', Philadelphia, vol. IL, p. 469). Sir William Bailey is 
the author of an unimportant paraphlet on Shakespeare and Montaigne, published 
for private circulation in 1895, now out of print. Stedefeld's *llamlet, ein 
Tendenzdrama Sheakspeares (sie) gegen die skeptische und kosmopolitische Welt- 
anschauung des M. de Montaigne', 1871, is scarcely deserving of raention. 
What can you expect of a man, though a Kreisgerichtsrat (as Stedefeld was), who 
cannot spell the poet's name? 

* This would also apply in some measure to Lyly's Euphues. 



French Äuihor»; Montaigne» Rabelais, 55 

may have used the original French text. Or are we to suppose that 
Florio's translation was accessiblc to him in manuscript, before it was 
printed? We know, for example, that Sir William Cornwallis, an 
imitator of the French Essayist, saw Florio's MSS., for in his Essays 
published in 1600—1, Cornwallis writes: 

For profitable Recreation, that Noble French Knight, the Lord 
de Montaigne is most excellent, wbom though I have not bene so much 
beholding to the French as to see in his Originall, yet divers of his peeces 
I have seene translated: they that understand both languages say very 
well done, and I am able to say (if you will take the word of Ignorance) 
translated into a stile, admitting as fewe Idle words as our language wil 
endore: It is well fitted in this newe garment, and Montaigne speaks now 
good Englisb: It is done by a fellowe lesse beholding to nature for his 
fortune then witte, yet lesser for his face then fortune; the truth is, hce 
lookes more like a good-fellowe, then a wise-man, and yet heo is wise, 
beyond either his fortune, or edacation : but bis Authour speakes nobly, ho< 
nestly, and wisely, withlittle method, but with much iudgement, etc. (Essay 1 2.) 

This is unquestionably a reference to Florio's version. As Florio 
stood in good connexions with some of the leading literati of his 
time\ and was a protege of the Earl of Southampton, we might 
suppose that Shakespeare, too, would have enjoyed Florio's personal 
acquaintanceship and thas perhaps had access to his MSS. 

In the Stationers' Registers we find the foUowing entry under 
the date 20. October, 1595: 

Edward Aggas. Entred for his Copie under his handes pf the War- 
d[e]nes ^The Essais' of Michaeli Lord of Mountene. 

This no doubt refers to Florio's translation, first printed in 1603, 
having been previously licensed, for a second time, in 1600. Florio 
thos seems to have been busy at his work for a period of eight years. 

RABELAIS. 

Of the remaining French writers of the sixteenth Century the 
greatest is Fran^ois Rabelais (d. 1553), the author of the famous and 
immensely populär romance of Gargantua and Pantagruel, between 

J Daniel, wrote "Prefatory Verses to my deere friend M. John Florio", 
printed before the Translation of 1603. In the edition of 1611 Daniel addrcsses 
him as "my deare brother and friend". Ben Jonson presented Florio with a copy 
of his 'Volpone' with his own signature. This book is now in the British Museum. 
Bat Shakespeare's 'autograph^ in a copy of Florio^s translation of 1603 (which I 
saw myself) i3 a forgery. 



56 Chapter 2, Modem CantinsntcU Literature. 

which and Shakespeare's dramas it is pleasant to find a link of con- 
nexion. Of this work an English translation or adaptation must have 
existed in tfae days of Queen Elizabeth, for Joseph Hall, in his 
'Virgidemiarum, Sixe Bookes', 1597, Bk. II, Sat. 1, says: — 

But who coniurM this bawdie Poggies^ ghost, 
From out tbe stewes of his lewde home-bred coast: 
Or wicked Bahlaia dronken revellings, 
To grace the mis-rule of our Tavernings? 

'The historie of Gargantua' was licenced by the Stationers' 
Company on the 4*^ of December 1594, Trovided that if this Copie 
'doo belonge to anie other, Then this Entrance to be voide". But 
an English book on Gargantua must have been current long before 
this. "E. D.", in his 'Brief and Necessary Instruction', 1572, decries 
'the witles devices of Gargantua' with other books of his time. 
'Gargantua' is mentioned by Robert Laneham in 1575 as belonging 
to Captain Cox's library. As all the rest of his books are English, 
we should expect this one to be so too. In 1577 Hanmer enumerates 
'the monstrous fahles of Garagantua' in a list of populär English books. 
However, no shred of an Elizabethan English work on Gargantua has 
been preserved to us. 

The following are traces, or supposed traces, of Rabelais in 
Shakespeare's works: — 

1) The plainest and most direct allusion to the giant hero of the 
humorous romance is to be found in As You Like It, III, ii, 238. 
Rosalind putting a long list of questions, urges Celia to answer her 
all these in bne word; to which Celia: 

You must borrow me Gargantua' s mouth first: 'tis a word too great for 
any mouth of this age's size. 

2) It can scarcely be looked upon as accidental that the pedant 
of Love's Labour's Lost bears the same name as his intellectual 

^ Alluding to a translation of the indecent Faceüa written by Poggio 
(d. 1459). 

*) Gargantua his prophesie (=RabeIais's Tantagrueline Prognostication'?) 
was entered on the Stationers' Registers in 1592, on the Q^ of April. Another 
entry (afterwards cancelied), dated W^ of June, no doubt refers to the same 
work. For Elizabethan allusions to Rabelais's romance, see Smith^s translation of 
Rabelais, 1893, p. xiii; and Rabelais in the 'Tudor Translations', 1900, p. lxxvii. 
See also Halliwell's folio edition of Shakespeare, vol. VI, p. 191. — I would scarcely 
recommend a perusal of an article in Shakespeare Jahrbuch, IX, 195 ff. 



Freneh Authors: RahelaU, 57 

cousin-german, Thubal Holofernes, the iostructor of Gargantna. (See 
Bk. I, eh. 14.) ' 

3) Edgar, in King Lear, III, vi, 7, says:— 

Frateretto calls me; and teils me Nero %$ an angler in the lake of 
darkness, 

Though neither Rabelais, nor any other author, so far as we 
know, ever represented Nero as an angler in hell, Trajan is introduced 
as a fisher of frogs in Hades by the Freneh hnmourist, while Nero is 
made a fiddler, Aeneas, e. ^., a milier, Cleopatra a hawker of onions, 
and so forth (Bk. II, eh. 30.). 

4) An expression in Othello, I, i, 116 — 7, 

your daoghter and the Moor are dow making the beast with two backs — 

has been traced to Rabelais, Bk. 1, eh. 3, where we read of Gar- 
gantaa's father: — 

En son aage virile espousa Gargamelle fille da Roy des Parpaillons, belle 
goage, <& de bonne trongne. Et faisoient eux deux souvent ensemble la 
beste ä deux dos.* 

Possibly the phrase was more or less proverbial. 

5) Mr. W. F. Smith, the translator of Rabelais, 1893 (p. xui), 
connects the following gibberish of Sir Andrew, in Twelfth Night, 
II, m, 23-25: 

when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the Vapians passing the equinoctial 
of Queubns — 

with the nnintelligible speech of Kissbreech before Pantagrnel, Bk. II, 
eh. 11, ad init: — 

But to the porpose, tbere passed between the two Tropics six white 
Pieces tow^ards the Zenith and a Halfpenny, forasmach as the Rhiphaean 
Moantains had tbis year had a great Sterility of Happeloardes, etc., etc. ' 

HaviDg thus found traces of the greatest of Freneh humonrists 
in our poet's works, we are tempted to believe that a grain of the 
Rabelaisian Pantagruelism went to the making of some of Shakespeare's 
comical characters. 

^ B. E. Smith, in his Dictionary of Names, asserts that Holofernes is the name 
of a conventional cbaracter in the Italian comedy, a Statement for Trhijch I can 
find no foundation. 

' Quoted frora Les Oeuvres de Rabelais, Lyon, 1584.— Compare also Bk. V, 
eh. 30: "I saw some Beasts with two Backs". Smith's Transl., vol. II, p. 391. 

» ibid., I., p. 262. 



58 Chapter 2. Modern Continental Liter ature. 



RONSARD. 

Pierre de Ronsard (1524—1585), Trince of Poets', as his own 
generation in France called him, the founder of the classicistic school 
of French poets, enjoyed considerable estimation among English poets 
and sonnetists. Queen Elizabeth, evidently charmed with his poetry, 
*gave him a diamond, comparing its water to the purity of his verse'. 
Sidney, Daniel, Drayton, Watson, Lodge, Shakespeare, and others dis- 
cover traces of Ronsard's inflaence. * 'Most of Ronsard's nine hundred 
'sonnets and many of his numerous ödes were accessible to Shakespeare 
'in English adaptations, but there are a few signs that Shakespeare 
'had recourse to Ronsard direct'." 

Apart from Shakespeare's Sonnet«, the following passages seem 
to contain echoes of Ronsard: 

1) Timon, Act IV, iii, 438-445: 

ril example you with thievery: 
The sun's a thief, and with his great attraction 
Kobs the vast sea: the moon^s an arrant thief, 
And her pale fire she snatches from the sun: 
The sea's a thief, whose liquid surge resolves 
The moon into sali tears: the earth's a thief, 
That feeds aud breeds by a composture stolen 
From general excrement: each thlng's a thief. 

Compare Ronsard, Ödes, Livre IV, 31:' 

La terre les eaux va boivant, 
L^arbre la boit par sa racine, 
La mer salee boit le vent, 
Et le Soleil boit la marine, 

Le Soleil est beu de la Lune: 
Tout boit, seit en haut ou en bas: 
Suivant ceste reigle commune 
Pourquoy donc ne boirons-nous pas? 



* See G. Wyndham, the Poems of Shakespeare, p. 211; Sidney Lee, Life of 
Shakespeare, index. 

2 S. Lee, ut sup,^ p. 111.— John Southern was noted for his unblushing 
plagiarisms from Ronsard. (See Dict. of Nat. Biogr., s. v. Southern, and Putten- 
hara's Art of English Poesie, Arber's Reprint, pp. 259—260.) But Shakespeare 
does not seem to be indebted to Southern. 

* I quote from Ronsard, (Euvres, 1584. 



French Authors: Ronaard. — Italian Ltterature, 59 

This is a free rendering of Ode 18 (or 19) of Anacreon. 
2) This Ode is immediately preceded by another one (ode XXIX.) ', 
which begins thus: 

Les Muses lierent un iour 
De chaisnes de roseSy Amour, 
Et ponr le garder le donnerent 
Aux Graces & ä la Beaute, 
Qui Yoyans sa desloyaute 
Sus Parnasse Vemprisonnerent, 

Compare 'Venus and Adonis', 1. 110, where Venus boasts of 
having overswayed Mars, 

Leading him prisoner in a red-rose chain. 



ITALIAN LITERATURE. 

We are neitber in position to assert positively, nor able to deny 
with certainty, that Shakespeare was masier of the Italian language, 
thongb, to judge from Schmidt's list in the Appendix to his Shake- 
speare Lexicon, he cannot have been altogether Ignorant of it. But 
whatever belief we may hold on this point, it is in the Italian 
literatnre that we discover, what must be the original, if they are 
not the immediate, sources of some Shakespearean plots and motives. ^ 
I do not desire to bind the reader to either view. For my part, I 
am much inclined to believe that the poet's indebtedness to the 
Italian authors is of an indirect kind. The plays founded on Italian 
tales show a more marked divergence from their Originals than most 
of the plays based on known English sources, whether prose or verse; 
the reason being, I think, that Shakespeare let others do the quarrying 
and even the rough-hewing of the blocks of Italian marble, to which 
he gave their final perfect shape. In dealing with his relation to 
Italian literature, we should keep in mind what Stephen Gössen says 
(though he may be exaggerating somewhat) in his 'Playes Confuted', 
1582:— 

I may boldely say it because I have seene it, that the Palace of pleasure, 
the Golden Asse, the uEtbiopian historie, Amadis of Frauuce, the Rounde 



* This too is a paraphrase of an Anacreontic ode (no. 30 in some editions). 
' In The Gentleman's Magazine, Dec. 1895, there is a paper by Mr. C. F. Walters 
on 'Italian Influence on Shakespeare'. 



30 Chapter 2. Modern Continental Literature, 

table, baudie Comedies in Latine, Frencb, Italian, and Spanisb, have beene 
throughly ransackt to furnish the Flaye houses in London.^ 

BOCCACCIO. 

1. The love-story (Posthumus-Imogen) of 'Cymbeline' is founded 
on Boccaccio, Decameron^ IL, 9. ' Ohle, in bis elaborate treatise 'Shake- 
speare's Cymbeline', gives reasons for supposing that yet another Version 
of the Story was known to the author of the play*. 

Another Source of Cymbeline?* 

Ohle does not pretend to have discovered this other source; but, 
he says, it must have been a Version, probably English, running 
nearly parallel with the dramatic treatment of the story in the French 
Miracle de Oton^ Roy d^Espagne (circa 1380). The chief coincidences, 
pointed out by Ohle between the two plays, and not occurring in other 
versions, are tbese. 

Fii'st, the deua ex machina scene in Cymbeline (V, iv) reminds 
one of the following scene in the Miimcle^ where God appears to Ostes 
(Otto), the hero of the play, and reveals to him the innocence of 
bis wife: 

Ostes prays and repents baving turned an infidel (v. 150Iff.). 

Dieu, Mere, et vous, Jehan, alons God. Mother, and tbou, John, go we 

ment down there to this sinner, Ostes 

La jus a ce pecheur Oston His devout contrition, which bathes 

Sa devote contriccion, his face with tears, constrains me to 

Qui de lermes moulle sa face, grant him pardon. Come, now, all 

Me contraint qae grace li face. of you! 
Or sus, trestonz! 

Nostre Dame, Mon Dieu, mon pere Ottr Lady. My God, my father and 

et mon filz doulz, my sweet son, we sball do tby will. — 

Nous ferons vostre voulente. Come, angels, be prepared to descend 

Sus, angcs! soiez apreste anon. 
De tost descendre 

^ Copied from Hazlitt, the Roxburghe Library, English Drama and Stage, 
1869, p 188-9. 

' Boccaccio's Decameron was translated iuto French by Laurens du Premier- 
fait 1485, etc., and by Ant le Ma^on, 1545, etc. The iirst English translation 
appeared in 1620. 

* Comp, also Brandl, Schlegel-Tieck Translation, v. X., pp. 4 — 5. 

* Comp, wat I have said above in the Preface. 



Italian Liter aiurt: Boceaceio (Cymbeline). 



61 



Gäbrid. Dame,qai peastes comprendre 
Ce qae ne peuent pas les cieolx, 
Ghascnn de noas est ententiex 
De voz grez faire. 

Dieu. Ostes, pour la coutricciou 
Vraie que je voy estre en toy 
As recoavre grace. Taiz toy. 
A Romme toat droit t'en iras; 
La ton pechie confesseras: 
Pais qu^a repentence es venuz, 
II le fault, tu y es tenuz, 
Ca ce qae tu fais rien ne vault. 
Oultre, tu as un grant deffault, 
Qu'a tort as ta femme hay 
£t jusques a mort envay: 
£t pour 9'aussi tu la querras, 
Et pardon li en requerras. 
Plus ne demeure en ceste terre, 
Mais a Romme f en vas bonne erre, 
Et fay ce que t'ay divise. 
Je Tay assez bien avise. 

Sus! alons ment. 



Gabriel. Lady, who couldst com- 
preheDd,that which theheavenscannpt, 
eaeh one of ns is intent on doing 
thy will. 

[They descend.] 

God. Ostes, owiog to thy true con- 
trition, which I see in thee, thou hast 
recovered grace. HushI Thou shalt go 
hence straight to Rome; there thou 
shalt confess thy sin : seeing that thou 
hast come to repentance, it is necessary 
that thou shouldst be ruled by it, 
otherwise thy doings are worthless. 
Besides, thou art guilty of a great 
misdeed in wrongly hatiog thy wife 
and persecutiug her to death: where- 
fore thou shalt seek her out, and ask 
her pardon. Stay no longer in this 
country, but go with all speed to 
Rome, and do what I have indicated 
to thee. — I have advised him suffi- 
ciently well. Come, go wo hence. 



Nostre Dame. Avant, anges, etc. Qu^ Lady. On, you angels, etc. 



Ostes. Pere de consolacion, 
Piteax, doalx et misericors, 
Ha! sire, qnant je me recors 
Que des cienlx voas estes oultre 
Et a moy vous estes monstre, 
Et vostre doulce mere aussi, 
Et que je vous ay veu cy, 
Bien doy bouche, mains et euer tendre 
A vous loer et graces rendre. 
Cy endroit plus ne demourray; 
Mais a Romme seul m'en iray 
Tout maintenant. 



Ostes. Father of consolation, piteous, 
benign, and merciful. Oh, Lord, when 
I recall to mind that thou hast descended 
from the heavens and hast appeared 
to me and thy sweet mother also, and 
that I have seen thee here, my mouth, 
my hands, and my heart must render 
praise and thanks unto thee. I shall no 
longer remain here; but shall betake 
myself to Rome alone immediately. 



The reader will notice the resemblance bat also the great differ- 
ence between the above scene and that of Cymbeline. It is possible 
that the correspondence on which Ohie lays so mach stress is acci- 
dental, and that the scene in Cymbeline was saggested by the court- 



62 



Chapter 2, Modern Continental Literature. 



tnasques, so populär in King James's reign, of which the scenery and 
the machinery business formed a great attraction. 

Another noteworthy coincidence is that the scene of the wager 
is laid in Rome in both plays. Perhaps too mach importance has 
been attached to this. We ought to bear in mind that, once the story 
is made to take place in the time of King Cymbeline, a contemporarj' 
of Caesar Augustus, the change of scene from Boccaccio's Paris to the 
seven hilled city seems most nataral. Berengier's insinuation (he is 
the lachimo of the Miracle) to the lady about Ostes's infidelity does 
not seem to me very noteworthy. In Boccaccio, however, the villain 
(Ambrogiuolo) does not communicate with the lady at all. 

Ohle points out, too, that "in both plays the several characters 
"and the hero and heroine are brought together again by agency of 
"a war". This Statement ought to be more explicit, because, as it 
Stands, it is likely to be misleading. In the Miracle the king of 
Grenada along with five other kings is about to march against the 
Emperor of Rome. The disguised lady, the niece of the king of Grenada, 
is sent before as a messenger to Rome, and there challenges Berengier. 
Ostes has arrived on the scene, and overcomes the latter in single 
combat. Berengier confesses his crime, the messenger discloses her 
sex, and the war is at an end before it is waged. 

Further, it has been pointed out that Berengier boasts of being 
able to accomplish his object after Uco interviews: 



Et vous dy bien qae je me vaiit 
Que je ne s^ay femme vivant 
Mais que deux foiz a 11 parlasse 
Que la tierce avoir ifen cuidasse 
Tout mon delit. (v. 653.) 



And 1 teil you clearly, that I vaunt 
myself of not knowing a woman alive, 
but, if 1 bad spoken to her twice, I 
would hope to enjoy her at the third 
time. 



Compare Cymbeline, 1, iv, 138 ff.: 

I will lay you ten thousaud ducats to your ring, that, commend me 
to the court where your lady is, with no more ad van tage than the oppor- 
tunity of a second Conference, and I will bring from tbence that houour of 
hers which you imagine so reserved. 

I would not emphasize this coincidence. 

Mr. Herford, in his Introduction to Cymbeline \ assuming an 
English Version, writes, 



* Eversley Edition, vol. IV, p. 116. 



Ilalian Literatur e: Boccaccio (Cymheline), g3 

. . . Perhaps, too, the English tradition may have agreed with the German, 
Volksbuch 1 in making the wager originate in a Company of 'four merchants' 
corresponding to Pisanio's four gaests of varlons nationalities. 

This conjecture of Herford's is nicely verified by the tale of 
Frederyke of Jennen, a fragment of which is reprinted by Dr. Furnivall 
in his edition of Laneham's Letter. A copy of the whole tract (of 
c. 1560) is in the British Museum'. From this I quote: 

In the yere of our lorde god. M. CCCC. XXI 11. It happened that foure 
rycbe marchaantes departed oat of divers countreis for to do their niar- 

chaandise thei were al foure goyng towarde Paris in Fraunce and 

for Company sake they rode al. im. into one ynne .... The firste was 
called Conrant of Spayne, the secöd was called Borcharde of Fraunce, y® thirde 
was called John of Forence (sic)^ & the, im. was called Ambrose of Jennen.' 

OhIe has no hesitation in saying, that lachimo's comparison of 
the mole on Imogen's breast to "crimson drops 1' the bottom of a 
''cowslip" was suggested by the Roman de la Violette (c. 1230), where 
we read (v. 660): 

Et voit And he sees on her rigbt breast the 

Desor sa destre mamelete appearance of this violet.^ 

Indoier cele violete. 

And again (v. 956): 

Desonr sa destre mamelete On her right breast there is a beautiful 

A une biele violetp. violet. 

After having pointed out the principal reasons which have been 
addaced in favour of a hypothetical second source, I jefer the reader 
for a further discussion and for information on the various versions of 
cur story and their relation to eaeh other to Ohle, whose work is, 
however, vitiated by unnecessary complicacy and, occiisionally, by an 
incomplete knowledge of facts. For my part, I am not easily satisfied 
by anything short of a tangible proof. Ohle's supposition that the 
names Posthnmus, Imogen, and Cloten point to an old English Version 
of our story seems to me scarcely worth discussing. Shakespeare, we 

* Ein liepliche History und Warheit von Vier Kaufmennem, 4. (Herf.) 

« Compare Hazlitt, Handbook, 212; Collect, and Notes I, 172; III, 88. The 
Press mark of the copy in tfae Brit. Museum is C. 20. c. 42. (6). Of the above 
mentioned coincidences only the last is to be found in Fred, of Jennen. 

' As a matter of fact there are more than four persons in Philario^s house, 
in Cymb., l,iv. But the fact that they are of dilTerent nationalities is noteworthy. 

* Indoier=paraitre violet (Godefroy). In Guillaume de Dole (c. 1200) the 
inaid has a rose on her thigh (see Mod. Lang. Assoc, Trans, vol. II, 1886, p. 118). 



64 Ckapter 2. Modem Continental Literature. 

knoW; altered the names of bis sonrces according to bis fancy. Compare, 
for instance, the names in As You Like It, Winter's Tale, Measure 
for Measure, Taming of the Shrew, etc. In Cymbeline the above names, 
together with others, are taken from Holinshed, who supplied the entire 
historical framework of the play (see Boswell-Stone, ^Shakspere^s 
Holinshed'). 

As for 'The Tale told by the Fishwife of Standon-the-Green', 
contained in Westward for Smelts^ 1620 \ Ohle has not satisfactorily 
made out its relation to the other versions. The concealment of the 
contriver of harms in the lady's Chamber, whose maid is near at hand, 
looks like a reminiscence of Boccaccio. In both versions we are in 
bourgeois society. The absence of the mole on the lady's breast is 
probably due to the prudery of the narrator'. On the other hand the 
Version in Westward for Smelts agrees with Cymbeline, w^hile disagreeing 
with Boccaccio, in the circumstance that the husband and the wife 
are re-united by the agency of war, which takes place in England. Just 
as lachimo has a letter of introduction by Posthumus, so the villain 
of our prose tale professes to have recommendations to the lady from 
her husband. Probably the narrator of the Fishwife's Tale knew both 
Boccaccio's and Shakespeare's versions.' 

In conclusion, I draw up the following trial table exhibiting 
Shakespeare's relation to his sources. I hypothetize an earlier English 
play, which the great poet revised, and make allowance for a supposed 
second Version, which I call a, whatever it was. 

Boccaccio Version x? 



Holinshed Lost English Play 



Shakespeare 



1 Bo^h Malone and Steevens (Var. Ed., XIII, pp. 2 and 229) name an editioa 
of 1603, which is, however, chimerical. Westward for Smelts was first entered 
on the Stationers' Registers in Jan. 1620. It has been reprinted by the Percy 
Society. The Tale told by the Fishwife of Standon-the-Green is reprinted iu 
"Shakespeare's Library". Part I, vol. 2. 

' I am glad to see my view conürmed by Koeppel, in bis Studien zur Ge- 
schichte der italienischen Novelle, 1892, p. 73. 

') Other critics take a different view. Compare Herford, Eversley Edition 
of Shakespeare, vol. IV, 113 ff. 



Italian Literatur«: Boccaccio, Bandello. 



65 



2. The Story of Helena and Bertram in AU's Well that Ends 
Well comes from Boccaccio, Decameron, 3^^ Day, 9^^ Novel. Painter 
had told it in his Palace of Pleasure, where Shakespeare may have read it. 

3. The Story of the three caskets in The Merchant of Venice, 
thoogh occurring in the Decameron (X, 1), has greater affinity with 
the Version in the GESTA ROMANORUM (in the English translation). But 
probably Shakespeare revised an older play. (See post,^ 



BANDELLO. 

1. The Claudio and Hero story in Much Ado About Nothing is 
in many respects similar to the tale related by Bishop Bandello in 
his twenty-second novel. The following pedigree, which I tentatively 
pnt forward, will, I think, give a clear idea of the relation of the 
varions versions of the story. For particnlars I must refer the Student 
to Fumess, XII, Dunlop, Shakespeare-Jahrbuch, XXI, 310; XXII, 272; 
XXXIV, 338, Cohn, Dyce, etc. Holleck-Weithmann, in his work en- 
titled ^Zar Quellenfrage von Shakespeare's Lustspiel Much Ado About 
Nothing', Kieler Studien, 1902, attempts to prove anew, that Ayrer's 
'Schoene Phaenicia' is, in part, ultimately derived from an old English 
drama used by Shakespeare. Il.-Weithmann makes the best of the case. 
But it is so inherently weak, that all arguments fail to strengthen it. 

Chariton (c. 400) 



(Martorell c. 1490) 




Äriosto (1516) 

y 





Bandello (ISM) 



(X) 






Cinthio 
(1565) 



y 



Kongehl (1683) 



Belleforest 



Gcrman and 
Dutch plays^ 



SiiAKESPEARB Much Ado (c. 1598) 



N. B. dotted lines signify: probable influence. 
X=hypothetical old play. *=lost 



») By Ayrer (c. 1585); SUrter (1618); Kranich (1620); BÄhrholtz (1674). 'Phoenix (1623). 
Anders, Shakeepeare's books. 5 



QQ Chapter 2. Modern Continental Literatur e. 

The points commoD to both Bandello and Shakespeare, and not 
to be found in Ariosto, are the foUowing: — the scene laid at Messina; 
the retarn from a successful war; the names Lionato de' Lionati and 
Piero d'Aragona which, with Shakespeare, become Leonato and Pedro 
of Arragon; the whole later portion of the story after the scene at 
the window: the supposed death of the lady rejected by her lover; 
her secret revival; her seclusion; her pretended funeral, with an epitaph 
on her tomb; repentance of the lover, who is to espouse a lady se- 
lected by the injured father, who, of course, chooses his daughter; the 
double marriage. 

With the earlier portion of the story we find some agreemeat 
among the three authors. Shakespeare's drama, though derived from 
Bandello, has adopted one incident from Ariosto's 'Orlando Furiose': 
the maid's pereonation of her mistress at the window, to which there 
is nothing parallel in Bandello, and which is too striking to be at- 
tributable to accident. This circumstance could not have been taken 
from Spenser's Fairy Queen, Bk. II, c. 4, st. 17 ff., where, it is true, 
the maid Pryene personates her mistress; but this does not take place 
at the window. 

2. The reader of Bandello's twenty-first novel of the third volume 
will be strongly reminded of Aaron's inhuman devilishness in 'Titus 
Andronicus', The novel had been rendered familiär to EngHshmen 
through a bailad, still extant\ of which we find the first notice in 
the Stationers' Registers in 1569 — 1570 (Arber's Transcripts, I, 406). 

GIRALDI CINTHIO. 

The seventh novel of the third Decade of Cinthio's IJecatommithi^ 
is the basis of 'Othello'. I prefer to believe that Shakespeare rehandled 
an older drama founded on this story. 

Regarding Measure for Measure, see post^ s. v. Whetstone. 

* Printed in the Old Ballads, 1723, vol. II, 152; reprinted in Roxburghe 
Ballads (ed. by Hindley. 1873—4) and probably elsewhere. Comp. Koeppel, 
Englische Studien, XYI, 365 ff. 

It has been frequently remarked (cp. Malone's Var. Ed., XXI, 258) that the 
second volume of Painter's Palace of Pleasure contains a reference to Titus An- 
dronicus and Tamora. This is a figment. 

' Cinthio's novelettes were translated into French by Chapuys. Premier (et 
deuxieme) volume des cent excellentes nouvelles de J. B. Giraldy Cynthien .... 
contenant plusieurs beaux exemples et notables histoires, etc., mis d'italien en 
fran9ois, par Gabr. Chapuys. Paris, 1583 ou 1584. 2 vol. (Brunet.) On Otbello's 
sources, compare Hart's edition in the 'Arden Shakespeare', 1903. 



Italian Literatur e: Cinthio. Oiovannü Straparota. GV Ingannati. 37 



SER GIOVANNI FIORENTINO. 

1. The bond-story, containing the incident of the pound of flesh, 
in The Merchant of Venice is most closely related with Giovanni's Ver- 
sion of it in his II Pecorone^ Giornata IV, Novella 1. The story is also 
told in the Gesta Romanorum, in the Cursor Mundi, and elsewhere; 
bnt it is in Giovanni alone that we find the motif of the ring and 
the name Belmont. Bat here again we have reason to suppose that 
Shakespeare's direct source was an older play (see post), 

2. The story of Bucciolo and Pietro Paolo in the Pecorone (Gior- 
nata I, Novella 2) may have supplied some hints for The Merry Wives 
of Windsor. Of this Novel we possess an English version entitled 
'Two friends went to study at Bologna in Italy', etc., contained in 'The 
Fortunate, the Deceived, and the Unfortunate Lovers', printed in 1632. 
No earlier edition is known. We also find two tales in 

STRAPAROLA'S 

Le tredeci Puicevoli Notti (Notte II, Favola 4, and Notte IV, Favola 
4), which bear resemblance to the incidents of The Merry Wives. 
The latter was retold by Tarlton in his 'Newes out of Purgatorie', 1590, 
under the title, 'The Tale of the Two Lovers of Pisa', etc. * Probably 
Shakespeare was under Obligation to some other English version now 
lost. On these and similar tales and their relation to one another, 
compare Simrock, Die Quellen des Shakespeare.' 

GL' INGANNATI AND THE SOURCE OF TWELFTH NIGHT, etc, 

GP Ingannati^ an extremely populär Italian play, from which a 
number of dramas and novels take their origin, must be looked upon 
as the ultimate source of the serious portion of Twelfth Night. That 
Shakespeare used some version of the Ingannati cyclo is certain from 
the fact that the prominent features of Gl' Ingannati and the dramas 
and novels closely following this Italian play reappear in his drama. 

' See Shakespeare's Library, Part I, vol. III; Old Shakespeare Society, 1844, 
p. 95; and 1842, Appendix to First Sketch of The Merry Wives, pp. 75, 125; and 
Dunlop, Hist. of Fiction, 1888, yoI. II, p. 159. Straparola was translated into 
French, 1560 etc. 

' There is but slight resemblance between The Fishwife's Tale of Brainford, 
contained in Westward for Smelts, 1620, and The Merry Wives. But the scene 
18 laid in Windsor; and the tale is put into the mouth of a woman of Brainford. 
On Julian of Brainford, see post. 



63 Chapter 2, Modern Continental LüercUure, 

In all of these we have: the brother and sister exactly resembling 
each other; the latter enamoured of a youth; serving him in disguise 
of a page; and sent as a messenger to an obdurate lady, ^ho falls 
in love with the pretty go-between and is betrothed to the brother 
whom she mistakes for the page; the conclusion with a double mar- 
riage. On some Version of the Ingannati, probably on Bandello's ' 
or Belleforest's novel, Barnabe Riebe, in his 'Farewell to Militarie pro- 
fession', 1581, constructed his narrative of Apolonius and Silla, which, 
compared with the other versions, appears simplified by the expunction 
of all the secondary characters. This, I t<ake it, explains the changes 
and alterations found in his story. With Riebe alone Shakespeare has 
in common the following points: — the dtike had not previously 
loved the disguised girl; the shipwrcck; the independeut position of 
the lady (the duke's beloved) owing to a recent death in her family; 
the lover finally going to the lady's house, by whom he is definitely 
rejected; the discovery of the apparent double faithlessness of the page 
accused before the duke. These resemblances cannot possibly be denied. 
But I believe there are also some features, though not very striking, 
common to the Ingannati drama and Shakespeare, and wanting in 
Riebe: the brother coming with a companion to whom the town is 
well known; the inn at which the companion remains while the brother 
roaras about the town circurnspidendi cau8ä\ a messenger sent by the 
lady to invite the page mistakes the brother for his disgaised sister; 
the lover's threat to kill both the lady and the page. But Riche's 
duke, also, threatens to put the page to death. 

Where did Riebe take the story from? From Belieferest, quoth 
Mr. Furness, on the score of the following passage in Riebe: 'Gentle- 
'women, aceordyng to my promise, I will here, for breveties sake, 
'omit to make repetition of the long and dolorous diseourse recorded 
'by Silla for this sodaine departure of her Apolonius'. Here, accor- 
ding to Mr. Furness, we have a eovert reference to the versified grief, 
the forsaken girl utters throughout four pages or more in Belleforest's 
novel, who is alone in this *dolorous diseourse'. But we can scarcely 
draw a certain inference from the passage quoted. I may mention as 
a coineidence between Riebe, Belieferest, and Bandello, that the lover's 
reeognition of the page is preceded by a long discussion. On the other 
band, the duke in Riebe's novel is informed by his servants of the 
page's double dealing. This is a trait to be found in the Ingannati 

' Novel 36 of Part 2. 



Italian Literalure: Qt Ingannati and the Source of Twelfth Night. g^ 

drama, but not in Bandello and Belleforest. On the whole, Riche's 
novel appears so altered that it is difficult to decide with absolute 
certainty where he drew bis materials from. But we cannot be far 
wrong in supposing that he had read Belleforest or Bandello. 

It has been supposed that the 'Ingannati' is immediately connected 
with Shakespeare. Shall we suppose that the Italian play which, 
we know, gained a footing in France and Spain, was acted in the 
English tongue on a London stage? Recently, a Latin version of the 
Ingannati, called 'Laelia', which was performed in Cambridge in 1590 
and 1598 has been unearthed. As it does not help us much I pass 
it by. An account of it will be found in the Shakespeare Jahr- 
buch, xxxiv, pp. 286, 291. See also Furness, xiii. The variorum 
editor, who ignores the resemblances between Riebe and Shakespeare, 
missed another track which will perhaps lead us nearer to the goal. 
Riebe, in the conclusion to bis 'Farewell to Military Profession', says 
that some of the stories of bis coUection had been 'presented on a 
*stage'. It is a great pity that he was not more explicit in bis State- 
ment. Now, we meet with an extraordinary circumstance which 
demands our attention. There is preserved to us in print a German 
play entitled "Tugend- und Liebesstreit" of the year 1677. This, or 
rather an earlier version of it, had evidently been performed by English 
comedians at Graz in 1608, and at Dresden 1626. What is so remark- 
able about the play is the fact that Riche^a 'Apolonius and Silla' is 
the unmistakeahle source of this German drama. How are we to ex- 
plain this? Are we to hypothetize an early English play founded on 
Riebe as the common source of both Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and . 
the Tugend- und Liebesstreit? This supposition, I am free to confess, 
seems to me extremely plausible. As to this interesting question, see 
the excellent work of Creizenach, 'Die Schauspiele der englischen 
Komödianten', 1889, where a reprint of the German play will be found. 

Taking into consideration all I have said above, and what has 
been stated by Furness, Meissner \ Halliwell, Creizenach, Klein, Hunter, 
Farmer, etc., to all of whom I must refer for details, we may now 
draw np the foUowing table: 

* Programm über Shakespeare's *Was ihr wollt', Part I, Lyck 1895. Mei-ssner 
has kindly informed me that he is not in position to continue his discourse. 



70 



Chapter 2. Modem Continental Literature, 



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Italian Liter ature; The Ilalian Drama generaUy. 71 

To Secco's and Gonzaga's plays called *GI' Inganni', to which Manning- 
ham refers in his diary, Shakespeare's Twelfth Kight seems to be in 
HO way indebted. (cf. Klein, IV, 806.) 

THE ITALIAN DRAMA GENERALLY. 

Julias Leopold Klein, the author of the prodigious work 'Geschichte 
des Drama's', is pei-saaded that Shakespeare was largely influenced 
by the Italian drama. (See Th. Ebner's Index-volume to Klein's work, 
s. V. Shakespeare). However, his arguments fail to carry conviction 
with them for every reader. Dowden, in his Primer of Shakespeare, 
p. 65, referring to Armado and Holofernes in Love's Labour's Lost, 
says: "The braggart soldier and the pedant are characters well known 
"in Italian comedy^ and perhaps it was from that quarter that the 
"hint came to Shakspere." The braggart soldier was also a common 
figure in the English drama; and in Sidney's masque 'The Lady of 
May' we find the figure of a pedant. If we may believe Stephen 
Gosson', the continental novels and plays were largely drawn upon 
by Shakespeare's predecessors, and it is possible that the great poet 
may have experienced in this way some indirect influence of the 
Italian drama. 

Perhaps I ought to mention some curious coincidences in names 
pointed out by Hunter and Dr. Garnett. Hunter connects Fabia and 
Malevolti of GV Ingannati and its prologue with Fabian and Malvolio 
of Twelfth Night.' Cesario, he thinks, is taken from Gonzaga's GV 
Inganni^ 1592, where we find the name Cesare, assumed by the lady 
in disguise; and Orsino from // Viluppo. 

Dr. Garnett, in his History of Italian Literature, 1898, p. 229 says: 

The novel by Cinthio himself on wbich bis play [Measure for Measure] 
IS founded was dramatised by Whetstone; but that Shakespeare had seen 
Cinthio's dramatic version [Epitia] also may be inferred from a minute 
circumstance. Cinthio's play, not his novel or Wbetstone's adaption of it, 
has a cbaracter named Angela, whose name disappears from Meamire for 
Measure, bat who beqneaths Angelo as that of her brother whom Cinthio 
calls Jurist], and Whetstone Andrugio. 

But even Klein in his Geschichte des Drama's, V, 355, considers 
this coincidence of no weight. . 

1 Comp, what Montaigne says about the pedant of the Italian comedy 
(Ess. I. 24). 

* Compare ante, p. 59—60. 

^ N. B. Benvolio is the name of a character in Mario we's Dr. Faustus aud 
in Romeo and Joliet. 



72 Chapter 2. Modem Continental Literature, 

ARIOSTO. 

As to an incident in Much Ado taken from the Orlando Furioso^ 
see above, s. v. Bandello. Joseph Hunter's supposition that Ariosto's 
description of a tempest at sea (Canto 41.) inspired the storm-scene 
and some incidents closely connected therewith in The Tempest has 
met with no acceptance.^ Ariosto's ISuppodti was known to Shakespeare 
in Gascoigne's translation (s. post). 

PETRARCA. 

Though we discover many Petrarcan conceits in Shakespeare's 
sonnets, we can scarcely claim for the latter a direct acquaintance 
with the Italian poet, who had been imitated ad nauseam by a whole 
army of English sonnetists. In one place (*Romeo', II, iv, 40) our 
poet openly avows his knowledge concerning Petrarca's sonnets, but 
it does not foUow from the passage, that he had read them. Mercutio, 
speaking of Romeo, says: 

Now is he for the numbers that Petrarck flowed in: Laura to bis ladv 

w 

was but a kitchen-wench; marry, she had a better love to be-rbyme her. * 

SPANISH LITERATURE. 

We are fairly säfe in asserting that oar poet was unacquainted 
with the Spanish language. Of one author, however, we find traces 
in his works, — of 

JORGE DE MONTEMAYOR, 

whose stoiy of the shepherdess Felismena, in the pastoral romance 
La Diana^ furnished the materials for the adventures of Julia and 
Proteus in The Two Gentlemen of Verona. The first complete trans- 
lation of the Diana, by Bartholomew Yong, • appeared in 1598, but 

1 Dr. Schoembs wrote a Dissertation on the influence of Ariosto^s Orlando 
Furioso on Elizab. Liter. 1898. 

^ I may mention that Petrarca had been translated into French about the 
middle of the sixteenth Century, The Triumphes of Petrarch were translated into 
English by Lord Morley, c. 1554, (reprinted by the Roxburghe Club. 1887). 

With Giordano Bruno Shakespeare is in no wise connected. See Shakespeare 
Jahrbuch XXYI, 258 ff., and Robertson ^Montaigne and Shakspere^ p. 82 ff. 

^ Certain portions of the Diana were also translated by otbers. ''In 1596, 
"while sojouming in Italy and Germany, Wilson translated from the Spanish 
"Gorge {sie.) de Montemayor's *Diana'." (Dict. of Nat, Biogr., s. v. Sir Thomas 
Wilson.) But this was not printed. One Edward Paston, Yong teils us, had *for 

'his owne pleasure aptly turned out of Spanish into English some leaves 

Hhat liked him best.' 



JtaL Liieraiure: Arioslo, Petrarca. — Spanish LUerature. 



73 



it existed in manuscript as early as 1582 or 1583,^ and pari of the 
romance had been dramatized in 1584 (see post). 

In Shakespeare Jahrbach, vol. XXXIV, Dr. Tobler^wn. has point- 
ed out correspondences between the Diana and Midsummer Night's 
Dream. The reseroblances are perhaps still greater between this play 
and Alvise Pasqualigo's GP Ivtricati (1581) in which incidents of the 
Diana are dramatized. See Dr. Vollhardt's Programme, 'Die Be- 
ziehungen des Sommemachtstraumes zum italienischen Schäferdrama'. 
Leipzig. 1899." 

* Ward, Engl. Dram. Lit., vol. II, p. 80. Cp. also Dict. of Nat. Biogr., s. v. 
Young. 

' Otber programmes and dissertations on Midsummer Night's Dream I need 
Dot mention. John Lyly's connexions with the Italian pastoral drama are dis- 
cussed by Mr. Bond in his edition of Lyly, vol. II, pp. 473 fr. 

In Dowden's edition of Cymbeline which has just appeared (Arden Shake- 
speare) an episode in Tasso's Genisalemme Liberata Bk. vii (translated by Fairfax 
in 1600) is suggested as a possibU source of Imogen's adventures at Belarius's 
cave. (I mention this here for want of space above.) 






LI. t!, 




I . 




74 ChapUr 2. Modem CorUinentai Lüeraiure. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 2. 

THREE CHIMERICAL SOÜRCES. 

I — Diego Hübtado de Mbndoza. 

Mendoza^s Lazarillo de Tormes, tbe first picaresque romance of modern 
litcratare, which seems to have enjoyed considerable popularity, insipid thoagh 
it now appears to us/ is by some commentators (Eschenburi? was the first 
to make tbe saggestion) supposed to be alluded to in Mucb Ado aboat 
Nothing, II, i, 205-6: — 

Ho ! now you strike like tbe blind man : Hwas the boy that stole 
your meat, and you'll beat the post. 

Tbe incident supposed to be alluded to is this. Mendoza relates that 
Lazarillo, when a boy, became a blind man's guido, whose sausage he once 
stole, for which he was severely pnnished. In revenge, the boy caused 
the blind man to knock bis head violently against a stone pillar while jumping 
across a supposed gutter. 

The romance, it is true, would have been easily accessible to Shake- 
speare. Having first appeared in Antwerp in 1553, it was frequently 
reprinted. Several translations into English were published. The Stationers' 
Registers record the license of an English version as early as 156J (Arber, I, 
378). The earliest extant translation is dated 1576. Other editions were 
printed in 1586 and 1596. (Compare Hazlitt's Bibliography, and Lowndes). 

There is therefore no extemal reason against the above supposition. 
But let US not forget the chief question. Does the passage referred to 
contain an allusion at all? Dr. Martin Luther's principle, that the first 
meaning of a bible passage should be considered as decisive is a very 
healthy one, which Shakespearean scholars have sometimes need of laying 
to heart. Let us apply this principle. From the context it is clear that 
Benedick desires Claudio to understand, that he has not deserved bis ill- 



1 The bock is easily accessible in tbe German translation, published by Reclam, 
Leipzig, No. 1389. Price 2d. 



Appendix, 75 

will. ^Claudio', he means, ^you vent your displeasure on the wrong object. 
*Yoa behave like the blind man who, instead of beating the guilty boy, 
'who stole bis meat (given to him as an alms), strikes wide of the mark, 
^and hits the post (which would be the object nearest to him sitting 
'before the door of a house as a beggar)\ 

If this interpretation be allowed to be correct, there is no room for 
oar friend Lazarillo. Hr. Furness, while disposed to reject Eschenbarg's 
supposition, tbioks, nevertheless, that the expression *'^the blind man^' refers 
to some definite anecdote, I do not think it does so, necessarily; though 
this is possible. (On this qaestion concerning Lazarillo, compare Shake- 
speare Jahrbuch, VI, 353; Furness, XII, 77; Brandl, Schlegel-Tiek Trans- 
laüon, VIII, 236.) 

II—- Another Mabe's Nest. 

Espejo de Principe y Gavalleros is a Spanish Romance by Diego 
Ortunez de Galahorra, translated into English in Shakespeare's days under 
the title of The Mirror of Princely Deeds and Enighthood. Steevens 
snggested that FalstafTs words: ^'Phoebus, he, that wandering knight so 
"fair" (1. Henry IV., Act 1, ii, 16) contain an allusion to this work or 
some ballad fonnded thereon. But, though so distinguished scholars as 
Dyce, Aldis Wright, etc. concur with Steevens, I cannot bat demur to 
this view, which seems to me extremely hazardous. Why should not the 
Sun be likened to a knight-errant,— an idea which would seem natural 
and simple enough, especially for those days, when the Sun was reckoned 
a planet or wandering star? (The above mentioned work, by the way, 
seems to have been confounded with Villalumbrales's Cavallero del Sol. — See 
Brunet.) Donce, in bis Illustrations of Shakespeare, I, 415, advanced an 
equally nntenable supposition. 

III — Antonio de Eslava. 

Edmund Derer, in 'Das Magazin für die Litteratur des In- und Aus- 
landest 31. Jan., 1885, draws attention to a narrative which has greater 
affinity with the plot of The Tempest than any tale yet discovered. It 
is contained in a Spanish coUection of stories entitled 'Las noches de in- 
viemo por Antonio de Eslava, 1609'. The narrative, which may, like 
others of the collection, be based on an older tale, is briefly this: 

Dardanus, King of Bulgaria, a virtuous magician, is dethroned by 
Niciphorns, Emperor of Greece, and has to flee with bis only daughter, 
Seraphina. They go on board a little ship. In mid ocean Dardanus, 
having parted the waters, rears by art of magic a beautiful sub- 
marine palace, where he resides with bis daughter tili the time she 



76 Chapter 3. Th€ English Non-Dramattc Polüe Lüerature. 

becomes marriageable. Now the father, in disguise of a fishermao, 
carries off the son of Niciphorus to bis palace under the sea. Of 
coarse, the youth falls hopelessly in love with the maiden. The 
emperor having died in the meantime, Dardan us retarns with bis 
daughter and bis son-in-law to bis former kingdom, which he leaves 
the latter to rule over, while be witbdraws into solitade. 

The resemblances are obvious. But it is by no means certain tbat the 
tale is Shakespeare^s source, as Dorer thinks. 



CHAPTER 3. 

THE ENGLISH NON-DRAMATIC POLITE 

LITERATURE. 

SECTION 1.— FRE-ELIZABETHAN AÜTHORS. 

GEOFFREY CHAUCER. 

The list of pre-Elizabethan poets is worthily opened by that 'morning 

*8tar of song', 

'Dan Chaucer, the first warbler, whose sweet breath 
Treluded those melodious bursts, that fill 
'The spacious times of great Elizabeth 
'With soands that echo still.' 

I koow of three articles dealing with Shakespeare's relation to Chaucer, 
but all of them incomplete. ' My own notes as well as these articles 
sapply the groundwork of the following remarks. To 

THE CANTERBÜRY TALES, 

in general, there is an apparent allusion in 'Lncrece', 790: 

And fellowship in woe doth woe assaage, 

As palmers' chat makes short their pilgrimage. 

The Knight's Tale, 

we may take for granted, Shakespeare had read. A Midsnmmer Night's 
Dream certainly shows some points of agreement with the Theseus- 
Hippolyta part of the story. North's Plutarch, which Shakespeare 

1 Ballmann, Anglia XXV, 1902; Sarrazin, Anglia Beibl. VII, 265, who gives 
some more er less doubtful parallelisms. Tbis parallelism work of Sarrazin is 
Tery dangerou3. Poole, in bis Index to Period. Literat, mentions an article on 
Shakesp. and Chaucer in tbe Quart. Rev. vol. 134 (1873), p. 225. But tbis does 
not help US much. 



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78 Chapitr 3. The Englisk Non-Dramattk Polite Ltterature. 

demonstrably did use for his Mids. N. Dr., would have supplied a good 
many hints for the Thesean framework. Bat not all. Philostrate does not 
occur in Plutarch, nor does Plutarch make mention of doing observance 
to May. Theseus is not called duke of Athens by him. These traits 
at least, as well as the Athenian wood, and the romantic costume 
generally, in which the classical characters appear, are derived from 
Chaucer. Bat another problem presents itself. Had Shakespeare 
Seen the Knight^s Tale acted on the stage? There is some reason to 
sappose he had. And, what is more to our parpose, the play has 
apparently left its traces on our Mids. N. Dream. Richard Edwardes had 
dramatized the story in 1566. This play of his, Talamon and Arcite', 
was acted before the Qaeen in Oxford in the same year. Detailed 
accounts of the play (now lost) and its Performance are preserved 
to US in contemporary MS. reports of Queen Elizabeth's visit to 
Oxford, published partly by Nichols (Progresses of Q. Eliz., 2"** ed.) 
and partly by Plummer (Elizabethan Oxford, 1887). The name Philo- 
strate, I may remark, which has been claimed as a striking proof for 
Shakespeare's use of Chaucer, was in that play. Theseus was the 
*dux Athenarum', according to a Latin account. ^ But what is more 
important, *in the said play was acted a cry of hounds in the Qua- 
*drant, upon the train of a fox in the hunting of Theseus.^ ' This part, 
we are distinctly told, proved extremely populär and successful. The 
same scene was repeated in Oxford on another occasion in 1583 
(Nich., II, 409) and again acted or imitated before the Queen in 1572 
(cp. Malone, III, 369, 'Hunters'). Thus, I conclude, it came about, 
owing to theatrical tradition, that Shakespeare introduced into his play 
(Act IV, sc. i) the hunting of Theseus and the music of the hounds, 
which was probably really mimicked behind the scenes.' No doubt Ed- 
wardes's play was performed on the London stage. What relation 
The Two Noble Kinsmen bears to it and to the 'Palamon and Arsett', 
mentioned as a play by Henslowe in 1594, it is impossible to say 
with certainty. 

From 

Thb Meechant's Tale. 

Shakespeare is said to have borrowed the motif of the quarrel among 
supernatural beings (Pluto vers. Proserpine — Oberen vers. Titania). 

* Plummer, p. 128. 
» Nichols, I, 212. 

• "A cry of hounds, and horns winded in peal" is a stage-direction in Titus 
Andren., 11, ii; Cp , too, I, ii, 494. 



Chaucer, 



79 



Bat Pluto and Proserpine do not qaarrel. They debate in perfect 
friendship. As You Like It, IV, i, 11. 159 — 179 have been appositely 
compared with Merch. Tale (E. 2264—2275). 

THB HOUSE OF FAME. 

The emperor's court is like tbe hoose of Farne, 
Tbe palace fnll of tongues, of eyes, and ears. 

(Tit. Andren. II, i, 126.) 

We have here a reference to Chaucer's famous poem. We do, 
indeed, find a description of Fama's abode in Ovid (Metam. XII, 39 — 64); 
Bat the expression 'house of Farne' is not in Golding's Translation. 
Moreover, the idea of the many tongueSi eyes, and ears, not in Ovid, 
most be dae to Chaucer, whose Farne had 'as feie iyen As fethers 

^apon foules be also she Had also feie up standyng eares And 

'tonges, as on beast been heares' (H. of F. III, 291 f.).* Though Virgil 
describes Farne in a similar manner in Aen.» lY, 173fr., (see esp. 
181—183), he says nothing of her dwelling. 

TROILÜS AND CRISEYDE. 

Shakespeare used this poem as the main source of bis Troilus 
Story [Troil. I, i & ii; III, i & ii; IV, i— iv & v (12—63); V, ii & m 
(95~end)].* For particulars see the late Dr. Small's scholarly work: 
TheStage Quarrel, p. 154iT. Shakespeare alludes to the story in Ado, V, 
II, 31; All's Well, II, i, 100; As Y. Like It, lY, i, 97; Lucr., 1486; 
Merch., V,i, 4—6; Tw. Night, III, i, 57—62; Shrew, lY, i, 153. 

In Tw. Night, III, I, 62 we read: "Cressida was a beggar"; and 
in Henry Y., Act II, i, 78—80: 

to the spital go, 
And from the powdcring-tub of infamy 
Fetch forth the lazar kite of Cressid^s kind. 

Nothing to parallel these two passages will be found in our modern 
editions of Chaucer.' But Shakespeare found something in his. In 
Stowe's edition 1561 (and in editions before and after) Troilus and 

' I am quoting from Stowe's edition, 1561, which Shakespeare most likely 
used. In and after 1598 he may have used the next edition after Stowe^s, by 
Speght, 1598 and again 1602. Cp. Skeat's ed., Introd., vol. I (Rom. of the Rose, 
etc.) p. 27 f. 

' The Story had been dramatised in 1599 by Dekker and Chettle, as we 
know from Henslowe's Diary. 

' Of course, I do not forget that Skeat's edition includes a voIume of doubt- 
ful and spurious pieces. 



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80 Chapter 3. The Engliah Non-Dramativ Poltte Lüerature. 

Criseyde' is immediately followed by The Testament of Creseide' 
(composed by Robert Henryson, as we know), as thongh it were 
Chancer^s continuation of the former poem. In this pseado-Chaucerian 
piece Creseyd meets with her due reward for her unfaithfalDess, is 
delivered to the spital-house, and dies a leprons beggar. *'Kit(e) of 
^^Cressid's kind^' seems to have been an alraost proverbial expression 
in Shakespeare's days. 

The verses in Chaucer's Troilus, III, 1422 f., compared with the 
morning scene of the parting of Romeo and Jaliet, deserve the special 
attention of the Shakespearean Student. * 

THE LEGEND OF GOOD WOMEN. 

1. Pyramus and Thisbe. This stör}', populär in Shakespeare's days, 
was probably known to him in more than one Version, no doubt 
also in the Chaucerian. Ballmann ' says it had been dramatized before 
the date of Mids. N. Dream. But there is not the slightest foundation for 
this allegation. (Cp. above, Ovid.) 

2. On THE Legbnd of Luceetia, see under Ovid. 

A PSEUDO-CHAÜCERIAN TROPHECY', 

to be found in some earlier editions of Chaucer (among them, Stowe's 
ed., 1561, which I have seen), and quoted by Puttenham in his 'Arte of 
English Poesie' 1589 (ed. Arber, p. 232), is apparently imitat^d by 
the Pool in King Lear (III, ii, 80— end). The concluding couplet: 

Then shali the Realme of Albion 
Be bronght to great confusion,' 

is quoted by the Pool, with the Substitution of *come' for 'be brought'. 
To moral 

GOWER'S 

Tale of Florent there is a clear reference in The Taming of the 
Shrew, I, ii, 69: 

Be she as foul as was Florentius' love, 



1 Do not believe what Fränkel says in his laboared treatise, Shakespeare und 
das Tagelied. 1893. 

' ut sup,, p. 8. 

' I am quoting from Puttenham, who may have had a version before him 
differing from that in Stowe's ed. or that reproduced by Skeat (Chauc. ed., I, 
pp. 45—46). For he agrees with Shakespeare in reading 'realm\ instead of 4ond^ 
of the latter versions. But Puttenham may be Shakespeare's spurce. 



Chawer, Gower, Caxton, 



81 



The Story is in the Confessio Amantis, Bk. I, 1407 fF. The name of 
the hero, Florent, is 'probably duo to Gower, who is apt to attach to 
^his stories names of his own choosing\ ' In the first marginal note 
to this tale we find Tlorencius', as the Latin eqaivalent for this name. 
We find no further certain traces of Gower except in Tericles' 
which is only in part Shakespeare's. The sources of the play are twofold : 
Gower's Cov/essio Amantis^ Bk. VIII, 11. 271 — 2008, and Laürence 
Twine's Patteime ofpaine/ull Adventures (entered on the Stat. Reg. 1576, 
see Arber, Transcr. II, 301 — ; printed without date, and again in 1607). 
For acts 1 — 3 Gower is the main source and Twine rarely made use of. 
For Acts 4 and 5 the case is the reverse, Twine being here the chief 
source. For a foU discussion see E. Klebs, 'Apollonius aus Tyrus', 
Berlin, 1899, pp. 474 ff. George Wilkins's novel, 'The Painfull Adven- 
tures of Pericles Prince of Tyre', 1608, is posterior to the drama, to 
which it refers on the title-page as well as in the Argument.' 

WILLIAM CAXTON'S 

Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye^ the first book printed in the 
English language, 1474?, frequently republished in the 16^*^ and 17^"* 
centuries — Hazlitt mentions an edition of 1596', which Shakespeare 
may have used — supplied most of the incidents of the Trojan war for 
'Troilus and Cressida'. Lydgate's Troyebook was not made use of 
(see Small, The Stage-quarrel, pp. 156 ff.; Cp., too, Malone, VIII, 455). 

There is also some connexion (direct or indirect) between Shake- 
speare and the second English book printed, that is: Caxton's Game 
and Playe of the Chesse (first issued in 1475?), where we find the 
following quaint etymology (Bk. 3. eh. 5): — 

For the women ben likened unto softe waxe or softe ayer and therfor she 
is callid mulier whyche Is as moche to saye in latyn as moUys aer. And 
in english soyfle ayer. And it happeth ofte tymes that the nature of them 



^ Gower, ed. Macaulay, 1901, note ad loc, 

' Smyth, in ^Shakespeare's Pericles and Apollonius of Tyre', Philadelphia, 
1898 (p 63), repeats the old legend of an earlier play *alluded' to in the Alleyn 
papers. The entry was forged by Collier (see 2. Quarto Facsiraile by Praetorius 
vith an Introd. by Round, p. in). Smyth (p. 60) also gives an unauthenticated 
date, 1596, for Timlyeo', where the play is mentioned. This date is chimerical. 
(Cp., too, Malone XXI, p. 4). 

3 Entitled: *The Auncient Historie, of the destructiou of Troy\ Hazlitt, 

Ilandb. ». r. Fe vre. 

Anders, Shakespeare's books. 6 



1 I' 






u 










g2 Chapter 3. The English Non-Dramatic Polite Literature, 

that ben softe and niolc taketh sonuef Impression than the nature of men 
tliat IS rnde and strenge. 

Compare *Cymbeline', V, iv, 140; V, v, 437; and, especially, the follow- 
ing lines 446 ff.: 

The piece of tender air, thy vlrtooiis daughter, 
Which we call 'mollis aer'; and 'mollis aer' 
We term it ^mulier': which 'mulier' I divine 
Is this mbst constant wife 



SECTION 2. 

ELIZABETHAN AUTHORS. 

ARTHUR BROOKE'S 

Tragicall Ilisfori/c of Romeus and lulwt'^ is the basis on which Shake- 
speare bullt his woiiderful drama, Romeo and Juliet. (The source- 
question has been carefully and mimitely examined by Mr. P. A. Daniel, 
in the New Shaksp. Soc, III, 1, pp. Xllff.; and by Dr. Schulze in 
Sh. Jahrb., XI, 195 f., and 218ff.'.) 

The late Prof. Zupitza* pointed out some motifs and iucidents 
in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, w^hich «are traceable to Brooke's 
poera. Silvia refuses to accept the hand of Thurio, though favoured 
by her father, and decides to marry Valentine secretly. For the pur- 
pose of escaping with her, Valentine undertakes to "climb her window, 
"The ladder made of cords" (II, iv, 181). He is banished and flees 

' First printed by R. Totteil ia 1502. *Roineo and Juletta' was licensed to 
Tottell in 1583 (Arber, Stat. Heg., II, 419). This is no doubt Hrooke's poeui. But 
no copy of this edition, if published, is known. Brooke's poein was reissued by 
Robert Robinson in 1587. 

' Regarding the history and devclopment of the Romeo-story, compare, too, 
FränkePs papers in Zeitschrift für vergl. Litcraturgosch. Neue Folge, III & IV, and 
in Kölbing's Kngl. Studien, XIX, 183. Regarding a Latin drama, but which is 
later than Sh.'s play, see Sli. Jahrb., 34, p. 255. A terriblc araouut of leaming has 
accumulated round Shakespeare's play. 

' See Sh. Jahrb. XXIII, pp. 1 — 17. ITere will bc found a careful examiuation 
of the sources of The Two Gentlemen of Verona. I cannot, however, endorse 
Zupitza^s supposition, which he shares with some other litt^ateurs, that a hypo- 
thetical old English play, the alleged original of 'Julius und Ilyppolita' (a German 
play printed in the collection 'Engelische Coraedieu und Tragedien', 1020, and 
reprintcd by Cohn, *Sh. in Germany', and discusscd by Creizenach, Die Schau- 
spiele der englischen Komoedianten, 1889, p. LIV), is one of Shakespeare's sources. 



Arthur Brocke, 



83 



towards Mantua. Silvia's father is wroth with her. ünder the pretext 
of making confession at Patrick's cell, she escapes, noticed only by 
Friar Laurence. The names Verona and Mercatio (for Mercutio) may 
be derived from the same source. The sudden change of affection in 
Proteus is analogous to Romeus's sudden change, the instant he sees 
Jaliet: 

Ilis [Romeus's] former love, for wbich of late he ready was to dye, 

Is nowe as quite forgotte, as it had never been: 

The proverbe saith unminded oft are they that are nnseene. 

Aud as oat of a planke a nayle a nayle doth drive: 

So novell love ont of the minde the auncient love do^h rive. 

(Brooke, vv. 204-'8) 

The same simile is used by Shakespeare in The Two Gentlemen, II, iv, 
where the following verses are put into the mouth of Proteus, after 
he had seen Silvia for the first time: 

Even as one heat another heat expels, 

Or as one nail by strength drives oot another, 

So the remembrance of my former love 

Is by a newer object quite forgotten. (11. 192 — 195,) 

(Comp. Coriol., IV, vii, 54: 

"One fire drives out one fire; one nail, one nail".) 

There are two or three more traces of Brooke in Shakespeare: 
The name Escalus is given to the good Lord in Measure for Measure, 
and occurs also once in All's AVell. In this latter play Diana is made 
to say: "I am, my lord, a wretched Florentine, Derived from the 
"ancient Capilef' (V, iii, 158); cf. ''Diana Capilet'' (1. 147, ib.). The 
name, I ought to remark, is speit Capilet or Capelet by Brooke, Ca- 
pellet by Painter. 



Was Brooke the only soubce Shakespeare used for bis 'Romeo 
and Juliet7 

For convenience' sake I first reproduce here Fränkel's table \ 
giving at one glance a clear idea of the literary history and develop-^ 
ment of the Romeo-storv. 



§ 



^^^^^ I 

jj 



<•♦ 









Vi' 






* Zeitschr., ui sup.y III, p. 182. — Mr. P. A. Daniel mentions to nie an Italian 
Romeo-play, La Donna Constante by Raffaello Borghini (1578), which, he says, 
has so far remained unnoticed. 



G^ 




34 Chapter 3. The EnglUh Non^Dramatie PoUte Literaivre. 

Masuccio (1476) 

X (vcniloii unkiiown or not preserred) 




Brookc 



/ Painter 



Shakespeare 
N. B. dotted Ilnos sif^nify probable socondary influonco. 

If WO supposo, that Shakespearo's knowlcdge of French and Italian 
was such that he preferred to read English translations instead of 
their Originals, it will be natural to seek for English vcrsions of the 
Romeo-story. Apcart from Brooke's poem, the only other pre-Shake- 
spearean English Version preserved to us is that given by Painter 
in the second volume of his 'Palace of Pleasure' (pr. 1567 and again 
circa 1575). ' This novel of *Rhomeo and Julietta' translated from 
Boaistuau has been subjected to close comparison with Shakespeare 
and Brooke since Steevens's and Maloiie's days, a comparison which 
irrefragably establishes, that Brooke is Shakespearo's source, as I have 
already said. 

In Shakespeare Jahrb., XI, p. 218, two or three trifling coin- 
cidences between Shakespearo's play and Painter's novel are given. 
1) While Brooke has 'Uomeus', Painter has Rhomeo. Romeo is the 
Italian form of the name. 2) Shakespearo's Romeo gives the apothe- 
c«ary forty ducats for the poison (V, i, 59); Painter has 'Fifty Ducates; 
Brooke: 'fiftie croumes of gold\ But Shakespeare knew that ducats were 
eurrent in Italy (cp. Merch. of Von.) 3) Act IV, i, 105: *Thou shalt 
"continue two and forty fiours.^^ 'Brooke does not raention the time 
'which the sleeping draught is to hold Juliet. Steevens notes as proof 
'that Shakespeare consulted Painter, that in Painter it is said to be 

* I may remark here, that Warton's siipposition (repcated by Prake and 
Frank el) of an English translation of Boaistuau and Belle forest's novels in 1596 
is chimerical. Warton was no doubt inisled by an entry in the Stat. Reg., III, 67, 
which, however, refers to Silvayn's 'Orator\ 



Arthur Brooke. Samuel Daniel. 



85 



^^^Whimres at t/ie least^\ On tliis Boswell remarks (Var. Ed. VI, p. 265), 

'"although the number of hours are not specified in the poem, 

Set enough is said to make it easily inferred, when we are told that 
'two [?] nights after, the Friar and Romeo were to repair to the se- 
'pulchre". Da Porto has forty-eight hours; Clitia, two days; Bandello 
'and Boaistuau about forty hours; Groto, in 'La Hadriäna', about siateen 
^hours,^ (Daniel, ut sup.^ p. xvi). Boswell's explanation, I must confess, 
does not quite satisfy me. I cannot infer the forty-two hours from 
Brooke's poem. 4) To these three points 1 add a fourth. ^Anselme* 
is one of the invited guests (I, ii, 68). Now, Anselme is the name of 
the messenger sent by Friar Lawrence to Mantua, in Fainter. By 
Brooke and Shakespeare he is cailed Friar John. — Seeing that these 
coincidences are not very striking, we have to conclude that the pro- 
bability of Shakespeare having used Painter is not great. 

Regarding the question of a pre-Shakespeiirean play on this themc 
See }}ost^ in the chapter on the Dr.ima. 

'Resemblances between passages of Shakespeare's tragedy and 
'passages of Groto's Italian tragedy of lladriaiia are probably due to 
'accident.' (Cp. Daniel, ut S7ip, p. XXI ff.; and Sh. Jahrb., XI, 196 ff). 

SAMUEL DANIEL.* 

1. The Complaint of Rosamond 

is important in its bearing on Shakespeare, in whoso earlier works 
we find rcmarkable reminiscences, in the language, substancc and 
form, of that poem. Daniel's 'Rosamond' was first printed together 
with his 'Delia' in L092. The poems met with the applause of the 
public and ran through another edition in this year and a third (and 
fourth?) in 1594.' 

To begin with Shakespearo's cpic poems^ 'A Lover's Complaint' is 
written in imitation of Daniel's poem, as the subject, characterization, 
tone, metre, and style show. This must be feit. The main motive of 
each poem is the loss of virginity by the heroine, into whose mouth 
the complaints are put. A similar topic treated in a somewhat 
similar way is The Rape of Lucrece. Thomas Churchyard's 'Shore's 
Wife', the most populär poem in the Mirror for Magistrates, and 
irnich akin to 'Rosamond', may also have l)een known to Shakespeare, 
though I cannot find any clear traces of it in his works. 

' Bcsides notes of iny owii, I have iiiadc »sc of Dr. Ewig's article iu 
AngHa XXII, p. 436 — 448, to which I refcr the ciirious readcr. 
2 See Grosart's ed., 1885, I. pp. 20 f. and 80. 



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Qß Ckapter 3, The Englüh Non-Dramatic PoHte Literature, 

The following parallelisms in Lucrece and the Complaint of Rosa- 
mond are very striking. 
i) Ros. 128. 

Ah heauly Syren, faire enchaunting good, 
Sweet sileni Rhetorique of perstcading eyes: 
Dombe Eloquence, whose powre doth move the bloud, 
More then the words or «isedome of the wise. 

Compare Lucr., 29 — 30: 

ßeauty itself doth of itseif persuade 
The eyes of men without an orator. 

Comp, also Love's Lab. Lost, IV, in, 60; 

The heavenly rhetoric of thine eye. 

ii) Ros. 246: 

Thou must not thinke thy fiower can alwayes flourish, 
And that thy beauty will be still admired; 
But that those raies whicli all these flames doe nourish, 
CancelVd with Time, will have their date expired, 

Compare Lucr. 22 ff.: 

happiness cnjoy'd but of a few! 
And, if possess'd, as soon dccayM and done . . . 
As is the morning's siiver melting dew 
Against the golden splendour of the sun! 
An expired daie^ cancelVd cre well begun: 
Honour and beauty, in the ownefs arms, 
Are weakly fortress'd from a world of harms. 

iii) Ros. 439: 

Com'd was the Night, mother of shepe and feare, 

Who with her sable-manih friendly covers 

The sweet-stolne sport of ioyfull meeting Lovers. 

Compare Lucr. 117: 

Till sable Night, mother of Dread and Fear, 
üpon the World dim darkness doth display, 
And in her vaulty prison stows the Day. 

The Situation in both poems is, viutatis mutandis^ similar. 

iv) The following parallel passages exemplify the structural resem- 
blance in an obvious manner: 
Ros. 428 ff.: 

I saw the sinne whcrein my foote was entring, 
I saw how that dishonour did attend it, 



Samuel Daniel, 



87 



I saw tbe shame whereon my flesh was ventring, 

Yct had I not the power for to defend it. 

So wcake is sence, when error hatb condemn'd it. 
We see what's good, and thereto we consent, 
But yet we choose the worst, and soone repent. 

Lucr. 491 f.:. 

I see what crosses my attempt will bring; 
I know what thorns the growing rose defends; 
I tbink the honey gnarded with a sting; 
All this beforehand counsel comprehends: 
But will is deaf and hears no lieedful friends; 
Only he hath an eye to gaze on beauty, 
And dotes on what he looks, 'gainst law or duty. 

Wo find also traces of Daniel's Rosamond in Shakespeare's Jramas, 
notably in Romeo and Juliet. The King's complaint in *Rosamond' 
over the death of his love is distinctly echoed in Romeo's speech 
which he utters on seeing Juliet apparently dead in the tomb. 

Ros. 773: 

And nought-respecting death (the last of paincs) 
Plac'd his ^w/e colours (tk^ ensigne of his might) 
lipon his new-got spoyle before his right. 

Ros. 834—847: 

Pittifull mouth (saith he) that living gavest 
The sweetest comfort that my soule could wish: 
be it lawfuli now, that dead thou havest, 
This sorrowing farewell of a dying kisse; 
And you faire eyes, Containers of my blisse, 
Motives of Love, borno to be matched never, 
Entomb'd in your sweet circles, sleepe for ever. 

Ah, how me thinkes I see Death dallying seekcs, 
To ontertaine it seife in Loves sweet place; 
Decayed Roses of discoloured cheekes, 
Doo yet retaine deere notes of former graec: 
And ogly Death sits faire within her face; 
Sweet remnants resting of Vermillian red, 
That Death it seife doiibts whether she be dead. 

Compare Romeo, V, iii, 91— 96; 101—105; 112—115: 

my lovel my wife! 
Death, that hath suck'd tho honey of thy breath, 
Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty: 
Thou art not conquerM; beauly's ensign yet 



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{^3 ChapUr 3, The Engii$k Non-Dramatic Polite LiUrature. 

Is crimson in thy ups and in tby cheeks, 

And death's pale flag is not advanced there .... 

Ah, dear Juliet, 
Why art thou yet so fair? shali 1 believe 
That unsubstantial death is amorous, 
And that the lean abhorrcd monster keeps. 
Theo here in dark to be his paramour? .... 

Eyes, look your last! 
Arms, take your last embrace, and lips, you 
The doors of breath, seal, with a righteous kiss 
A dateless bargain to engrossing death. 

In 2. Henry IV., Act V, sc. v, 50, Falstaff uses the exclamation: 
"My king! my Jove!" which is possibly a reminiscence of 
Rosam., 239: 

Doost thou not- see, how that thy King (thy love) 
Lightens forth glory on thy darke estato. 

2, SONNETS TO DeUA, 

greatly admired by the Elizabethans and, among thera, by Shake- 
speare, served as a model for his sonnetic flights. But apart 
from Shakespeare's sonnets, whose sources I do not desire to discuss, 
except in general terms, we find traces of 'Delia' in his other works. 
i) Daniel, speaking of his lady's disdain, says in his 5th Sonnet: 

Which turn'd my sport into a Harts dispaire, 
Which still is chac'd, while I have any breath, 
By mine owne thoughts, set on me by my Faire: 
My thoughts (like Houndes) pursue me to my death. 

The same image clothed in nearly the same words is in Twelfth 
Night, I, I, I9ff; — 

0, when mine eyes did see Olivia first, 
Methought she purged the air of pestilence! 
That instant was I turn'd into a iiart; 
Änd my desires, like feil and cruel hourids^ 
E'er since pursue me, 

ii) Sonnet 48: 

My Delia hath the waters of mine cies .... 
[which attend her as duly as the occan the moon] 
Yet nought the rocke of that hard heart can move, 
Where beat these teares with zeale, and fury drives. 



Samuel Daniel. 



89 



Compare Lucr. 587 ff.: 

If ever man were moved with woman's moans, 
Bo moved with my tears, my sighs, my groans: 
All which together, like a troubled ocean, 
Beat at thy rocky and wreck-threatening heart> 
To soften it with their continual motion. 

iii) With Lucrece', 11. 22—28, quoted above, compare Daniers 50 th 
Sonnet: 

Beantie (sweet Love) is like the morning dew, 
Whose Short refresh upon the tender greene: 
Cheeres for a time, bat tili the Sunne doth shew, 
And straight tis gone as it had never beene. 
Soone doth it fade that makes the fairest florish, 
Short is the glory of the blushing Rose. 

Dr. Ewig also quotes, in iliustration of Lucr. 26, from the same 

sonnet IL 11, 12: 

in Beauties lease cxpir*d appearcs 

The dato öf Age. 

The gentleman does not seem to have bcen aware of the fact, that 
tbese words do not appear in the earlier editions of Delia. 

3. Tue Civil Wars, 

four Books of which appeared in 1595, may have been consulted by 
Shakespeare, when he peuned Henry IV. Compare stanza 84, Bk. IV. — 
King Henry IV. is ill, pain and grief 

Besieg'd the Hold, that could not long defend .... 

Wearing the wall so thiu that now the mind 

Might well look tliorow, and his [^its] frailty finde' — 

which is mach like 2. Henry IV., Act IV, iv, 117 ff: 

he [Henry] cannot long hold out thcsc pangs: 
The inces^ant carc and labour of his mind 
Hath wrought the murc that should confine it in 
So thin that life looks through and will break out. 



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In conclusion I mention, that Daniel had writteu a play, 'The 
Tragödie of Cleopatra' (pr. 1594 etc.), as a companion to the Count- 
ess of Pembroke's 'Antonie' (translated from the French of Garnier), 
pr. 1592. To neither of these 'reading' plays is Shakespeare at all 
indebted for his Antony and Cleopatra'. 




90 Chapter 3, The Engliah Non-Dramaiie Polüe Literature» 

EDMUND SPENSER. 

With Spenser our poet has very few points of contact. In Mids. 
N. Dream there is said to be a refererence to The Tears of the 
Muses (1591), in which the nine Muses lament the decline of learning 
and knowledge. 

The thrice three Muses mourning for the death 
Of Learnüig, late deceased in beggary — 

is the theme of one of the proposed entertainments in Mids. N. Dr. 
(Act V, I, 52 — 3). Theseus characterizes it as foUows: 

That is some satire, keen aiid critical, 
Not sorting with a nuptial ceremony.* 

To Spenser's relation of the Lear-story in the Fairy Queen 
(Bk. II, Canto X) Shakespeare seems to be indebted for the namo 
Cordelia, which Spenser evidently invented, because he was in want of 
a rhyme, and which occure nowhere eise except in the ballad, which 
is no doubt later than Shakespeare's play. In the other versions she 
is called: Cordell, Cordila, Cordella. Shakespeare is also said to have 
taken the idea of Cordelia's death by hmujing from the Fairy Queen, 
where she hang^ herseif owuug to the necessity of a rhyme again. 

Some parallelisms of thought and expresslon have been pointed 
out between Shakespeare and Spenser. But the resemblances arc not 
great enough to allow us to infer anything definite. The only morc 
striking one appears to me to be the foUowing: 

But whenas Morpheus had with leadeii mace 
Arrested all that courtly Company — 

(F. Q., Bk. I, IV, 44) 
Comp. 'Caesar', Act IV, iii, 267: — 

murderous sl umher, 
Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy? 

Was the leaden mace considered to be a mythological attribute 
of Morpheus? 

MARLOWE'S HERO AND LEANDER 

is quoted in As You Like It, III, v, 82, 

Dcad shcphcrd, now I find lliy saw of miglit, 
]Vho ever loved that loved not at Jirst sitjht'^ 

This poem of Marlowe's, tho dead shepherd, from which the second 
line (- Hero and Leander, I, 17G) is taken, was a great favourite with 

' Dr. Ciaruetl refers me to bis remarks in *I.ilcrature', üct. 22, 1898, p. o75. 



Spenser, Marlowe's Hero and Leünder. 



91 



Shakespeare; and he must have known it by heart. Not only do we 
find freqaent remiuiscences of it in his dramas, especially those of 
the earlier period, but the two poems 'Venus and Adonis? and 
'liUcrece' drew much of their Inspiration from it. 

Beföre making good this Statement, it will be necessary to dis- 
cnss the question of the dates of 'Hero and Leander' and 'Venus and 
Adonis'. There is no difficulty in explaining the resemblances between 
*Lucrece' and Marlowe's poem. Bat as regards 'Venus and Adonis' 
an attempt has been made to place it chronologically before 'Hero 
and Leander'. In other words, Marlowe is said to have imitated 
Shakespeare.^ Is this so? 

'Venus. and Adonis' was first printed in 1593, having been en- 
tered on the Stationers' Registers on the 18th of April of the same 
year. Hardly six weeks later Marlowe met with a violent death at 
üeptford, whither he had fled to escape arrest. On 18. May a Warrant 
had been issued against him, while similar proceedings had been 
taken against associates of his about two months before, as also 
against the unfortunate Kyd on the 12th of May.*— Surely an unfa- 
vourable constellation for the composition of such an exquisite, sweet, 
love-poem as Hero and Leander. If we supposed Marlowe to have 
known 'Venus and Adonis', we should be obliged to assume that 
this poem must have been in existence a considerable time before it 
was printed, and must have been read by Marlowe in a manuscript 
copy (which in itself would be nothing unusual). An argument to 
the efFect that 'Hero and Leander' must be later than 'Venus and 
Adonis', for the reason that the latter was in print some time before 
Marlowe's death, rests on very slippery ground. If Shakespeare's poem 
was entered on the Stationers' Registers on the 18th of April, it need 
not necessarily have appeared before the Ist of June, the dato of 
Marlowe's death. 

The external reasons are therefore anything but unfavourable to 
the supposition that Marlowe's composition was known to the poet 
of 'Venus and Adonis', — a supposition which there are further consi- 
derations to strengthen. Is it probable that Marlowe should have 
imitated his disciple? If he had, how should we explain Shakespeare's 
great admiration for a poem he had inspired himself? No, Marlowe 

' Gompare Anglia, XXII, 441); and Shakespeare Jahrbuch XVI, 149, aiid 
XIX, 249. 

2 Gompare Boas's £ditiou of Kyd, pp. LxvifF., and lxxii; and Dict. of Nat. 
Biogr., s. V. Marlowe. 



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92 Chapter 3. The EnglUh Non-Dramatie Polii€ Littrature, 

is Shakespeare^s master alike in dramatic and undramatic poetry. And, 
judging with an nnbiassed mind, we find that 'Hero and Leander^ as 
far surpasses Shakespeare's first heir of bis invention, as 'Edward ir. 
is, in some respects, superior to ^Richard II'. 

Marlowe's poem, consisting of 818 versos, \vas continned by 
George Chapman, a man of great industry bat with most weak hams. 
It was first printed in 1598. As we find recollections of it in Shake- 
speare's works before this date, our poet must have had a manuscript 
copy of it.' 

Marlowe gives a psychological sketch of the beginning and develop- 
ment of love. Hero and Leander are enamourod of each other at 
first sight. The latter endeavours to persuade Hero by meaus of long 
tirades to give up her virginity. She cries and bhishes. Leanfler 
continuing his oratory gains her half-unwilling «ossent^ and spends the 
first night with her in innocent dalliance; not so the second. Say 
no more. Thus ends Marlowe's 'Hero and Leander', which is in 
reality a complete little poem of its own. 

The rcader will not fail to be Struck with the general rescm- 
blance between Marlowe's sensuous poem and 'Venus and Adonis'. 
No doubt, 4Iero and Leander' was Shakespeare's model not only in 
the couception but in sweetness of melody and liquidity of diction 
and formal excellence generally. At the same time we should not 
overlook the differences between the two poems. While Shakcspcare'*s 
theme is love's labour lost, Marlowe's is love's labour won. Shake- 
speare's poem is characterized by unimpassioncd objectivity, which 
we do not find, nor do we ex pect to find, in the poet of the Sturm 
und Dranff, whose productions are more spontaneous ebuUitions of 
his own inward feclings. 

The following are some echoes of Marlowe's poem in Shakespeare's 
works. 

First, I note some general allusions to the story of Hero and 
Leander. In The Two Oentlemen, I, i, 19, we read: 

Valevtine. And on a love-book pray for my success? 
Proteus. Upoü some book I love Fl! pray for thee. 

Vai. Thafs on some shallow story of deep love: 
Jlotv yowng Leander cross'd the IJeUespont. 

* The pniclico of circulatinjj MSS. wa.s very coiuinuu. Gompare S. Lee, 
Lifo of Shakespeare, p. 88 note. — Marluwe wrote ouly the first two "sestiads^"', or 
cantos, of Hero and Leander. Malone had statcd (Var. Ed., XIV, 365), that Mar- 
lowe wrote part of the 3rd sestiad. But he withdrcw this in vol. XX, 8G. 



Marlowt'ä Htro and Leander, 93 

JFVo/; Thafs a deep story of a deeper love; 
For he was more than over shoes in love. 
Val. 'Tis true; for you are over boots in love, 
And yet you never summ ihe HellesponU 

Again, Act III, i, 117—120: 

Why then, a ladder qaaintly made of cords, 
.... Would serve tö scale anoiher Herdes tower, 
So bold Leander would adventure it. 

Compare Hero & L., 11, 16: 

As he had hope to scale the beauteous fort 
Wherein the liberal Graces locked thcir wealth; 
And therefore to her tower he got by stealth. 
Wldee open stood the door; he need not cHinb. 

In Mids. N. Dream, V, i, 198, Pyramus is made to say: 

like Limander am I trasty still! 
to which Thisbe answers in the same strain: 

And I like Helen, tili the Fates me kill. 

Limander is, of course, put for Leander, and Helen for Hero. In 
'Romeo', II, iv, 44, we have a hamorous allusion to Hero; and, in 
As You Like It^ IV, i, 100 — 6, Rosalind says jocularly: 

Leander, he would have lived many a fair year, though Hero had 
tarned nun, if it had not been for a bot midsummer night; for, good youth, 
he went but forth to wash him in the Hellespont and being taken with 
the cramp was drowned: and the foolish chroniclers of that age found it 
was *Hero of Sestos'. 

Again, in Much Ado, V, ii, 30, Benedick mentions 

Leander the good swlmmer. 

The following parallelisms and reminiscences prove how intimately 
Shakespeare was acquainted with the dainty love-poem. 
1) Hero (fc L., I, 5-8: 

Hero the fair, 
Whom young Apollo courted for her hair, 
And offer'd as a dower bis huming throne^ 
Whcre she should sit, for men to gaze upon. 

This expression, as the Rev. Mr. Ebsworth points out, ' recurs in 
Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, V, i, 295: 

let the devil 
Be sometimc honour^d for his huming throne! 

< Baliad Society, Roxb. Ball., 6, p. 556. 



94 Chapter 3, The Enplish Non-Dramalit Polite Literature. 

2) The subject of his *Venus and Adonis' raay have been sug- 
gested to him by the following lines in *Hero * L/ (vv. 11—14): 

Her Wide sleeves grecn, and borderM with a grove, 
Where Venus in her naked glory strove 
To please the careless and disdainfal cyes 
Of proud Adonis, that before her lies. 

B) Many would praise the sweet smell as she pasi, 
When 'twas the odour which her breath forth cast. 

(Hero & L., I, vv. 21-22). 
Compare 'Venus', 443: 

For from the stillitory of thy face excelling 

Comes breath perfamed that breedeth love by smelling— 

and Cymbeline, II, ii, 18: 

Tis her breathing that 
Perfumes the Chamber thos. 

4) With llero & L., I, 27: 

She wäre no gloves; for neiiher siin nor wind 
Would burn or parch her hands, but, to her mind, 
Or warm or cool them, for they took delight 
To play upon those hands, they were so white — 

Compare 'Venus', 1081—1092: 

Bonnet nor veil henceforth no creature wear! 

Nor mn nor wind will ever strive to kiss you: 

Having no fair to lose, you need not fear; 

The sun doth scorn you and the wind doth hiss you: 
But when Adonis livcd, smi and sfaarp air 
LurkM like two thieves, to rob him of his fair, etc. 

5) The expression 

Rose-cheekM Adonis 

(Tenus', 3) Shakespeare found in 'Hero A L.' (I, 93). 

6) Marlowe, describing the fetes at Sestos (Hero & L., I, 97 ff.), 
says: 

For every street, like to a firmament, 

Glister'd with breathing stars, who, where they went, 

Frighted the melancholy earth, which deem'd 

Eternal heaven to burn .... 

But, far above the loveliest, Hero shin'd 

And stole away th'enchanted gazer's mind. 

Compare *Romeo', I, ii, 20 ff., where Capulet, adressing Paris, says:— 



Marlowe*$ ffero and Leander, 95 

This night I hold an old accastomM feast, 
Whereto I have invited many a gnest . . . 
At my poor hoase look to behold this night 
Earth'treading stars that make dark heaven light. 

hear all, all see, 

And like her most whose merit most shall be. 

7) Hero & L., I, 158, , 

There Hero ... 

Vail'd to the ground, veiling her eyelids dose— 

in coDJonction with Hero & L., I, 295: • 

as she spake, 

Forth from those two tralucent cisterns brake 
A stream of liquid pearl, which down her face 
Made milk-white paths, whereon the gods might trace 
To Jove's high court — 

should be compared with 'Venus', 955 ff.: 

Here overcome, as one füll of despair, 
She yail'd her eyelids, who, like sluices, stopt 
The crystal üde that from her two cheeks fair, 
In the sweet Channel of her bosom dropt; 
Bat throogh the llood-gates breaks the silver raiu, 
And with his streng conrse opens them again. 

Compare, too, A Lover's Complaint, 281 ff.: 

This Said, his watery eyes he did dismonnt, 
Whose sights tili then were levell'd pn my face; 
Each cheek a river running from a foant 
With brinish carrent down ward flow'd apace: 
0, how the Channel to the stream gave grace! 

8) Hero <fe L., 1,209—214: 

This sacrifice, whose sweet perfume descending 
From Venns' altar, to your footsteps bending, 
Doth testify that you exceed her far, 
To whom yoQ offer, and whose nun you are. 
Why should you worship her? her you snrpass 
As much as sparklihg diamonds flaring glass. 

Compare 'Romeo', II, ii, 4 ff.:— 

the envious moon, 

WMio is already sick and pale with grief, 

That thou her maid art far more fair than she; 

Be not her maid, since she is envious; 



96 Chapter 3, The Englläh Non-Dramaiic Pob'te Lüerature, 

Her vestal livery is but sick and green, 
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. 

9) Leander tries to persuade Hero by rational argumenta not to 
coDSume herseif in Single life. This were unnatural. The woman is 
like metal worthless tili it is stamped. Beauty must be propagated. 
These procreation-arguments Struck the fancy of the young Shakespeare. 
Not only are these ideas the theme of many sonnets, but we find 
their traces in others of his works. Sidney's Arcadia (Bk. III),* it is 
true, contains some passages of a like tendency; but Shakespeare's 
ideas approach much moce nearly to those expressed by Marlowe. By 
way of example, I quote the foUowing corresponding passages: 

Hero & L, 1,3 17 ff.: 

Abandon frnitless cold virginity, 

The gentle queen of Love's sole enemy. 

Then shall you rnost resemblo Venus' nun, 

Whon Venus' sweet rites are performed and done. 



Nor stain thy youthfol years with avarice. 
Fair fools delight to be accounted nicc. 
The riebest com dies, if it be not reapt; 
Beauty alone is lost, too warily kept. 

Compare 'V^enus', 130: 

Beauty within itself should not be wasted; 
Fair fiowers that are not gather'd in their primc 
Rot and consume tbemselves in Httle time. 

Compare the proereation-sonnets; 'Venus\ 163 ff., 751 ff.; All's Well, 
I, I, 121 seq.-, Romeo, I, i, 214 ff.; Twelfth Night, I, v, 259. (Comp. 
Shakesp. Jahrb., XVII, 178; XIX, 184). 
With Hero & L. 1 265: 

Base bullion for the stamp's sake we allow: 
Even so for men's impression do we you — 

compare The Shrew, IV, iv, 92: 
takc you assurance of her, 'cum privilegio at imprimendum solum' — 

and Meas. for Meas., II, iv, 45: 

. . . to rcmit 

Their saucv sweetness that do coin heaven's imaore 
In stamps that are forbid.' 

* See Shakesp. Jahrb. XVf, 146. Perhaps more iraportant than the passage 
in Sidney is one in W. \Varner\s Albion's Kngljind 1589, 5th Book, eh. 24 (end). 
But Shakespeare does not appear to have cousulted Warner either. 

' Compare also 'Edward IIF, Act H, i, 262. 



Marlojce^s ffero and Leander. 97 

10) Hero & L., I, 346—8: 

where all is whist and still, 
Save tbat the sea, playing on yellow sand., 
Sends forth a rattling murmar to the land. 

This, as Mr. Gosse points out (in The Academy, 5. Dec. 1874), reminds 
ns of AriePs song in The Tempest, I, ii, 376: 

Gome unto these yeüoiv sands^ 
And then take hands: 
Courtsied when you have and kissM 
The wild waves ivhist^ etc. 

11) Hero, we are told (Hero & L., I, 366), had 

hands so pure, so innocent, nay, such 
As might liave made Heaveii stoop to have a louch. 

The same comparison we find in 'Lucrece', 1371 — 2: 

Ilion . . . Which the conceited painter drew so proud, 

As heaven, it seem'd, to kiss the turrets bow'd. 

12) Venus's prophecy (vv. 1135ff.), that sorrow shall attend love, 
etc., may have owed its insertion to Marlowe's prophecy, at the end 
of the first *sestiad', that Learning and Poverty shall go together. 

13) Hero & L., II, Iff.: 

By this, sad Hero, with love unacquainted, 
Viewing Leander's face, feil down and fainted. 
IJe kis8*d her, and hreath'd life into her lipff. 

Compare the effect of Adonis's breath on Venus (473 — 4): 

For on the grass she lies as she were slain, 
Till his breath breathed life in her again. 

Again, 'Romeo', V, i, 6: 

I dreamt my lady came and found me dead — 
Strange dream, that gives a dead man leave to think! — 
And breathed such life tvith kisses in my lips^ 
That I revived, and was an emperor. 

14) Hero & L., II, 141: 

For as a hot proud horse highly disdains 
To have his head controlied, but breaks the reins, 
Spits forth the ringled bit, and with his hoves, 
Checks the submissive ground; so he that loves, 
The more h^ is restrain'd, the worse he fares. 

Anders, Shakespeare's books. 7 



98 elfter 3. 7%< EnglUh Non^Dramadc Polüe Literature, 

Compare 'Venus', 259 ä^j.,— the episode of the mare and the stallion, and 
Veuus's application, *Venus', 385fF., from which I quote vv. 391 — 6: 

How likc a jade he stood, tied to the tree, 
Servilely master'd with a leathern rein! 
Bat when he saw his love, bis youth's fair fee, 
He held such petty bondage in disdain; 
Throwing the base thong from his bending crest, 
£nfranch]8ing his mouth, his back, his breast 

15) Hero & L., II, 171fr.:— 

Neptune and the waves desire to roh kisses from Leander swimm- 
ing in the Hellespont: 

the bold waves . . . mounted up, intending to have kissM him, 
And feil in drops like tears because they miss'd him. 

He [Neptune] watchcd his arms, and, as they open'd wide 
At every stroke, betwixt them would he slide, 
And steal a kiss, and then run out and dance, etc. 

Compare 'Lucrece', 386: — 

Her lily band, her rosy cheek lies under, 
Cozening the pillow of a lawful kiss; 
Who, therefore angry, seems to part in sunder, 
Swelling on either side to want his bliss. 

And 'Venus', 871: 

And as she runs, the busbes in the way 
Some catch her by the neck, some kiss her face, 
Some twine about her thigh to make her stay: 
She wildly breaketh from their strict cmbrace. 

Comp, also 'Venus', 722, 630, & 725, 1080—92.' 

16) Hero & L., 11,225: 

'Tis wisdom to give much; a gift prevails 
When deep persuading oratory falls. 

Compare The Two Gentlemen, III, i, 89 : — 

Win her with gifts, if she respect not words: 
Dumb je weis often in their silent kind 
More than quick words do move a woman's mind.'- 

* Comp. Jusserand, The Engl. Novel in the Time of Shakespeare, a book 
of much esprit but without depth, p. 257. 

- Comp., too, Daniers Compl. of Rosamond, 376;— 
costly leweis (Orators of Love,) 
Which (ah, too well men know) doe women move. 



Marfowes Hero and Leändtr» 



99 



17) Hero & L. U, 269ff. Leander wants to embrace Hero, 

Yet ever, as he greedily assay'd 

To touch those dainties, she the harpy play'd, 

And every limb did, as a soldier stout, 

Defend the fort, and keep the foe^nan out; 

For though the rising ivory mount he scal'd, 

Which is with azure circling Imes empaFd, 

Mach like a globe (a globe may I term this, * 

By which Love sails to regions füll of bliss), 

Yet there with Sisyphus he toU'd in vain, 

Till gentle parley did the trace obtain. 

Even as a bird, which in our hands we wring, . , 

Forth plungeth, and oft fiutters with her:wii]g, 

She trembling strove, etc. 

Compare 'Lucrece', 407 — 473, from which I quote only the foUowing 
Verses : — 

(v. 407) Her breasts, like ivory globes circled with blue, 
A pair of maiden worlds unconquered. 

(v. 437) His band march'd on to make bis stand 

On her bare breast, the heart of all her land; 
Whose ranks of blue veins, as his band did scale, 
Left their round turrets destitute and pale. 

(v. 457) Like to a new-kill'd bird she trembling lies. 

(v. 481) Under that colour am I come to scale 
Thy ncver-conquer'd fort. 

Comp., too, 'Venus', 560. 

18) Hero is seeraingly coy (Hero A; L., II, 283); 

Treason was in her though t, 
And cuuningly to yield herseif she sought. 
Seeming not won, yet won she was at length: 
In such wars womeu use but half their strength. 

Again, Sestiad I, 331 : 

Hero's looks yielded, but her words made war: 
Women are won when they begin to jar. 

Yet, evilly feigning anger, strove she still, 

And woald be thought to graut against her will. ^ 

This may have helped to suggest the following lines respecting the 
attitude of the mare (Venus, 309): — 



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100 Chapter 3. Tht Englith Non-Dramatic Polite Literature. 

4 

Being proud, as females are, to see him woo her, 
She pats on outward strangeness, seems unkind; 
Spurns at bis love and scorns the heat he feels, 
Beating his kind embracements witb her beels. 

19) Hero and Leander, II, 287—290: 

Leander now, like Theban Hercide^^ 
Ei^erM the orchard of th' Ilesperides; 
Whose fruit none rightly can desciibe, but he 
That pulls or shakes it from the golden trce. 

Compare for the rhyme Uei^cules: Ilesperides Love's Lab. Lost, IV, 

III, 340: 

For valour, is not Love a Hercules^ 
Still cl im hing trees in the Hesperiden'^ 

I do not know whether it be a m<atter of accident or not, that two 
lines in Greene's *Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay' (sc. IX, 82 — 83) end 
with the same words, though the rest of the entire scene is written 
in blank verse: 

the garden call'd Hesperides, 
SubduM and won by conquering Hercules. 

20) Hero de L., II, 301 : 

And now she wish'd this night were never done, 
And sigh'd to think upon th' approaching sun; 
For inuch it griev'd her, that the bright day-light 
Should know the pleasure of this blesscd night. 

Compare 'Lucrece', 799 if.: 

Night, thou fumace of foul-reeking smoke, 
Let not the jealous Day behold that face 
Which undcrneath thy black all-hiding cloak 
Immodestly lies martyr'd with disgrace! .... 
. . . Make me not object to the tell-talo Day, etc. 

21) Hero & L., H, 317 seq. 

Thus near the bed she blushing stood upright, 
And from her countenance behold ye might 
Ä kind of iwilight break, which through the air, 
As from an Orient cloud, glimpsM here and there; 
And round about the Chamber this fahe mom 
Broughi forth the dny before the day ivas bom. 
So Hero's ruddy cheek Hero betray'd. 



Marlowe*a Hero and Leander, 



101 



Compare ^Measure for Measure*, IV, i, 1 — 4: 

Take, 0, take those lips away, 
That so sweetly were forswom; 
And those eyes, the break oj day^ 
Lighta that do mislectd the mom, ' 

And Romeo, III, ii, 8: 

Lovers can see to do their amorous rites 
By their own beauties; or, if love be blind, 
It best agrees with night. 

With the latter idea compare Hero & L., I, 191: 

dark night is Cupid^s day. 

22) Finally, the following passage from Chapman's continuation, 
Sest., III, 38: 

. . . . a beauty richer than the sky, 

Throiigh whose white skin, softer than soundest sicep, 

l^ith damask eyes the ruby blood doth peep, 

And runs in branches throagh her azure veins. 

is compared by Malone (XIV, 356) with Wint. Tale, IV, iv, 147: 

.... your youth, 
And the tnie blood which peepeth fairly through't. 

This, I think, is the only coincidence worth noting between 
Chapman's portion and Shakespeare.' 

' Comp. Shakespeariana, Philadelphia, vol. III, 1886, p. 319. 

' Whether Dyer, the atithor of Folk Lore of Shakespeare is correct in saying 
(p. 174) that dragons arc a mythological attribute of Night, or whether there is 
any likelihood of Shakespeare having obtained a Suggestion from Marlowe, I cannot 
decide. The passages in question are these: 

Nor that night-wandering, pale, and watcry star 
(When yawning dragons draw her thirling car). 

llero & L., I, 107. 

Night's swift dragons cut the clouds füll fast. 

(Mid. N. Dr., 111, ir, '610.) 

Swift, swift, you dragons of the night. 

(Cymlielinc, II, ii, 48.) 

The dragou wing of night o'ersprcads the carth. 

(Troil. V, VIII, 17.) 

According to the old mythology Demeter, or Ceres, alone had a dragon yoke 
(see Fumess, X, p. 1G5). 



> T.» 



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\0i Chapter 3. The English Non-Dramatic Polite Literature, 

THOMAS WATSON. 

The passage on Time in 'Lucrece' is inspired by Thomas Watson's 
77*** poem of his Hekatompathia, printed 1582/ 
I may here add a short note on 

SHAKESPEARE'S SONNETS. 

I cannot enter into details regarding their sources. This is a 
question which has received careful attention at the hands of Sidney 
Lee, Hermann Isaac, and others. ' The conclusion Mr. Lee arrives at 
is as follows: 'The thoughts and words of the sonnets of Daniel, 
'Drayton, Watson, Barnabe Barnes, Constable, and Sidney were assimi- 
'lated by Shakespeare in his poems [i. e. sonnets] as conscionsly and 
'with as little corapunction as the plays and novels of contemporaries 
^in his dramatic work. To Drayton he was especially indebted. Such 
'resemblances as are visible between Shakespeare's sonnets and those 
of Petrarch or Desportes seem due to his study of the English imi- 
'tators of those sonnetteers. Most of Ronsard's nine hundred sonnets 
'and many of his numerous ödes were accessible to Shakespeare in 
'English adaptations, but there are a few signs that Shakespeare, had 
recourse to Ronsard direct.' (S. Lee, Life of W. Shakesp., 1898, p. 109.) 

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY'S 

Arcadia, much read and admired by the Elizabethans, 'has been ob- 
'viously imitated in many instances by our early dramatists'. 

'That part of the pastoral where Pyrocles agrees to command the 
'Ilelots, seems to have suggested those scenes of the Two Gentlemen 
'of Verona, in which Valentine leagues himself with the outlaws.' 
This I quote from Dunlop, who endorses Steevens's supposition, ropeated 
dozens of times by others. But anybody who takes the trouble of 
reading this tiresomo romance will be surprised at the cxtremely slender 
resemblance. Pyrocles is indeed captain of the Helots, over whom 
he exercises a civilizing influence, but there the coincidence ends (Are. 
Bk. I, eh. 6). Perhaps a little more apposite would have been a 
reference to chapt. 5, where the wicked Demagoras is banished, and 
made the general by the Ilelots. But I believe Shakespeare never 
thought of the Arcadia when he wrote Acts IV & V of The Two Gentle- 
men. The idea of captaining outlaws was suggested by the Robin 
Hood ballads (s. post^ Ballads). 

* Keprinted by Arber. 

■ See also Sarrazin, Shakespeare's Lehrjahre, 1897, pp. 149 ff. 



WeUson. Sidneys Areadia. L^ltj^s Euphues, 103 

'An episode in the second book (eh. 10) of the Areadia, where a 
'kiDg of Paphlagonia, whose eyes had been put ont by a bastard son, 
'ia described as led by bis rightfal heir, wbom he had cnielly used 
^for the sake of his wieked brother, has farnished Shakespeare with 
Hhe underplot eoneerning Gloster and his two sons, in King Lear, 
^rhere are in the romanee the same description of a bitter storm, 
^and the same reqaest of the father, that he might be led to the 
'sammit of a eliif, which oeeur in that pathetie tragedy.' (Dunlop, 
Hist. of Fiet., 1896, II. p. 401-2). 

'Steevens pointed ont that there are in the first two acts [of 
'Pericles] several imitations of ideas in the Areadia, viz., I, i, 10 — 11 ; 
'62—63; II, I, 63 — 65; ii, 54 — 55, and last words of scene. The 
'passages in the Areadia will be found in the Yariornm edition at 
'these references.'^ Steevens's fnrther supposition that the name of 
'Sidney's hero 'Pyrocles' was the original of our Tericles' seems very 
'likely.' (P. Z. Round, in Facs. Ed. of Pericles, Quarte I, 1886, p. XII). 
Bnt Shakespeare is said not to have written the first two aets of 
this play. 

The name Mopsa in Wint. Tale may have been suggested by 
the Areadia.' 

JOHN LYLY'S EUPHUES. 

Let me begin by quoting the foUowing passage from 'John Lyly 
and Euphuism" by C. G. Child: — 'The discussion of this point leads 
'naturally to the question whieh really originated it — did Lyly and 
'Euphuism affect Shakspeare, and did Shakspeare parody Lyly? The 
'question, it seems to us, is simple to answer. Euphuism, as we 
'took care to note, is a matter of diction, of form, of style, and no- 
'where in Shakspeare do we find a Euphuistie diction, save in the 
'single instanee where Euphuism appears to be parodied. In brief, it 
'is possible that Euphuism may have exercised some formative in- 
'fluence upon Shakspeare in his youth, but it at least gave no distinct- 
'ive quality to his style. A quantitative analysis would be simply 
'impossible .... We must agree with Landmann' that Shakspeare 

^ For parallelLsms between Shakespeare and the Areadia, cp. Eliza M. West: 
^Shaksperian Parallelisms chiefly illustrative of The Tempest and a Mids. N. Drcain, 
collected from Sir Philip Syduey's Areadia,' privately printed, 1865. Only ten 
copies were preserved, which was too many. 

3 Münchener Bcitr.» VIT, 1894. It is a pity that Child could not make iise 
of Wurth'a work and the paper in the Quarterly Rev. referred to post, 

» See New Shaksp. Soc, Transact. 1880—5, Part II. 



104 Chapttr 3. The Engliah Non-Dramatic Polite Lüerature. 

'did not parody Euphues in "Love's Laboui's Lost'\ and Ihat the only 
'passage in which he did so was "1. Henry IV.", [Act II, iv, 438 — 461. 
'Cp., too, 11. 501—4]. His Intention there is clearly proved by bis nse 
'of the famous chamomile metaphor which seems to spread every- 
'where.' (Child, ut sup, pp. 112—^3.) 

Lyly's passage containing the camomile metaphor is this: Too 
^much stndie doth intoxicate their braines, for (say they) althongh 
'yron the more it is used the brighter it is, yet silver with much 
^weanng doth wast to nothing: though the Cammocke the more it is 
^bowed the better it serveth, yet the bow the more it is bent and 
'occupied, the weaker it waxeth: though the Camomill the more it is 
Hroden and pressed downe^ the more it spreadeth^ yet the Violet the 
'oftner it is handeled and touched, the sooner it withereth and de- 
cayeth.' (Arber's Repr., p. 46.) 

Child's work was soon after succeeded by Wurth's 'Das Wortspiel 
bei Shakspere' (Wiener Beitr., 1895) and by a paper contributed to 
the Quarterly Review, No. 365, 189«, pp. llOif. by R. Warwick Bond 
who discovers a great deal more of Euphuism in Shakespeare's works 
than either Landmann or Child is willing to allow. After referring 
to the parody of Lyly's style in 1. Henry IV., he continues: 'But it 
^seems to have escaped notice that Shakespeare's imitation of the 
'style [of Euphues] is by no means confined to this brief parody. 
'Other passages exhibit the alliteration, the resemblance of sound, the 
'repetition of the same word to give point, above all the antitbetic 
'or parallel structure of clauses — all the chief marks, in fact, of the 
'style except the similes .... It appears first in 'The Merchant of 
'Venice', in the talk betweeu Portia and Nerissa and one or two 
'other passages, and is constantly reappearing in the work of the next 
'few years. It crops up only in the mouths of people of rank and 
'education, and chiefly in characters remarkable for wit, such as Fal- 
'staff, Prince Hai, Portia, Rosalind, Touchstone, or the Clown in 
"Twelfth Night'.' (Q. R. p. 119).' 

I have thought it advisable to let these two authorities State 
their own opinion regarding the influence of style— a question in 
which the final arbiter is Feeling not Reason, however helpful analyt- 

* In a uote bclow the text the writer gives numerous examples, from which 
I select the following as samples: Merch., I, i, 114— '8; n, 1-36; 92—96; 140— '5. 
1. Henry IV., Act!, u, 1-5; 26—43; 140— '8; As Y. L. It, I, n, 40-60; 92—6; 
III, ir, 11 — 32; 46—9; etc. — Mr. Bond repeats his view, as given above, in his 
edition of John Lyly. 1902. (Cf. vol. I, p. 153.) 



Lylya Euphuet. 105 

ic and critical judgment may be. Ward's Statement seems to me 
very jnst: *as to the special characteristics of the Euphuistic style, 
'he [Shakespeare] was alike too catholic in bis appreciation and too 
'eclectic in his appropriation of exotic excellence to imitate Lyly other- 
'wise than incidentally, or (so to speak) as it might snit himself.' 
(Engl. Dram. Lit., 1899, 1, 281.) 

'The Euphiiism of Lyly's play8\ says Mr. Child (p. 88), 'is a simpli- 

'fied Euphuism\ We must be careful not to confound Lylyan pe- 

caliarities and devices with Euphuism. Whether we agree with Child, 

or not, that Shakespeare's style is not Euphuistic, there can be little 

question that much of it is Lylyan. The combats of wit, the thrusting 

and parrying of fantastic conceits, puns and antitheses, as irritating 

in some plays, as delightful in the more finished comedies, conti- 

nually remind us of the Lylyan dialogues. But these gj^mnastics of wit 

were indulged in by the Elizabethan society at large, and Shakespeare 

himself is said to have practised wit-combats at the Mermaid Tavern. 

Rushton has written a book * with a view to prove the great influence 

of Lyly's Euphues on Shakespeare in thought, language, and phrase. But 

in many cases the resemblances are 'too slender to Warrant any definite 

conclusion'. The following are some more striking Parallelisms: — 

i) 'Euphues to Botonio, to take his exile patiently' (Arber's Repr., 

pp. I86ff.) contains counsels very similar to those given by Gaunt to 

the banished Bolingbroke, in Richard IL (Act I, ni). Read the 

passages in Lyly and Shakespeare and compare especially the following 

parallelisms. 

Plato would never aecompt bim banished ^Äat had tho Sun, Fire, 
Aire, Water and Barth, that he bad before, wbere be feit the Winters 
blast and tbe Summers blaze, wbere tha same Sun, and the samc Moone 
shincd, whereby be noted that every place was a country to a wise man, 
and al parts a pallace to a quiet mind.'^ 

Compare with this Rieh. IL, ut sup. 11 275 — 6: — 

All places that the eye of beaven Visits 
Are to a wise man ports and bappy bavens 

1 'Shakespeare's Euphuism', 1871. I should have preferrcd to entitle it; 
*Passage8 from Lyly's Euphues illustrative and elucidatory of Sh'. Kushtorf s pa- 
rallelisms ought to l>e compared with thoso given in the Quarterly Kev , No. 305 
(1896), pp. 125 f., and Hense's diffuse articies in Shakesp. Jahrl»., VII <fe VI II. liut 
there is too rauch of the 'perhaps' and 'possible' in many of tht'so parallelisms. 

* There is less resemblance in the Friar's advice to Romeus, Brooke, II. 
1443-1467. 



106 Chapter 3. The Engliah Non-Dramalic Polite Ltterature. 

And 11. 144—5: 

Bolingbroke: .... this mnst my comfort be, 
That suu tbat warms you Iicrc shall shinc on me. 

The same thought scems to be echocd in Cymbeline, III, iv 139:— 

Ilath Britain all the sim tliat sliines? Day, night, 
Are they not bat in Britain? etc. 

Again, Euphues says: 

He is to be laugbed at which thincketh Mo Moonc better at Athens 

then at Corinth when it was cast in Diogenes teeth, th^i the 

Sinopenetes had banished liim Pontus, yea said he, / iheiit of Diogenes, 

Comp. Rieh. 11, II. 279-'80: 

Thiuk not the king did banish thee, 
But thou the king. 

The same thought is in CorioL, III, iii, where Coriolanus says to 
the Citizens, who had banished him: ''I banish you." 

ii) There is considerable similarity between the advice given by 
Euphues to Philautus on board the ship sailing for England (Arber's 
Kepr., p. 24().) and Polonius's advice to Laertes in 'Hamlet' (I, in), 
the sequence of the counsels parallel ing each other being the same 
in both cases. 

Euphues. Polonius. 

Be not lavisli of tby tongue Give tby thoughts no tongiie. 

every one that sliaketh thee by the But do not dull thy palm with enter- 
hand^ is not ioyned to thee in heart. tainment 

Of each newThatch'd, unfledged com- 

rade. 

Be not quarrellous for every iyght Beware Of entranco to a quarrel, but 
occasion . . . they [i. e. the English] bcing in, 

never fight without provoking, and Bear't that the opposed may beware 
once provoked they never cease. Be- of thee. 

wäre etc. 

It shal be there better to heare what Give every mau thy ear, but feAv thy 

they say, then to speak what thou voice; 

thinkest: They have long ears and Take each man's censure, but reservo 

Short tongues, quicke to heare, and thy judgement. 
slow to utter. 

iii) Mal one pointed out a resemblance between Shakespeare's 
description of the Commonwealth of the bees (Henry V. Act I, 
II, 183 ff.) and that given by Lyly in his Euphues (Arber, pp, 2ül — '5). 



Lylys Euphues, Lodge, Greene, ]Q7 

Our poet, however, had no doubt learued this object-Iesson In the 
school of Mature. 

Further coincidences are pointed out by Mr. Bond in bis edition 
of Lyly (vol. I, p. 164 — 175), to which I refer the reader. 

THOMAS LODGE. 

Lodge's 'RosALYNDE. Euphues Golden Legacie: found after his 
death in his Cell at Silexedra. Bequeathed to Phihiutus sonnes, 
noursed up with their father in England' (printed 1590, and again 
1592, 1598, etc.), a novel 'Euphuistic in form and Arcadian in content', 
is the source of Shakespeare's sweet comedy, As You Like It. * 

The following poem in Lodge's Rosalynde (Furness, VIII, 36G): 

A turtle säte lipon a leavelesse tree, 
Mo Urning her absent pheare 
With sad and sorrie cheare, etc. 

seems to be echoed by Paulina, in The Wint. Tale, V, iii, 132 — 5: 

I, an old turtle, 
Will wing me to some wither'd bough and tliere 
My mate, that^s never to be found again, 
Lament tili I am lost. 

ROBERT GREENE 

is another Euphuistic writer, well known to Shakespeare, whose Winter's 
Tale is founded on Greene's Tandosto. The Triumph of Time', 
printed in 1588 and again 1607, 1609, 1614, etc. The running title 
is 'The Historie of Dorastus and Fawnia' (which in the later editions, 
1618 onwards, appeared on the title page).^ 

To Greene's ^Menaphon^ (1589, famous now for the allusion to 
a Pre-Hamlet, in Nash's forewords to the work) the name 'Menaphon', 
occurring in The Comedy of Errors (Act V, i, 368), seems to be due.' 

Of course, Shakespeare must have read Greene's ^Groats-worth 
^of Wity bought with a Million of Repentaunce', 1592, which contains 
the earliest undisputed reference to him. Henry Chettle, in his 'Kind- 

> On Lodge^s romance in its relafion to Shakcspearc^s play, see Delius, 
Shakesp. Jahrb., VI, 220 f.; Zupitza, i6. XXI, 93 IT.; [Boswell-]Stone, New Sh. Soc. 
Trans., 1880—5, Part II, 227 f. 

' Ou the relation of Pandosto to Wiut. Tale, see Deliiis, Sh. Jahrb., XV, 22 ff. 

' When I wrote this, I forgot that Menaphon is also the uame of a character 
in Marlowe's Tainburlaine. 



108 Chapler 3. The English Non-Dramatic Polite Literature, 

Harts Dreame', 1592, seems to indicate, that the 'Shake-sceue' was 

offended with Greene's dying invective. * 

Of 

FRANCIS BACON 

I have not been able io discover any traces in Shakespeare's works. 
On the almost faraous passage in 'Troilus and Cressida', II, ii, 166: 

young men, whom Aristotle thought 
Uiifit to hear moral philosophy — 

Mr. Leo, in his Life of William Shakespeare, p. 370, has an excelleut 
note, to which I refer the reader. Ile shows that Shakespeare and 
Bacon may well have made a quotation frora Aristotle in w^hat at 
iirst sight appears to be the same erroneous form independently of each 
other. Bacon's Advancement of Learning^ where the quotation in 
question is to be found, was first published in 1605. 'Troilus' did 
not appear in print until 1609, but it was probably produced in 1602. 
Unless we assume that the above passage was inserted after 1605, the 
Observation could not possibly have been borrowxd frora Bacon.' 

CAMDEN? 

The fable of the Belly and the Merabers in 'Coriolanus', I, i, is 
derived from Plutarch, whom Shakespeare foUows fairly closely. Certain 
points of resemblance have also been pointod out between Shake- 
speare's Version and the account in Camden's ^Remains concerning 
Bntain^^ published in 1605. In both of these writera the belly is 
likened to a gulf, and the following two passages contain similar thoughts: 

Shakesp.: .... where the otlier Instruments 

Did see and liear, divisc, instruct, walk, feel. 

tamdeir, wliereas the eyes beheld, the ears heard, the hands laboured, the 
fect travelled, the tongue spake, and all parts performed their functions 

These ideas are not explicitly set forth by Plutarch. But, though it 
is possible that Shakespeare read and consulted Camdeu's cntertaining 
book, the resemblances may be only accidental. No doubt the famous 
apologue was familiär to the great dramatist in some form or other 
long before Camden's publication appeared. 

Qu Cordelia's answer in King Lear, see post, 

* See New. Sh. Suc, IV, 2, Cent, of Praise, p. 4. 

- From the Haconiaus we learn how not to reason. This is some good, 
thoii«(h a iie«,'ative oue. 

^ See 'Wise Speeches'. Camden places the tulc in the mouth of Pope Adrian, 
an Englishman by l)irth, of the family of Breaktspmrc\ 



Baeon. Camden. Hartneu. 109 



SAMUEL HARSNETT. 

It was in 1585 — 1586 that William Weston and other Romanists 

performed their prodigies of exorcising devils, which, it was hoped, would 

prove a potent means of Converting Protestants The scene of their 

doings was chiefly in Sir George Peckham's house at Denham, in Bucks. 

The fiends thus cast out were legion. There could be no mistake 

about the facts, as there was no lack of eye-witnesses, and the devils 

had actnally been seen swimming like fishes under the skins of the 

demoniacs. In 1586 Weston, the Jesuit, was imprisoned. Twelve 

years later there was discovered in the house of a Catholic gentleman 

^The Book of Miracles', ascribed to Father Weston, containing an 

account of the prodigies in question. The book, a manuscript vo- 

laine, * is no longer extant. The chief persons dispossessed by the 

exorcists were examined or re-examined on their oath by a com- 

mission in the year 1602; and the Privy Council ordered Samuel 

Harsnett to publish an account of the proceedings. This he did in 

his work entitled: 'A Declaration of egregious Popish Impostures, to 

'with-draw the harts of her Maiesties Subiects from their allegeance, 

'and from the truth of Christian Religion professed in England, under 

Hhe pretence of Casting out devils. Practised by Edmunds, alias 

'Weston a lesuit, and diverse Romish priests his wicked associates. 

'Where-unto are annexed the Copies of the Confessions, and Exami- 

'nations of the parties themselves, which were pretended to be possess- 

'ed, and dispossessed, taken upon oath before her Maiesties Com- 

^missioners, for causes Ecclesiasticall. At London Printed by Lames 

'Roberts, dwelling in Barbican. 1603.' The work appeared again in 1604, 

and in 1605. Regarding W^eston, Harsnett, etc., see Mr. T. G. Law's 

paper on 'Devil-hunting in Elizabethan England', in The Nineteenth 

Century, March, 1894.' 

Theobald was the first to point out that Harsnett's book supplied 
the materials for the diablerie of the scenes in King Lear, in which 
Edgar «ossumes the röle of Mad Tom. 

In Harsnett's work w^e find, among many other names of devils, 
the following: Frateretto, Fliberdigibbet, Haberdicut or Hoberdicut, 



* See Harsnett p. 1 : Hhe pemied booke of Miracles' .... *an English Trea- 
Hise in a tcritten band.' Harsnett gives numerous quotations from it. 
^ Gf. also Spalding, Elizabethan Demonology. 



110 Chapter 3, The EnglUh Non-Dramatie Polüe Literature. 

Hoberdidance, Maho, Modu, Porre, Smolkin. These are all in King 
Lear. In Act III, iv, 120, we read: — 

Edgar. This is the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet. 

In the modern editions of King Lear we find the name again in 
Act IV, I, 62, where the Quartos have *'Stiberdigebit\ — Again, compare 
Act III, IV, 146 and 149:— 

Edg. . . . Peace, Smulkin; peace, thou fiend! 
The prince of darkness is a gentleman: 
Modo he's cali'd, and Mahn. ' 

And Act III, IV, 7: 

Edg. Frateretto calls me; and teils me Nero is an angier in the lake of 
darkness. Pray, innocent, and beware the foul fiend. 

In I. 32 occurs the name Hopfedance^ for which the modern 
editors write Hopdance. In 1. 47 we have ^Pur\ the cat is gray\ 
which may be an allusion to Harsnett's devil, Purre. In Act IV, i, 60 — 5, 
Edgar is made to say: — 

Five fiends have been in poor Tom at onee; of lust, as Obidicut; 
Jlobbididaiice, prince of dumbness; Mahu of stealing; Modo^ of murder; 
Flibbertigibbet^ of mopping and mowing, who since possesses chambermaids 
aml waiting-women. 

In this last sentence there is no doubt a reference to the maids 
of the Peckham family, where the exorcists carried on their tomfool- 
ery. Sara Williams was a special favourite of the devils. When 
she was 'troubled with a wind in her stomacke, the priests would say 
'at such times, that then the spirit began to rise in her.' And 'if 
'they heard any croaking m lier bellt/ . . . then they would make a 
'wonderful matter of that.' At one time the priests declared the 
croaking to be a devil speaking 'with the voyce of a Toade.' (Cp. 
Harsnett, pp. 194 — 5.) This Shakespeare had in niind when he niade 
Edgar say (Act III, vi, 31—4):— 

The foul fiend haunts poor Tom in the voice of a nightingale. llo]}- 
dance cries in Tom's belhj for two white herring. Croak not^ black angel; 
I have no food for thee. 

'Ma: Maynie', says Harsnett (p. 25; cp. too p. 263) 'had a spiee of 
'the Ilysteri^a passio^ as Seems from his youth, hee himselfe termes 

> According to Earsnett Maho and Modu were the cliief devils that possessed 
Sara and Maynie, cf. pp. 48, 50, and p. 269, whcre Harsnett mentions Mhe great 
'Prince Modu'. 



Haraneit, 



111 



^it the Moother.' This suggested the following passage put into the 
moQth of Lear (Act II, iv, f)6 — 8): 

0, how this mother swells up toward my hearti 
Ilijaterica passiö, down, thou climbing sorrow, 
Thy element's below! 

The same Maynie, one of the demoniacs, who used to curl his 
hair was affirmed by the exorcist to be troubled with the spirit of 
Pride. The Jesuit succeeded in casting this spirit as well as seven 
more out of him, every one of which departed from him in the shape 
of some animal: 'the spirit of Pride departed in the forme of a Peacock. 
'The spirit of Sloth in the likenes of an Asse: the spirit of Envie in 
Hhe similitude of a Dog: the spirit of Gluttony in the forme of a 
'Wolfe: and the other devils had also in their departure their parti- 
*culer likenesses agreeable to their natures'. (Harsnett, p. 281.) Com- 
pare with this, Act III, iv, 86: 

Lear. What hast thou been? 

Edg. A serving-man, proud m heart and mind; that curled my hair; 

hog in sloth, fox in stealth, wolf in greediness, dog in madness, 

lion in prey. 

The idea, however, of typifying sins by animals is old. Compare the 
Clarendon Press edition of King Lear, p. 169. 

On p. 219, Harsnett relates that a halter and two blades of knives 
were left by some one in the gallei^ floor of Peckham's house. Maynie, 
in his fit, Said, 'that the devil layd them in the Gallery, that some 
'of those that were possessed, might either hang theselves with the 
'halter, or kil themselves with the blades'. This seems to be alluded 
to in King Lear, III, iv, 54, where Edgar speaks of the foul fiend, 

that hath laid knives under his pillow, and halters in his pew. 

The pregnant words 'corky' (III, vii, 28), 'star-blasting' (III, iv, 60), 
'mopping and mowing' (IV, i, 63, the Quartos read: 'Mobing and 
'Mohing') may also have been suggested by Harsnett, who uses the 
Word 'corky', applied to an old woman, on p. 2B, and 'sparrow- 
'blasting' and 'sprite-blasting of the devil', on p. 80. On p. 136, 
Harsnett says: If 'she have a little helpe of the Mother ^ Epilepsie^ or 
^Cramp, to teach her role her eyes, wrie her mouth, gnash her teeth, 
'startle with her body, hold her armes and hands stiffe, make anticke 
'faces, gime, mowy and mop like an Ape^ tumble like a Hedgehogge, 
^and can mutter out two or three words of gibridg, as obus^ bobua .... 
'then no doubt the young girle is Owle-blasted^ and possessed'. 



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112 Chapter 3, The EnglUh Non-Dramatic Polite Literature. 

Douce thinks there is a reminiscence of this passage in The Tempest, 
II, II, 9, where Caliban speaking of Prospero's spirits says: 

For every trifle are they set upon me; 
Sometime like apes that mow and cbatter at me, 
And after bite me; then like hedgehogs whlch 
Lie tumbling in my barefoot way 

(Comp, «also Tempest, IV, i, 47.) Probably the coincidence pointed out 
by Douce is accidental. 

FURTHER DiEMONOLOGICA. 

Having pointed out Shakespeare's connexions with Harsnett, we 
may here take note of further demonological matter in his works. 
Many dramas of the time, we know, derive themes and hints from 
the supernatural and demonological world of thought,— Mario we's 
'Dr. Faustus' deserving especial mention.' We need therefore be little 
surprised to find Shakespeare introducing motifs of this sort into 
his plays. 

Of 'Lear' I have already spoken. In 'Macbeth' and 'Tempest* 
the supernatural machinery forms an essential dement of the play. 
In 1. Henry VI., Act V, iii, the Maid of Orleans invokes her familiars; 
but they forsake her even though she offers all: 

Then take my soul, my body, soul and all. 

No doubt this is an echo from Marlowe's 'Dr. Faustus', whose influence 
is still more apparent in 2. Henry VI., Act I, iv, from which I quote 
the following passage: 11. 24 — 34: 

Bolingbroke. Madam, sit you and fear not: wbom we raise, 
We will make fast within a hallow'd verge. 

[Ilere they ch the ceremonies helonging^ and mnke the circle; Bolingbroke or 
Southwell reads^ Conjure te, &c. It thunders and lightens terrihly; then the 
Spirit riseth.^ 

Spirii, Adsum. 

M. Jourdain. A sm ath , 

ßy the eternal God, whose name and power 

Thou tremblest at, answer that I sball ask; 

For, tili tbou speak, thou sbalt not pass from hence; 

Spir. Ask what thou wilt. That I had said and done! 

Boling, 'First of the king: what shall of him become?' 

• Compare my remarks in the Archiv für das Studium der neuereu Sprachen, 
vol. CVIJ, p. 182. 



Further Dtzmonologica, 



113 



Spir: The duke yet lives tbat Henry shall depose; 
But him outlive, and die a violent death, etc. 

In 'Comedy of Errors' (IV, iv), ^Twelfth Night' (III, iv and IV, ii) 
and 'Romeo' (II, i) we have humorous conjurations and exorcisms 
SV Midsammer Night's Dream' takes us to the serene fairy-Iand, into 
which we also peer through a chink, so to speak, in 'Romeo' (I, iv) 
and 'Comedy of Errors' (II, ii, 190—204). In The Merry Wives 
Falstaff is pinched black and blue by supposed fairies, like Corsites 
in Lyly's Endymion. From the undiscovered country we see travellers 
return as revengers in 'Richard III.', 'Hamlet', 'Julias Caesar' and 
Macbeth. ^ And, lastly, we have the apparitions in Cymbeline (V, iv) 
and Henry VIII. (IV, ii). 

Devils were classified into greater and lesser ones. To the former 
class belong, inter alios, Lucifer, Beelzebub, Amaymop king of the East, 
Zimimar king of the North', and apparently also Barbason [= Barbas?] 
and Asmath [=Asmodeus?]. These are all mentioned or referred to 
by Shakespeare.^ To the lower rank belong Paddock, Graymalkin, 
Harpier, etc. 

Oberen^ Titania, and Puck alias Ilobgoblin alias Robin Goodfellow 
are fairies. Ariel is a spirit, almost a fairy. Caliban is the ofTspring 
of a hag and an incubus.^ 

' The ghost comes from Seneca. Compare above, p. 36. 

» Compare Reg. Scott, ed. Nicholson, p. 327, 314, 318, 321. Rändle Holme 
(Academy of Armory. 1688. 2. Hk. p. 13) makes Amaymon niler of the North 
part of the Infernal gulf and Zimimar of the East part. 

a Merry Wives, H, ii, 311; 1. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 370—1; Henry V., Act 
II, I, 57; IV, VII, 145; 1. Henry VI., Act V, iii, (> (/Äe lordl^ Monarch of the north) \ 
2. Henry VI., Act I, iv, 27 ; etc. 

* Hecate in *Macbeth' is probably not Shakespeare'» creation. Nor do the 
songs *Come away, etc.' and 'Black spirits, etc." (Act III, v; and IV, i), given in 
füll in Middleton's Witch, appear to have formed part of the original draught of 
*Macbeth\ See Herford, Eversley Edition of Shakespeare, vol. IX. To Herford's 
argamentjj I am in position to add another. Nowhere in Shakespeare"» Macbeth 
do we find our poet closeiy followiug Scott. But in Middleton's 'Witch' there are 
many expressions taken unaltered from 'The Discovery', and the song 'black 
spirits' happens to be one for which the unmistakeable source can be pointed 
out in this work (p. 455). Hoppo, Stadiin, Puckle, and Hellwain of the other 
'song' are likewise taken from Scott (See Nicholson'» edition, p. 551) — Kemember, 
that Middleton's *Witch' belonged to *'IIis Ma^'c» Servants", the troupe of which 
Shakespeare was a member. Regarding Hecate compare, too, Herford, 'Literary Re- 
lations between Germany and England' (1886) p. 235. Herford's observatious on 
witchcraft, ibid. p. 219 fr., form a valuable complement to T. A. Spalding's work 
OD Eiizabethan Demonology. 18S0. 

Anders, Shakcspeare*s books. 3 



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114 Chapt€r 3. 77ie EngÜMh Non-Dramatic PolUe Littrature, 

Demonological problems occupying people's minds then to so 
large an extent both in practice and theorj', we need not search far 
for the sources of Shakespeare's witchcraft-knowledge. Reginald 
Scott's The Discovery of Witchcraß^ however, printed in 1584, de- 
serves to be noted as an exhaustive work on this snbject, — a com- 
pendiam which, we know, was used by Ben Jonson' and Middleton; 
and which was doubtless also referred to by Shakespeare, though I 
catinot prove it decisively. Numerons passages in illastration of 
Shakespeare might be easily cited from Scott's work.' 

In 'Macbeth' Shakespeare makes large concessions to the idio- 
syncracies and whims of the new king, James I., one of the foremost 
Champions in the quixotic fight against the black art; and, unless we 
are raistaken, the play contains reminiscences of historic events of 
1589 — 1591 in which the king played a prominent figure. The facts 
are these. In the year 1589 Anne of Denmark, King James's bride, 
sailing for Scotland, was driven upon the coast of Norway by a violent 
tempest. James thereupon put to sea himself to fetch her home. 
During their voyage the royal couple experienced another storm. No 
doubt that w^as the work of Scotch witches and wizards! By means 
of threats and tortures the king succeeded in forcing some poor folks 
to make the most astounding confessions. One Agnes Sampson openly 
avowed: — 

Hhat at the time when bis Majestie was in Denmarke, shee being 
accompanied by the parties before speciallie named, tooke a cat aud 
christened it, and afterward boande to each part of tbat cat, the cheefest 
parte of a dead man, and severall joyntis of bis bodie: And that in the 
night foUowing, the saide cat was convayed into the middest of the sea by 
all these witches, sayling in their riddles or cives (=3ieves), as is afore- 
said, and so left the saide cat right before the towne of Lieth {sie) in 
Scotland. This doone, there did arise such a tempest in the sea, as a 
greater hath not bene secne; which tempest was the cause of the pcrish- 
ing of a boat or vessell comming over from the towne of Brant Uande 
to the towne of Lieth, wherein was sundrie jewelles and rieh giftes, which 
should have been presented to the now Queene of Scotland, at her Ma- 
jesties Coming to Leith. Againe, it is confessed, that the saide christened 
cat was the cause that the Ringes Majesties shippe, at bis commiug forth 
of Denmarke, had a contrarie winde to the rest of bis shippes then being 
in bis companie; which thing was most stränge and true, as the Kinges 



^ Comp, my note in Shakespeare Jahrbuch, XXXVIII, p. 240. 
3 Goncerning the charm on p. 68 of Scotf s ^Discovery\ see posi. 



Further Dcemonologica, 



115 



Hajestie acknowledgeth, for when the rest of the shippes had a faire and 
good winde, tben was the winde contrarie and altogether against bis 
Majesüe; and further, the sayde witche declared, that bis Majestie had 
never come safelf from the sea, if his faith had not prevayled above tbeir 
intentions. ^ 

Who will not be reminded of Shakespeare's 'Macbeth', I, iii? 

First Witch Her busband's to Aleppo gone, master o' the Tiger: 

But in a Steve TU thither sail,' 

And, like a rat without a tail, 

VW do, ril do, and Til do. 

See, Wiich. TU give theo a wind^ etc. 



First Witch .... Though his bark cannot bo lost, 
Yet it sbali be tempest-tost, etc. 

'It is worth a note that this art of going to sea in sieves, which 
'Shakspere has referred to in his drama, seems to have been pecn- 
'Jiar to this set of witches. English w^itches had the reputation of 
^being able to go upon the water in egg-shells and cockle-shells [cp. 
'R«g. Scott, p. 8 and Tericles', IV, iv, 2], but seem never to have 
*detected any peculiar advantages in the sieve.'* 

An account of the intensely exciting proceedings at Edinburgh 
was printed in London in a p<amphlet entitied: Newes from Scotlandy 
declaring the Damnable life and death of Doctor Fian,' a notable 

' 1 am quoting from *Newes from Scotland' (see below), republished in 
R. Pitcairn's Criminal Trials iu Scotland, vol. I, part 2, p. 218. Comp, also ibid.y 
p. 254 (25). 

' Spalding, Elizabethan Demonology, 1880 p. 115. In this book the reader 
will find further particulars regardiug these events aud their connexion with 
•Macbeth'. 

' Poor Dr. Fian was a young schoolmaster, who refused in the end to 
confess to a crime punishable by death. Even under the most frightful tortures, 
when his finger-nails were wrenched oflf by a pair of pinchers, and his legs cm- 
shed into one mass of bleeding jelly, did he remain 'stubborn'. *So deeply had 
the Devill entered into his heart' (Pitcairn, ut sup., p. 2*23). The only alternative, 
therefore, that remained was to kill him. More they could not do. Other sup- 
posed associates, too, of this martyr-against-his-will received what their hellish deeds 
deser^'ed. 

But King James was not the only devil-hunter. In Queen Elizabeth's reign 
a considerable number of witches were put to death (see Mrs. Lynn Linton, Witch 
Stories. 1883, p. 153; and Annie Besant, Threatenings and Slaughter's, London 188(), 
p. 21.); and in Germany, Heinrich Julius Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, who 
marricd the sister of King Jamcs^s wife, was notorious for his wholesale exe* 
cutions of innocent folks. But let us cast a mantle of pity over the misdeeds 

8* 



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116 '^^^ Englisk Non-Dramatic Politt LUerature 

Sorcerer, who w<as burned at Edenbrough in January last, 1591 . . . . 
With the true examinations of the Saide Doctor and witcbes as they 
uttered them in the presence of the Scottish King. Discovering how 
they pretended to bewitch and drowne bis Maiestie in the Sea 
comming from Denmarke, with such other wonderful matters as the 
like hath not been heard of at any time. Published according to the 
Scottish copie. At London Printed for Thomas Nelson.' — (Another 
edition was printed for William Wright.) 

In 1597 James published bis Dienionologie — *a work founded to 
*a great extent upon bis experiences at the trials of 1590'. The work 
was reprinted in 1600, and in 1603; and translated into Latin. Old 
Nick had therefore tough times of it, while James was king. 

BOOKS ON GOOD MANNERS AND ON DUELLING. 

In As You Like It, V, iv, 95, Touchstone is made to refer to the 

books for good manners, 

of which there existed many in Sbakespeare's days, as, for example, 
Hugh Rhodes's Boke of Nurture (c. 1545, etc.), Francis Seager's 
Schoole of Vertue* (1557, 1588), and so forth. (See Dr. FurnivalPs 
'The Kal)ees Book', edited for the Early English Text Society, No. 32— 
out of print — ; and 'Queene Elizabethes Achadeniy', Extra Series, VIII.) 

In 'Komeo' (I, v, 112)— 

You kiss by the book — 
we have another reference (if the expression is to be taken literally) 
to books on nianners. 

Bacon, in a speech of 1613 against duels, refers to "sonie French 
"and Italian pamphlets, which handle the doctrine of Dueh''\ * The 
best authority in England on this subject sceins to have been Vin- 
centio Saviolo, ' an Italian, who wjis the author of *The booke of 
honour and Armes wherein is discoursed the Causes of quarrell, and 

of cur forefathers.— llemeinber, that they based thcir firm conviction of the 
cxistence and efHcacy of the blaek art and of posscssiou by spirits on the Scrip- 
tures. Even Keginald Scott finds it hard to explain tlie tale of the witch of Endor 
(1. Sara. 28.) on rational groiinds. It is very probable that Shakespeare had this 
very story in his mind when he wrote Act IV, sc. 1. of Macbeth. 

* Bacou's Works ed. by Spcddin*,' and Ellis and lleath, vol. XI, 1868, p. 400. 

^ Saviolo was taken into the Service of the Earl of Essex, and was consi- 
dered the best fencer in Eiifrland. Compare what Dekker says in his 'Wonderfull 
Yeare', 1603 (llnth Libr., Dekker, vol. 1, p. 120), of sickncss: "Uees the best 
Fencer in the world: Vinceniio Saviolo is no body to him'\ 



(iL* 



Boohs on Qood Manners^ on EmhUmiy and on English History, 2X7 



the nature of Iniuries with their Repulces with the meanes öf satis- 
faccion and pacification', etc. 1589.^ This work is not extant. Bat 
Malone, it appears, saw it, but he found nothing in it worthy of 
mach note. Another work, appeared in 1594-5 with the title of 
'Vincentio Saviolo his Practise. In two Bookes. The first intreating 
of the ase of the Rapier and Dagger. The second, of Honor and 
honorable Qaarrels'. London 1595. 

The affectations connected with duelling are derided by Shake- 
speare in 'As Yoa Like It', V, iv, and *Romeo', II, iv, 20 — 37, ' perhaps 
with a distinct reference to Saviolo's books. For correspondences be- 
tween Shakespeare's text and Saviolo 1 refer the reader to Farness's 
Varioram Edition.' 

SHAKESPEARE AND THE EMBLEM WRITERS. 

Henry Green's work on this subject (printed in 1870, and comprising 
571 pages) gives an incorrect impression of Shakespeare's obligations 
to the emblematists. Except for Pericles, Act II, ii,— but Acts 1 and 2 
Shakespeare is said not to have written — there is no reliable indi- 
cation of the poet's indebtedness to the emblem literature. If there 
is anything to be learnt from Green's volume, it is this, that Shake- 
speare may have acquired some of his knowledge at second band.* 

COMPENDIUMS OF ENGLISH HISTORY. 

The problem of the sources of Shakespeare's dramas dealing with 
English Ilistory has been exhaustively investigated by Mr. Boswell- 
Stone in his 'Shakspere's llolinshed', to which my Inaugural Disser- 
tation (1900) serves as a sort of introduction. To these works I refer 
the reader for particulars. (Compare also the 'Synopsis' on page 1.) 
I only State here, very briefly, that Shakespeare has essentially follow- 
ed Raphael IIolinshed's Chronkles, in the second edition which 
appeared in 1586-7. Ile also raade use of Edward Halles Uiiion of 
the Tico Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and York^ probably 



If] 

m 









^. ri 



tft> 



tr 









9 

I 

» 
» 

» 



i 

» 1 



» Arber Transcripts, II, 537. 

• Comp., too, Love's L. L., I, ii, 184 ff. 

' In the Dict. of Nat. Biogr. Mr. Lee refers to ii note by Inf,'lehy in the 
Notes aud Queries, who imaj^ined he had discovercd a source für OHaudo's duel 
*ith Charles in Saviolo. But Shakespeare had uo nced to ^o further than to 
Lodgc's Uosalynd for this cpisode. 

* Von Mauntz is the author of Sh. und die Heraldik. Berlin, 1903. (His 
explanation of The Phoenix and the Turtle seems over-ingcnious.) 




118 Chapur 3. The English Non-Dramatie PoUte Lilirature. 

as embodied in Kighabd Gbafton's Chronicle^ and perhaps also of 
John Stowe's Annales and Fabyan's Chronicle. Foxe's Acts and 
Monuments were largely laid under contribution by the author, or 
authore, of 'Henry VIIF. * 

^ An incident from earlier French history (1404) is introduced into Love^s 
Labour^s Lost (Compare Razlitt, Sbakesp.^s Libr. I, 3). 

AUusiont to Contemporary Incidents and PtraonngeSj ete. in Shakespeare* b Works, — 
Tbis ought to be inade the subject of a separate paper. I only jot down a few notes here 
from memory. First, in Love's Labour's Lost: Henry of Navarre (Uenry IV. of France); 
Biron; Longaville; Duc du Maine; LaMothe; Duke Alen^on; 'Fantastical Monarcho"; a 
Russian courtship at Queen Elizabeth^s court in L583; and a meeting of Henry of Na- 
varre with a French princess (see Gent. Mag., Oct, 1880, pp. 447—458, and a long 
article in Sh. Jahrb. XXXI, 200).— Count Mompelgard (Mcrry Wiv.); tho Armada 
(Lov. Lab. L.); English and Dutch explorations (see a later cbapter) ; French civil 
war (Errors, III, ii, 125-7); Amurath of Turkey (2. Henry IV.); Gonzaga's murder 
near Mantua (? see Sh. Jahrb. XXXI, 169); Queen Elizabeth (Henry VIIL, Act V, v), 
"the imperial votaress" at Kenilworth (Mids. N. Dr.), "our gracious empress"*' 
(Henry V., Act V, Prol., 30), "the queen" (2. Henry IV. Epil.),— the Queen was 
probably also bcfore the poet's mind when he drew the Princess in Love's Lab. 
Lost; King James in Heury VIII., ui sup., Macbeth (ospecially Act IV^, i, 121), — 
probably also before Shakespoare's mind's eye when portraying the duko in Meas. f. M. 
and Prospero in The Tempest (cf. Sh. Jahrb. XXXV., 166 and Archiv. CVII, 177); 
Earl of Southampton (Dedicatious of 'Venus' and *Lucrece', Sonncts); Southamp- 
ton's mother (Mids. N. Dr., cf. Archiv XCV, 291); Earl of Essex and the Irish 
war (Heury V.) ; Marriage at court (Tempest, see Shakesp. Jahrb. XXX V^ ut sup,); 
lady of the Strachy (? Tw. Night); Marlowe, the "dead shepherd" (As Y. L. It); 
Sneak's noise (2. Henry IV., II, iv, 12); Mistress Mall (Tw. Night— see Dyce's 
Glossary, ed. 1902); the dark lady of the Sonncts; Hrowuist (Tw. Night); Puritaus 
(passim); Sackersou, the bear (VVives); Marocco, "the dancing horse" (Love Lab. 
L.); [Düwland and Spenser occur in a wow-Shakespearean Sounet in Pass. 
Pilgrim 107, 109]; Sir Oliver Mariexi may coutaiu a distant allusion to the Mar- 
Prelate Coutroversy. There is a refereiice to the fierce stage-quarrel, which was 
bcing waged about 1600, in Hamlet (II, ii). Several actors' names of the Shake- 
S])earean troupe are presorved iu the Folio of 1623: Kemp, Cowley, Sincklo, 
Humphrey [Jeifes], Gabriel [Spenser] and Jack Wilson (see Sidney Lee\s Facsimile 
of the Folio, 1902, p. XX). Giulio Romano (Wint. Tale) lived before Shakespeare's 
time (d. 1546). 



CHAPTER 4. 
THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

MüCH attention has of late years been paid to Elizabethan dra- 
matic literature. But no comprehensive treatise has yet been written 
on Sh<akespeare's relations to it, a subject of utmost importance. Nor 
can I hope to supply the want of such a desideratum in the present 
chapter, in which I only bring forward what I consider to be some 
more prominent facts. I make no attempt at tracing out the vai'ious 
currents of the older drama, which meet in Shakespeare. This task 
belongs rather to the writer of the history of the drama. Much ex- 
cellent work, I am glad to say, has been done in this direction by 
raen like Ward, Fleay', Brandl, Boas, and others, not to speak of 
critics of bygone days. Suffice it to say here, that Shakespeare, so 
far from being the creator of a new drama, is the inheritor of an ex- 
tensive stage-literature, which had attained a considerable degree of 
perfection. In the present chapter I confine my sole attention to 
those particular plays of which we find distinct and clear traces in 
Shakespeare's works, or which are his direct sources. 

DRAMATIO AUTHORS. 

The three most prominent predecessors of Shakespeare in the 
English dramatic literature are named by Ben Jonson in his dedica- 
tory verses before the folio of 1623: — 

"thoa didst our Lihj out-shine, 
"Or sporting Kid, or Marlowes migbty line." 



* My Statement above, p. 5, note, regarding a new edition of Fleay's Ilistory 
of the Stage reqiiires a slight correction. Prof. Morsbach has kindly iuformed 
me, tbat it is an independent work, liearing the following title: Die Geschichte 
der englischeu Schauspiel-Truppen bis 1642. Louvain. 1903. The author is 
Dr. Maas. It is now passing through the prcss. 



ii 



9 

m 

t 
I 



I 



•f/.-lt »^ 



> I, 



1 ' 




120 Chapter 4, The English Drama. 

We begin with the last, who stood head and Shoulders above bis 
compeers, 

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, 

with whom Shakespeare came into immediate contact, and from whom 
he recoived influences the most profound and enduring. Nor was 
thLs influence raerely intellectual^ but it is the power <and virtue of 
genius which went out of the poet of the Sturm und Drang to Iiis 
great disciple, gifted with a doubie portion of his spirit. 

Marlowe's strongly individualistic boldly relieved characters have 
left a marked Impression on Shakespeare the character-poet 'par t\c^ 
cellence. The aspiring Machiavellian figures, like Tamburlaine, the 
Duke of Guise, are the prototypes of York in 'llenrj^ VI.', of 
Richard III., Macbeth, etc. The weak kings, like Mycetes, and Edward, 
are the modeis of Shakespeare's Richard IL, and Henry VI. Again, 
Aaron, Shylock, lago, and others are drawn on the same lines ivs 
Barabas, the Jew of Malta, and his accomplice Ithamore. The pair 
Isabella-Mortimer in Marlowe's Edward IL preceded Margaret-Suffolk 
and Tamora-Aaron. And, lastly, the murderers of Clarence and of 
Banquo are modelled after the murderers in Edward IL and in The 
Massacre at Paris. 

The metre chosen by Marlowe was the blank verse, which he was 
not the creator of, but on which he impressed his peculiar stamp, 
proving its adaptedness for dramatic purposes. 

We now proceed to a brief discussion of Marlowe's works in 
particular, taking special note of striking parallelisms. Such parallel 
passages, I admit, do not show the extent of Shakespeare's indebtedness, 
but they help to bring the fact of it into streng relief. The existence 
of numerous verbal reminiscences of older plays is just what we might 
expect to find in a poet, who, as an actor, had taken part in per- 
forming many of them dozens of times. * 

* E. Hübener has written a dissertation *Der Einfliiss von Marlowe's Tambur- 
laine auf die zeitgcnössigchen und folgenden Dramatiker'. Halle. 1901. Shake- 
speare's relations to Marlowe are discussed incidentally by Sarrazin in his Shake- 
speare's Lehrjahre. 1897. Brandl has written some sujjgestive remarks on the 
same subject in the Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 1891, p. 712ff. in a review of 
Schroers treatisc on Titus Andronicus. Mr. Verity's *Influence of Marlowe on 
Shakespeare', 188G (mentioned in the Dict. of Nat. Biogr.), is a schoolboy's essay. — 
My quotations from Marlowe are taken from Bullen's edition, 1885. 



Marlotve, 



121 



Tambüblaine. 

In Shakespeare's earlier plays we are continually reminded of 
Marlowe's plays. Tamburlaine's influence is predominant in 1. Henrj^ VI., 
in which we have plenty of fighting ajid ranting. Many coincidences 
will be discovered. It will be sufficient to point out the foUowing The 
impetuoiis Talbot, the "terror and bloody scourge" of the French, is 
plainly drawn after Tambuilaine. Suffolk falls in love with his fair 
prisoner, like Tamburlaine with Zenocrate.* The beginning of the 
first scene of 1. Ilenrj^ VI. contains echoes from Marlowe's play. 
Compare especially verses 1 — 5: 

[Dead March. Enter the Faneral of King Henry the Fiftli, etc. 
Beilford. Hung be the heavens with black, yield day to night! 
Comets, importing change of times and states, 
Brandish your crystal tresses in the sky, 
And with them scourge the bad revolting stars 
That have consented unto Henry's death. 

The bringing of the coffin on the stage accompained by lamentations 
is imitated from Marlowe's 2. Tamburhiine, Act III, ii, where the 
hearse of Zenocrate is brought in. The same motif occurs in Titas 
Andronicus (I, i) and Richard III. (I, ii). The words placed in the 
mouth of Bedford appear to contain a reminiscence of 2. Tamburlaine, 
Act II, IV, — Zenocrate's death-scene: — 

Tamb. Black is the beauty of the brightest day; 
The golden ball of heaven's eternal fire, 
That danced with glory on the silver waves, 
Now wants the fuel that inflamed his beams; 
And all with faintness, and for foul disgrace, 
He binds his temples with a frowning cloud 
Ready to darken earth with endless night. 

Zenocrate 

Xow by the malice of the angry skies, 
Whose jealousy admlts no sccond matc, 
Draws in the comfort of her latest breath — 

or of similar language used in 2. Tamburlaine V, ni, Iff. 
The verse 

Brandish your crystal tresses in the sky 

^ This motif occurs again in Titus Andronicus, I, i, where Saturninus makes 
Tamora bis queen. 



•*• 



u 



f i-, 



• * 






•* 



il 



^1 




122 Chapter 4. Th€ EnglUh Drama. 

is an echo of 1. Tambnrlaine, ActY, i, 141: 

Sbaking her silver tresses in the air. 

The bombastic ennmeration of titles and names in Tamburlaine 
are the object of ridicule in 1. Henry VI., Act IV, vii, GOseq.i — 

Bat where's the great Aleides of the field, 
Valiaut Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
Created, for his rare success in arms, 
Great Earl of Washford, Waterford and Valence; 
Lord Talbot of Goodrig and Urchinfield, etc., etc. 

* 

on which the Pucelle remarks: 

Here is a silly stately style indeed! 

The Tark, that two and iifty kingdoms hatb, 

Writes not so tedious a style as this. 

In Illustration of the above passage we might cite several from Mar- 
lowe's play. The foUowing from 2. Tamburl., III, i, 1 — 7, is perhaps 
specially characteristic: 

Callapinus Cyricelibes, otherwise Cybelius, son and successive heir to the 
late mighty emperor, Bajazetb, by the ald of God and his friend Mahomet, 
emperor of Natolia, Jerusalem, Trebizond, Soria, Amasia, Thracia, lilyria, 
Carmania, and all the hundred and thirty kingdoms late contributory to 
his mighty father. Long live Callapinus, Emperor of Turkey. 

So much for Henry VI. Part 1, which some critics think was not 
composed, but only retouched, by Shakespeare. This is a question 
which we cannot decide with certainty. But there seem to bc more 
hands than one in the play. On the other band, I am disposed to 
believe that Shakespeare was the author of Henry VI., Parts 2 and 3, 
and that 'The First part of the Contention', etc., and 'The True Tra- 
gedy of Richard Duke of Yorke' are'imperfect reports of the former 
plays. 

The foliowing passage from 3. Henry VI. Act I, ii, 28—31 

Therefore, to arms! And, father, do but think 
How sweet a thing it is to wcar a crown; 
Within whose circuit is Elysium 
And all that poets feign of bliss and joy. 

ought to be comparcd with 1. Tamburlaine, Act II, v, 51: 

Tamb Is it not passing brave to be a king, 

"And ride in triumph through Persepolis?" 
Tech, 0, my lord, 'tis sweet and füll of pomp. 



Marlowe, 



123 



Umm. To be a king is half to be a god. 
Ther, A god is not so glorioas as a king. 
I think the pleasnre they enjoy in heav^en, 
Cannot compare with kingly joys in earth.— 
To wear a crown enchased with pearl and gold, 
Whose virtuos carry with it lifo and death, etc. 

The following lines in 2. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 178, placed into 
the moüth of Pistol: 

And hollow pamperM jades of Asia, 
Which cannot go but thirty mile a-day — 

contain a burlesque allusion to the opening of the fourth scene of 
Act IV. of 2. Tamburlaine, in which the hero of the play 'drawn 
'in his chariot by the Kings of Trebizond and Soria, with bits in their 
'months, reins in his left band, and in his right band a whip with 
*which he scourgeth them', etc., exclaims — 

Tamb. Holla, ye pampered jades of Asia! 

What! can ye draw but twenty miles a day, 

And bave so proud a chariot at yonr heels 

As farther parallelisms I mention 1. Tamburlaine II, ii, 72: 

Strike up the drum! and march courageously! 
Fortune herseif doth sit upon oar crests. 

and Richard III., Act V, in, 351 

Upon them! victory sits on onr heims! 
or Rieh. III., Act V, iii, 79: 

Fortune and victory sit on thy heim. 
Again, 2. Tamburlaine V, iii, 225: 

[They bring in the hearse of Zenocrate. 
Tamburlaine (on the point of dying): Now eyes enjoy your latest benefit. 

and Romeo, V, iii, 112: 

Eyes, look your last! 
Arms, take your last embrace!> 

Thb Jew of Malta. 
Marlowe's Barabas is the prototype of Shakespeare's Shylock, as 
has been often remarked. No Barabas, no Shylock!' The novel of 

> Further echoes from Tamburlaine in Shakespeare's earlier works are pointed 
out by Hnbener ut. »up, 

» Such as he is. Of course, there was a Jew in the Pre-Merchant. 









'All* ■■• 






» I 



( f 



I ! 




]24 Chapter 4. The Englhh Drama, 

the Pecorone, on which part of the plot of the Merchant of Venice 
is based contains no finished delineation of the character of the Jew, 
and has no daaghter, for whom the original will be found in Abigail, 
the Jew of Malta's daughter. ' A number of parallelisms between the 
two plays have been drawn up by A. W. Ward (Hist. of Dram. Lit., 
I, 346). I refer to the following coincidence by way of example: 

Shylock, Signior Antonio, many a time and oft 

In the Rialto you have rated me 

About my moneys and my usances: 

Still have I borne it with a patient sfarug, 

For snfferance is the badge of all our tribe. 

You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog, 

And spit npon my Jewish gaberdine, 

And all for ase of that which is mfne own. 

(Merchant, I, in, 107.) 

Compare Marlowe's Jew, II, in, 23: — 

I learned in Florence, how to kiss my band, 
üeave up my Shoulders, wlien they call m^ dog. 

The following correspondence has^ also been pointed out. In 
'The Jew', III, ii, 11, the Governor of Malta, lamenting over the death 
of bis son, says 

These arms of mine shall be thy sepulchre. 

Compare 1. Henry VI, (Act IV, vii, 32), where Talbot, embracing the 
body of bis son, exclaims: — 

Now my old arms are young John Talbot's grave. 

Compare, too, 3. Henry VI., Act II, iv, 114 — 5, where the Father 
says to the dead son whom he has killed in battle: 

These arms of mine shall be thy winding-sheet; 
My heartj sweet boy, shall be thy sejmlchre, 

Edward II. 

was the best historical draraa before Shakespeare.' This piece with 
its skilful play of motives and fine poetic portrayal of historic facts 
and personages must have been Shakespeare's constant model for his 
historical plays. Closer ties of relationship, especiallj% subsist between 
'Richard II.' and 'Edward IL' 

The following are noteworthy parallelisms: 

» Comp. Shakesp. Jahrb. VI, 129 ff. 

^ Marlowe's best play is his Jew of Malta, 



Marlowe. 



125 



1) Edward IL Act I, iv, 407: 

He wears a lord^s revenae on bis back 

2. Henry VI. Act I, iii, 83: 

She bears a duke^s revenues on ber back. 

2) In Edward IL Act II, ii, a scene which contains the germ of 
a similar one in 1. Henry IV. (I, in), Mortimer declares (v. 125): — 

Cousin, and if be will not ransom bim, 
VW tbunder sucb a peal into bis ears, 
As never snbject did unto bis king. 

Compare Hotspur's language, ut. sup,^ L 219: 

He Said, be would not ransom Mortimer; 
Forbad my tongae to speak of Mortimer; 
Bat I will find bim, wben be lies asleep. 
And in bis ear TU bolla "Mortimer!'^ 

3) Edward IL, Act II, ii, 162: 

Tbe wild Oneyl, witb swarms of Irisb kems, 
Lives uncontrolled witbin the Englisb pale. 

Compare the following verees from the 'First part of the Contention', 
which do not stand in 2. Henry VI: 

Madame I bring yoa newes from Ireland, 
Tbe wild Onele my Lords, is up in Armes, 
Witb troupes of Irisb Kernes tbat uncontrold, 
Doth plant tbemselves witbin tbe Englisb pale. 

4) The verse (Edward IL, Act II, ii, 166):— 

The baugbty Dane commands tbe narrow seas— 

appears to be echoed in 3. Henry VI., Act I, i, 239:— 
Stern Falconbridge commands tbe narrow seas. 

5) Edward IL, Act IV, in, 42—5 : 

Gallop apace, bright PbcBbus, tbrougb the sky, 
And dusky night, in rusty iron car, 
Between you both sborten tbe time, I pray, 
Tbat I may see tbat most desired day, 
Wben we may meet tbese traitors in the field. 

Compare Romeo, III, ii, 1 — 4, Juliet longing for the advent of night: — 



» i 



ft^ 






t 



■ I 

i i. 



4 




126 Chapter 4. The EnglUh Drama. 

Gallop apace, yoa fiery-footed steeds, 
Towards Phoebus' lodging: such a waggonor 
As Phaeton would whip you to tbe west, 
And bring in cloudy night immediately. ^ 

DocTOR Faustüs.* 

I refer the reader to what I have said above on page 112. 

No doubt from Marlowe's 'Faustus' Shakespeare derived many 
suggestions for his 'Tempest', in some respects the counterpart of the 
former. Bat Prospero and Faustas, synonymous though be their 
names, are very different characters. Both possess command over the 
natural and Spiritual world; but how unlike their ainis! Faustus 
mirrors the heaven-aspiring fiery spirit of the young author, — yea, even 
his violent and untimely end; while in Prospero is reflected the har- 
monious, serene, and gentle mind of the mature poet. 

The following are parallel passages: — 

1) Of 'Faustus', sc. iv, 65: 

Wagner, I will teach thee to turn thyself to anything; to a dog, or a 
cat, or a mouse, or a rat or anything. 

Clown: üow! a Christian fellow to a dog or a cat, a mouse or a rat! 
etc. — 

we have an apparent reminiscence in Romeo, III, i, 104: 

'Zounds, a dog, a rat. a mouse, a cat^ to Scratch a man to death! 

2) Dr. Faustus (sc. xiv, 83) receives Helen with the following 

words: 

Was this the face that launched a thousand ships 
And burnt the topless towers of Ilium? 

Compare Troilus and Cressida, II, ii, 82: 

.... why, she [i. e. Helen] is a pearl, 

Whose price halb launclCd above a thousand ships. 

To the legend of Dr. Faustus, best known to the English public 
and Shakespeare through Marlowe's play, we find allusions in The Merry 

Wives,-Act I, I, 132: 

How now, Mephostophilas! 



1 Compare also Tempest, IV, i, 29—31; and Henry V, Act IV, Prol. 20—23.— 
Mr. Fleay, in his edition of Edward IL (pp. 15—17), points out a number of simi- 
larities between 'Edward II. and Henry VI.' 

' The play bas come down to us in a corrupt State. 



Marlowß, Kyd, 



127 



and Act IV, v, 70: 

[they] sei spurs and away, like three German devils, three Docior 
Faustuses. * 

The Massacre at Paris. 

The Dake of Gaise's monologae (sc. ii) deserves special notice 
«OS containing the probable germ of York's soliloquy in 2. Henry VI., 
III, I, 331 seq, 

DiDO, 

written by Marlowe and Nash. The 'speech' recited in 'Hamlet' 
(II, II, 472ff.) runs parallel to 'Dido', II, i, 181ff.,— 1. 255, 

Aod with the wind thereof the king feil down, — 
corresponding to 'Hamlet', II, ii, 496: 

But with the whifT and wind of bis feil sword 
The unnerved father falls . .' 



I • 



THOMAS KYD. 

On Kyd's Services to the English drama, I refer the reader to 
Boas's Introduction to the edition of the works of that early dramatist. 

The Pre-Hamlet. 

'That an old play on the subject of Hamlet existed there can be 

'no doubt; it is referred to in 1589 by Nash, in his Epistle 

'prefixed to Greene's Menaphon [cf. above, p. 36], and again in 1596, 
'by Lodge (Wit's Miserie and the Worlds Madnesse, p. 56), where he 
'allades to "the Visard of fAe ghost which cried so miseraily at t/ie 
'Theater like an oister wife, Hamlet^ revenge'\'* 'Hamlet' is also 
mentioned as a play by Henslowe in 1594.' There is streng pre- 
samptive evidence in favour of the hypothesis, first advanced by 
Malone, that Kyd -is the anthor of this pre-Shakespearean play. I 
most waive a discussion of this interesting and tempting problem 

' Compare Bullen^s ed. I, p. xxx note. 

' Schröer, in his work on Titus Andronicus (p. 63) poiuts out a coincidence 
between 'Dido' (Act III, sc. iv and Act IV, sc. i) and Titiis Andronicus, II, iii, 217. 
— On 'Lust^s Dominion^ wbich was once unhesitatingly asciibed to Marlowe, see 
Schröer, ibid. Appendix. 

' It must bave bcen the Lord Chamberlain^s men, who then played it at 
Newiogton Butts. They usually acted at The Theater in 1594—7. 






t 



Vi 

r 




128 



Chapter 4. The English Drama. 



here. ' The following table gives the genealogy of the diiTerent versions 
of the storj' of Hamlet': 

Saxo (r. 1200) 



Kruntz (r-. 1500) 



Hellcforest (1570) Hans Sachs (1358) 



Hystorio of 
Hamblet (1608) 



Pre-Haralet (r. 1587) 



Shakespeare {c. 1601) 



The next play we have to consider is 

« 

The Spanish Tragedy, 

or the Second Part of Jeronimo,' one of the most populär of the 
early dramas on the pre-Shakespearean stage. Its theme of blood 
and revenge no doubt helped to suggest in large measnre the horrible 
subject of 'Titas Andronicus' (see Boas, ut sup.^ p. lxxix). 

The fifth scene of the second act, in which Jeronimo, alarmed 
by the cries of 'murder', enters hurriedly in his shirt and exclaims: — 

What out-cries pluck me froni my naked bed, 

And Chili my tbrobbing hart with trembling feare? etc. 

' For further information, see Boas, ut, sup., p. xlv, and Sarrazin, Thomas 
Kyd und sein Kreis. 1892. Mr. M. W. MaoCallum, of the üniversity of Sydney 
in Australia, cautions us not to be too hasty in our Inferences (see English 
Miscellany presented to Furnivall. 1901. p. 282). Gericke and Mohke's *Shake- 
speare's Hamlet-Quellen' (1881) is a handy little volume. 

2 The relalion of the Bestrafte Brudermord (printed in 1781 from a M8. 
dated 1710) to Shakespeare is still under discussion. Mr. M. B. Evans has re- 
cently published a Doctor-Dissertation (1902) on this question, which is to be 
reprintcd together with additional matter in Litzmann's Theatergeschichtliche 
Forschungen, vol. 19, which, I hear, will appear soon. Mr. Evans argues that the 
Bestrafte Brudermord is derived from Kyd's Pre-Uamlet,— for the reconstruetion 
of which he is going to give us the materials. I cannot help entertaining some 
misgivings about the inferences he builds on rather slender foundations. Evans 
has Prof. Thorndike on his side (cf. Publ. of M. L. Ass., 1902, pp. 125 f.). 

' A critical edition of The Spanish Tragedy was edited by Prof. Schick in 
1901. I quote from Boas's complete edition of Kyd's works. Oxford, 1901. 



Kyd. 



129 



enjoyed extraordinary celebrity and became the butt for nnsparing 
persiflage and parody. It is alluded to by Shakespeare, in King Lear, 
m, IV, 48:— 

Hum! go to thy cold bed, and warm thee — 

and, more clearly, in The Taming of the Shrew, Ind., I, 9 — 10: — 
Go by, Jerontmy. go to thy cold bed, and warm thee, — 

the first portion of tbis latter Quotation being derived from another 
passagc in The Spanish Tragedy (III^xii, 31): 

Hie'ronimo, beware; goe by; goe by. ' 
Perhaps there is also a sly allusion to the verse qnoted above: 

What oot-cries pluck me from my naked bed? 

in Mids. N. Dr., III, i, 132, where Titania, on awaking, exciaims: 

What angel wakes me from my flowery bed? 

The expression 'naked bed' is used by Shakespeare in 'Venus and 
Adonis', 1. 397. Sly's paticas pallabrü in the Shrew, Ind. I, 5, is a 
per Version otpocas Palabras^ in The Spanish Tragedy (III, xiv, 118), — 
a phrase which had become a stock jest. Compare, too, Much Ado, 
III,v, 18:— 

Dogberry: . . . .pdlabras, neighbour Verges. 

From The Spanish Tragedy, II, i, 3, Shakespeare quotes in Much 
Ado, 1,1, 263:— 

^In time the savage bull doth bear the yoke\' 

The following are also probable reminiscences of The Spanish 
Tragedy. Titus Andren., IV, ii, 31: 

Bot let her rest in her unrest awhile, 
and Richard III., Act IV,iv,29:— 

Rest thy unrest on England's lawfal earth. 
Compare Span. Trag., I, iii, 5: 

Theo rest we beere a while in our anrest. 



> Terhaps no Single passage in Elizabethan drama became so notorious as 
Hhis.' Boas, ut. tup, p. 406. 

' Compare Furness's note. Instead of 'doth bear' Kyd has 'sustains'. 
Further allusions to Kyd's verse are in Much Ado, V, iv, 43: 'he thinks upon the 
'savage bulF; and in ActV, i, 183: 'But when shall we set the savage buIPs 
'homs on the sensible Benedick's head?' 

Anders, Shakespeare \s books. 9 



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130 Chapler 4. The EngUsh Drama. 

or Span. Trag., III, xiii, 29—30: 

Thus therefore will I res! me in anrest, 
Dissembling qaiet in unquietnes. 

The lamentatioDS of Paris and Capulet at the supposed death of 
Juliet, in Romeo, IV, v, 58 and 62 : 

love! life! not life, but love in death! 

cbild! child! my soul, and not my child! 

remind us of Hieronimo's wail, after the death of his son, Span. Trag., 
III, ii, 1 : 

Oh eies, no eies, bat fonntains fraught with teares; 

Oh life! no life, but lively foarme of death; 

World, no world, bat masse of publique wrongs. 

Perhaps King John, II, i, 137: 

You are the hare of whom the proverb goes, 
Whose valour plucks dead lions by the beard — 

contains an echo from Span. Trag., I, ii, 172: 

So Hares may pull dead Lyons by the beard. 

'Margaret's lamentations (3. Henry VI., Act V, v) over the body of 

'her own son Edward, the "sweet . . . plant untimely croppM", 

'echo the Marshal's (=Jeroninio) wail for his "sweet lovely Rose ill 
'pluckt before" its "time"' (Boas). 

SOLIMAN AND PeBSEDA. 

Basilisco, the miles gloriosua of 'Soliman and Perseda' (probably 
Kyd's play), who styles himself 'knight' but is called 'knave' in de- 
rision by the clown, is referred to by the Bastard, in 'King John', I, 
I, 244, where he, in reply to his mother's reproof 

\\'hat means this scom, thou most untoward knave? — 
says: 

Knight, knight, good mother, Basilisco-like. 

The particular passage Shakespeare had in view is this (Act I, ni, 
165 ff.): 

Piston, having got on Basilisco's back, makes him swear. 

Bas, 0, I sweare, I sweare. 

Bist, By the contents of this blade — 

Ba$. By the contents of this blade — 

Pist, I, the aforesaid Basilisco — 



K^d, Lyly, 



131 



Bas, I, the aforesaid Baailisco — Knight, good /ellow, Knight, Knight — 
Pist. Knave, good /ellow, Knave, Knave — etc. 

When Shakespeare placed the following words on the lips of the 
Prince of Morocco (Merch. of Ven., II, i, 24): 

.... By this scimitar 
Tbat slow the Sophy and a Persian prince 
That won three fields of Sultan Solyman, — 

he probably had in mind a passage from Soliman and Perseda, I, in, 
51 ff., wbere the Turkish general brags: 

Against the Sophy in three pitched fieldsy 
Under the conduct of great Soliman, 
Have I been chiefe commaunder of an host. 
And put the flint heart Perseans to the sword. 

In 'Soliman and Perseda' a fatal carcanet or necklace plays an 
important role. This chain — as Malone suggests, very plausibly — may 
have been in the poet's mind, when composing Othello. Compare, for 
example, Act III, iv, 55 ff.: 

Oth .... That handkerchief 

Dld an Egyptian to my mother give .... 

She, dying, gave it me; 

And hid me, when my fate would have me wlve, 
To give it her. I did so: and take heed on't; 
Make it a darling like ybnr precions eye; 
To lose't or give't away were such perdition, 
As nothing eise would matcb. 

with the following passage from 'Soliman and Perseda', Act I, ii, 32: 

Perseda: .... accept this carkanet: 
My Grandame on her death bed gave it me. 
And there, ev'n there, I vow'd unto my seife 
To keepe the same, untill my wandring eye 
Should finde a harbonr for my hart to dwell. 

Cinthio, from whom the plot of 'Othello' is taken, merely states 
that the handkerchief was presented to Disdemona by the Moor. 
(Furness, Othello, p. 220.) 

JOHN LYLY. 

Shakespeare also sat at the feet of 'eloquent and wittie" Lyly, 
the writer of the best early comedies. 

' Mores, Palladis Tamia, 1598, New Shaksp. See, Series IV, i, p. 161. 

9* 



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132 ChapUr 4. The Englith Drama. 

Lyly's brisk and witty dialogue, his fondness for conceits and puns, 
hisuseof prose as the vehiciefor comedy,hi8 graceful, elegant, and polished 
style, his skilfal dramatic technique, his farcical scenes, his wit-combats 
araong ladies and courtiers,— all this was imitated and seized opon by his 
alert disciple. Lyly's woraen, refined, witty, laughing, loving, or reserved, 
are the prototypes of many of Shakespeare's female characters. The idea 
of disguising girls as boys and the consequent mistaken identities were 
imitated by the greater poet. In Lyly's servants we discover the 
germ of some Shakespearean fools and clowns. Launce and Speed, 
for example, in The Two Gentlemen have mach affinity with Licio 
and Petulus in 'Midas'. Lyly's mischievous little Cupido in 'Galla- 
thea' and in 'Sapho and Phao' is Puck's forerunner. Dogberry and 
Verges of Mach Ado have been compared with the watchmen of En- 
dimion. Lastly, Lyly's fairies re-appear, in nfiore beautiful garb, on 
Shakespeare's stage. 

Shakespeare's first comedy, Love's Labour's Lost, is in direct 
Imitation of Lyly's comedies, with which it shares the love-intrigue, 
the courtly atmosphere, covert allusions to court incidents, the skir- 
mishes of wit, and the light vein. Armado and Moth have an un- 
mistakeable resemblance to Sir Tophas and his page, in Endimion; 
while the Princess and her companions are as hard to please as Gyn- 
thia, but as sprightly and füll of banter as many of Lyly's women 
and girls. 'The scene in Gallathea (III, i) where Diana's nymphs, 
*entering one by one, confess their broken vow and agree to pnrsne 
Hheir passion, has often been quoted as the original of that between 
'the four anchorites, .which is dramatically the best in Love's Labour's 
«Lost' (Bond). ' 

The following detailed resemblances are worth noticing:— 

Endimion. 
The fairies, who, in The Merry Wives, V, v, pinch Falstaff while 
they sing: — 

^ Compare Brandl, "Shakspcre" p. 44. 

Lovc'.3 Labour's Lost has ofteu been designated a Tenrfenz-drama, a pr€- 
cieuses ridtcules* of those days, written with the purpose of ridiculing 'four chief 
*affectations in speech'. I cannot accept this view. Shakespeare does, I admit with- 
out hesitation, mock extravagances of style, but only incidentally. I am of the 
opinion that Johannes /actolum, who had written the carliest tragedies and historics 
in distinct Imitation of Kyd and Marlowe, did no more than follow Lyly as his 
model, in Love's Labour's Lost. The taffeta phrases which Biron renounces in 
Act V, XI, 406, refer to the aflFected language he used as a wooer (Comp. V, ii, 
34 ff. and 787—794). 



^y/y. 



133 



Pinch him, fairies mutnally; 

Pinch him for bis yillany; 

Pinch him, and burn him, and turn him about 

are following the example of the fairies of 'Eudimion' (IV, iii), who 
pnnish Corsites in the same manner, while singing: 

.... Pinch him, pinch him, blacke and blue, .... 

Pinch him blue. 

And pinch him blacke, etc. 

Compare also similar Verses, The First Song, in Endimion, III, iii. 
Note, that both of the 'pinch'-songs are in the four-beat measure. 

Campaspe. 

Of the following passage in Campaspe, II, ii, 35 fF.: 

Is the warlike sound of drumme and trumpe turned to the soft noyse 
of lire and late? the neighing of barbed steeds, whose loudnes fiUed the 
ayre with terrour, and whose breathes dimmed the sunne with smoak, 
converted to dilicate tunes and amörous glaunces, etc? 

we have an apparent reminiscence in Richard III., Act I, i, TIT.: — 

Gloucester: Our stern alarums [are] ehanged to merry meetings, 

Onr dreadful marches to delightful measures. * 

Grim-visaged war hath smooth'd bis wrinkled front; 

And now, instead of mounting barbed steeds 

To fright the souls of fearful adversaries, 

He capers nimbly in a lady^s Chamber 

To the lascivious pleasing of a lute. 

Bnt I, that am not shaped for sportive tricks, 

Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass .... 

The following lines in Cymbeline, II, in, 21: 

Ilark, hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings 
And Phoebus 'gins arise. 

seem to echo Campaspe, V, i, 37 ff.: 

.... the Larke so shrill and cleare; 
How at heavens gats she claps her wings, 
The Morne not waking tili shee sings. 
Hearkj heark^ .... 

Compare, too. Sonnet XXIX: 

Like to the lark at break of day arising 

From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven^s gate. 



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]34 Chapter 4. The Engluh Drama. 

Again, Campaspe, III, ii, 37-8: 

.... for thy dvll head will bee but a grindstone for my qitick wit, 
which if thou whet with overthwarts, periisti — 

was perhaps in Shakespeare's mind when he wrote As You Like It, I, 
II, 57-9: 

[Nature] faath sent this natural for our whetstone; for alwavs the 
dulness of the fool ia the whetstone of the mts. 

In Act III, sc. V, 37, of 'Campaspe' Apelles, enamoured of the 
heroine of the play, on whom Alexander the Great has cast his eye, 
exciaims: 

starres are to be looked at, not recbed at. 

Similarly, the duke of Milan, in 'The Two Gentlemen', III, i, 156, 
who is desirous of giving his daughter to the rieh Thurio, addressing 
Valentine, the rival lover, says: 

Wilt theo reach stars, because they sbiae on thee?^ 

MOTHEB BOMBIE. 

In Act IV, II, 28, the half-witted Silena mistaking Accias for a 
stool, says: 

I crie you mercy, I tooke you for a ioynd stoole. 

The same mistake and the same apology is made by the Fool in 
King Lear, III, vi, 54. Compare, too, The Shrew, U, i, 199. 

In Act I, III, of 'Mother Bombie' Candius has a stolen rendez-vous 
with Livia, whom he teaches the art to love: 

Livia: What booke is that? 

Cand, A fine pleasant poet, who entreateth of tbe art of Love^ and 

of the remedie. 

Candius then quotes apposite verses from Ovid's Ars Amatoria. 
Similarly, Lncentio, in The Shrew reads "the Art to Love" with 
Bianca and quotes and construes Ovid. 

The Woman in the Moon. 

Puck's apology to the public, in the Epilogue to Mids. N. Dream: 

* But the same thought occurs in Greene's Pandosto, 1588 (see Fumess, XI, 

p. 342): "starres are to be looked at with the eye, not reacht at with the hande." 

Compare Goethe's lines in his exquisite poem, beginning *Wie kommt's, dass du 

80 traurig bist': — 

Die Sterne, die begehrt man nicht 

Man freut sich ihrer Pracht. 

Mrs. V. Koenen drew my attention to this. 



Ltfljf, Petle. 



135 



If we shadows have offended, 
Think bat this, and all is mended, 
That you have but slumber'd here 
While these visions did appear. 

is anticipated in Lyly's Prologue to 'The Woman in the Moon': 

If many fanlts escape in her discourse, 
Remember all is bat a Poets dreame. 

Compare also the Prologue before Sapho and Phao. 

Many more correspondences between Lyly and Shakespeare (some 
of which are doubtfnl) are pointed out by Mr. Bond, in his edition. 



The influence of the remaining dramatists is less marked and 
generally eludes precise measurement. The following, of whom we find 
more or less clear traces in Shakespeare, require special mention. 

GEORGE PEELE. 

The following words, placed on the Ups of ranting Pistol, in 
2. Henry IV, Act U, iv, 193: 

Then feed, and be fat, my fair Calipolis, — 

allnde burlesquingly to a scene in Peele's Battle of Alcazar (Act II, 
sc. iii), where Muly Mahamet, presenting a piece of 'lion's flesh' on 
the point of his sword to his wife, says: 

Feed, then, and faint not, fair Calipolis 

(vv. 81 and 94)— 
and again, v, 101: 

Feed and be fat, tbat we may meet the foe. 

The following verses at the end of the next following scene of 
Peele's play: 

Saint George for England! and Ireland now adiea, 
For here Tom Stukeley shapes bis course anew — 

are closely paralleled in King Lear, I, i, 188: 

Thus Kent, princes, bids yoa all adieu; 

HeMl shape his old coarse in a coantry new. ^ 
Pistol's 

Have we not Hiren here? 

' On the Moor's exclamation in Alcazar (Act Y, sc. 1): *'A horse! a horse, 
"villain, a horse", see Dr. Churchiirs excellent Observation in 'Richard III. up to 
Shakespeare', (forming the lOtb volume of Talaestra'. Berlin, 1900). 



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136 Chapter 4. The English Drama. 

in 2. Henry IV., Act IT, iv, 173 and 189, is supposed to be a quo- 
tation from Peele's lost play: The Turküh Mahomet and Ihren the 
Fair Greek. ' 

ROBERT GREENE. 

Several coincidences, though not very striking, between Shake- 
speare's and Greene's plays are pointed out by Sarrazin.' There is 
much family likeness between Greene's 'Selimus' (ca. 1587) and Titas 
Andronicus, two plays of appalling horrors and brutalities. Dowden, 
in bis Primer (p. 7), lays stress on the romantic notes sounded in 
Greene's dramas. On the whole, Shakespeare's indebtedness to bis 
envious rival does not seem very marked.' 

GEORGE WHETSTONE. 

The general outlinos of Shakespeare's ^Measure for Measure' to- 
gether with hints for some of its comic figures belonging to a very 
low grade of Society were supplied by Whetstone's play of Promos 
and Cassandra printed in 1578. The plot of the serious portion of 
Whetstone's play agrees in substance with the prose narrative by him, 
entitled The Rare Historie of Promos and Cassandra. Reported by 
Madam Jsabella^^ inserted in his 'Heptameron of Civill Discourses', 1582. 
The name Isabella suggests that the prose narrative was also known 
to our poet. Whether Shakespeare did, or did not, know Cinthio's 
novel, (Ilecjitommithi, Nov. 5, Dec. 8.) the original of the story, he 
does not appear to have used it. * Nor does he seem to be indebted 
to Cinthio's Epitia, a play on the same subject. * 

^ Compare Creizenach, ut sup., p. xxxii; and Cohn, Sh. in Germany, 

p. Lxvii; and Jtfurray's New Engl. Dict , s. v. Hiren. — Mr. Fleay's supposition 

(Chronicle of the Engl. Drama, II, 157), that the following lines from Peele's 

Edward 1: 

"Shake [thou] thy spears in honour of his name, 

"ünder whose royalty thou wear'st the same" — 

imply that the part of Edward was acted by Shakespeare, seems to me a very 
hazardous guess. Nor is there the slightest connexion between Shakespeare's 
name and a passage in Lyly's *Campaspe' (see Klein, XIII, 525). 

' Shakespeare's Lehrjahre, see his index. 

' Cf. Englische Studien, vol. 22, pp. 889 if. On Selimus see H. Gilbert's Disser- 
tation, Kiel, 1899; and Shakcsp. Jahrb.. xxxviii, 297. — Mr. Ch. Collins, I may remark, 
is occupied upon an edition of Greene's plays, to be issued by the Clarendon Press. 

* See Shakesp. Jahrb. XllI, 169—170. 

* See Klein Gesch. des Drama's, V, 354; cf. above, p. 71. 



Oreene. Whetstone, Qascoigne. Preston, Jonson. 



137 



GEORGE GASCOIGNE. 

The disguises of Lucentio, Hortensio, and Tranio, the character 
of old Gremio, the engaging of the pedant, his personation of Yiu- 
centio, etc. — for which we find only a few faint hints in 'The Taming 
of a Shrew' — are"derived from Gascoigne's Süpposes (1566), transla- 
ted from Ariosto's 'I Suppositi'. ^ The names Petrucio and Lytio 
reappear in Shakespeare's play as Petruchio and Licio; and in The 
Shrew, V, i, 120— 

While coanterfeit süpposes blear'd thine eyne — 

we have a probable reminiscence of the title of Gascoigne's drama. 

THOMAS PRESTON. 

To Preston's Cambyses (circa 1569) Falstaff alludes in 1. Henry IV., 
Act II, IV, 425: 

I must speak in passion, and I will do it in King Cambyses' vein. 

Falstaff then continues': 

Weep not, sweet qaeen; for trickling tears are vain. 
.... For God's sake, lords, convey my tristful queen; 
For tears do stop the flood-gates of her eyes — 

which may be in allnsion to a scene towards the end of 'Cambyses', 
where we read (Dodsley, IV, 236): — 

[At this tale let the Queen weep. 
Queen, These words to hear makes stilling tears 

Issue from crystal eyes. 
King, What dost thou mean, ray spouse, to weep 
For loss of any prize? 

Notwithstanding the above persiflage Shakespeare seems not to 
hiive disdained to borrow a motif from Preston's play. Neither in 
Whetstone's drama of Promos and Cassandra nor in his prose account 
of the story does the king leave the town and appoint a deputy, who 
abases this office of trust. This may have been suggested to the 
poet by Preston's drama. 

BEN JONSON. 

Shakespeare took part in the original Performances of Jonson's 
'EvEBY Man in IIis IIumour' (loOH), and his SSejanüs' (1603). Ac- 
cording to Mr. S. Lee "a prologue arm'd", in 'Troilus and Cressida', 

' Coinpare, too, Farmer'» reniarks (Malone's Var. Kd., vol. I, p 340-1), 



; 



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138 Ckapter 4. The English Drama, 

Prol. 23, alludes to the 'armed prologue' ofJonson's Poetaster (1601)/ 
The author of the Epilogue to 'Henry VIII.', who wrote 

others [come] to hear the city 
Abus'd extremely, and to cry, — "That's witty!" — 

was possibly referring to Jonson's satiric efforts. 

Jonson's 'humours' and his realism seem to be reflected in some 
measure in Shakespeare's Merry Wives (c. 1598). Nym's harping 
lipon the Word 'humour' in this play as well as in Henry V. is very 
noteworthy. 

It is probably not a matter of mere accident, that the names Pros- 
pero and Stephane should occur both in Jonson's first-named play 
(Quarte ed., 1601*) and in Shakespeare's Tempest. Farmer' even 
maintained that Ben Jenson taught Shakespeare the correct pronun- 
ciation of the latter name, pronoanced Stephane in The Tempest, 
but Stephane in the Merchant of Venice, as the metre shows. Elze 
thinks the metre does not show this.^ 

SAMUEL ROWLEY 

had written a drama on Henry VIII., entitled ' When you see me^ you 
know me^ or the famotis Chronicle Historie of King Hemne VIIF,^ and 
printed in 1605. It was republished by Karl Elze in 1874. 'Fletcher 
'and Shakespeare', says Mr. Lee in his article on Rowley in the Dict. of 
Nat. Biogr., 'possibly owed something to Kowley's efTort when preparing 
'their own play of Henry VIII.' Shakespeare's drama was apparently 
a rival production of Rowley's werk, which, as Boswell * pointed out, 
is the probable object of attack of the Prologue of the former play. 

FLETCHER AND BEAUMONT. 

Tennyson, the great Victorian poet, was the first to start the 
theory, which is gaining more and more ground, that Fletcher was a 
collaborateur of 'Henry VIII'. 

Professor Thorndike, in his work 'The Influence of Beaumont 
and Fletcher on Shakspere, 1901', points out numerous resemblances 
between Beaumont and Fletcher's Philasteb (1609-10?), acted by 

» Cf. S. Lee, Life of Shakespeare, 1899, pp. 44 and 229. 

a Republished by C. Grabau, in Sh. Jahrb. XXXVIII. 

3 See Furness, IX, 4. 

* Notes on Elizabethan Dramatists, 1889, p. 160. 

* Cf. Malone's Var. Ed., vol. XIX, p. 501; and Elze's Edition. 






Rotcley. Fletcher and Beaumont, Alexander, ]30 

Shakespeare^s Company, and Sliakespeare's Cymbeline. 'It may be, 
*indeed (says Prof. Dowden ') as Professor Thorndike contends, that 
Cymbeline was influenced by Philaster; but, on the other band, there 
js no decisive evidence to show that Cymbeline was not the earlier 
*of the two plays.' May one venture to hazard the conjecture that 
Beaumont or Fletcher, who wrote for Shakespeare's Company, may 
have had a band in a Pre-Cymbeline? 

Further, Prof. Thorndike argues that The Winter's Tale and The 
Tempest possess many of the characteristics of the Beaumont-Fletcher 
romances. But the type of the Shakespearean dramatic romance had 
been at least outlined or sketched in Fericles,^ 

SIR WILLIAM ALEXANDER, 

Earl of Stirling, a respected politician and poet at the court of 
King James. 

There is a noteworthy parallelism between Stirling's Darius 
(1603), Act IV, II : 

Let greatnesse of her glascie scepters vannt; 

Not sceptours, no, bat reedes, soone brus'd, sonc broken: 

And let tbis worldlie pompe our wits enchant. 

All fadea^ and scarcelie leaves behinde a token. 

Those golden PallaceSy tbose gorgeous halles, 

With fourniture soperfluouslic faire: 

Those statelie Courts, those sky-encountring wallcs 

Evanühe all like vapours in the aire. 

and The Tempest, IV, i, 148, 

These our actors, 
As I foretold you, were all spirits and 
Are melted into air, into thin air: 
And, like the baseless fabric of tbis vision, 
The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The solemn temples, the great globe itself, 
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve 
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, 
Leave not a rack behind, 

Similar thoughts with less verbal resemblance will bc found in 
Spenser's Ruins of Time, 1591, (vv. 91— '9) and in Ruins of Rome. 
The thought is, of course, biblical. 

* Cymbeline ed. by Dowden, 1903, p, XIII. 
' Dowden, ut sup.^ p. XV. 



140 Chapier 4. The Englith Drama. 

Alexander's ^Julias Caesar' is chronologically lal«r than Shake- 
speare's play on the same subject. 



ANONYMOUS PLAYS 
RETOUGHED BY, OR KNOWN TO, SHAKESPEARE. 

AVe now proceed to a brief discussion of anonymous plays, both 
extant and hypothetical, which were rehandled by the great dramatist, 
after which we shall take note of other plays and dramatic pro- 
ductions reflected in Shakespeare's works. As regards the old plays 
rehandled by Shakespeare, it will be observed that several of them 
belonged to the Queen's Men, who, says Mr. Fleay, evidently broke 
in 1591. They had played at the 'Theater', which was occupied for 
a number of years by Shakespeare's Company, — called successively, 
Lord Leicester's, Lord Strange's, Lord Derby 's, Lord Chamberlain's^ 
(1594—1603), and the King's Men (1603—1642). Many of the plays 
of the Queen's Men are traceable to Shakespeare's troupe and the 
Earl of Sussex's. The latter disappear about 1594.' 

THE TRUE CHRONICLE HISTORIE OF KING LEIR 

is probably identical both with the play of 'king leare', ' mentioned 
by Henslowe on the 6th and 8th of April 1594, and with the 'Chron- 
icle historye of Loire', entered on the Stationers' Registers on 18 May 
1594. Bat the only edition preserved to us is dated 1605.* This 
play, there can be little doubt, was the chief source of Shakespeare's 
immortal King Lear. The question was carefuUy discussed by Mr. 
Furness, in his New Var. Ed. (V, pp. 383 ff.), where an account with 
the Contents of the old play will be found. 

Though Shakespeare followed this old play as his main source 
he must have made further studies in the Lear-stor}^ First, the 
tragic end of Shakespeare's play was not derived from the old drama, 
which ends happily, but from some other version containing an ac- 

1 Temporarily also Lord Ilunsdon^s Men. 

2 See Mr. Fleay's Uistory of the London Stage. 

' Entered as one of the plays *by the queens men and my lord of Sussex' 
Hogether'. (Malone, III, 301.) 

* No Statement is made as to the Company to which it belonged. 



Anonymotis Plays; King Leir, King John, 141 

coant of Cordelia's death. Further, Shakespeare's play has features 
in common vith the original Version, which are not to be found 
either in Spenser, or in the old play, or in Holinshed. GeofFrey of 
MoDmonth mentions the reason, or rather the occasion, of the rupture 
between parent and the two daughters: the gradual diminution of his 
retinae of sixty knights (Shakespeare has a hundred). This is not 
referred to, or only very faintly hinted at, in the other versions just 
mentioued.^ But it is to be found in the 'MiiTor for Magistrates'.' 
Änother point of agreement between Shakespeare and the Geoffrey 
(-Mirror) Version is this. In his play Goneril is the wife of the Duke 
of Albany^ where Lear sojourns iirst. In the old drama she is the 
wife of the King of CormcalL Holinshed's words are not clear on 
this point at all. In Geoffrey Gonorilla is married to the 'dux Al^ 
^baniae\ in the Mirror to the 'Prince of Albany\ 

To Camden's Romains Shakespeare is said to be indebted for 
Cordelia's reference to conjugal love in her fatal answer (Lear, I, i, 
98 ff.). Apart from Camden, only Polydore Vergil and the Mirror have 
a like reference. However, the coincidence may be accidental. It is 
not certain whether Camden's Romains concerning Britain (1605) ap- 
peared anterior to King Lear.' 

From Spenser's Fairy Queen (II, x, 27 ff.) Shakespeare took the 
name Cordelia (see ante^ p. 90). 

THE TROUBLESOME RAIGNE OF KING lOHN, 

acted by the Queen's Men and printed in 1591 is the original of 
Shakespeare's King John, which follows it very closely, almost scene 
for scene. 

The author of the older play, I may note parenthetically, pro- 
bably derived most of his materials from Holinshed, without adhering 

* Geoffrey's version is followed by Robert of Gloucester, Robert of Brunne, 
and Layamon. In the Gesta Romanorum, too, Lear has 40 knights, which number 
is gradually reduced. 

' But the Mirror gives no clear reason for the dismissal of the 60 knights, 
while Geoffrey distinclly refers to the quarreis of the knights with the servants 
and members of the households. Similarly, Shakespeare's Goneril complains of 
the "rank and not-to-be-endured riots" and quarreis of Lear's retinue. This 
coincidence may or may not be accidental. 

• Concerning the Lear-story I refer to Eidam, Die Sage von K. Lear. Pro- 
gramm, Würzburg, 1880. It is a matter of regret that he made no attempt at 
forming a genealogical table of the diffcrcnt versions. 



142 Ckapter 4. The English Drama, 

to historical trath. (See Boswell-Stone, Shakspere's Holinshed.) He 
must have also referred to Grafton's (or Caxton's) Chronicle for details 
concerning the death of the king. 'The inwards of a Toad', for 
example, to poison the king, as well as the absolution of the monk 
before committing the crime, are not taken from Holinshed. 

Though Shakespeare may have referred to Holinshed, he makes 
no independent use of this work. * One item in his play betrays that 
he had opened his Grafton.* 

THE FAMOUS VICTORIES OF HENRY THE FIFTH, 

printed in 1598,' but acted much earlior, probably even before 1588, 
by the Queen's Men, and entered on the Stationers' Registei-s in 1594, 
May 14. The 'Harry V, mentioned in Henslowe's Diary as being 
acted (probably) by the Admiral's Men in 1595 — 96, may be identical 
with the Famous Victories.* 

The popularity which this old play probably enjoyed was doubt- 
less the occasion of the composition of Henry IV. and Henry V. Vastly 
inferior though it is to these, it has the honour of having presented in 
dramatic form the bare outlines of the story with numerons hints of 
Shakespearean scenes, and the figure of Henry, first as the madcap 
Prince amongst his wild companions (of whom Sir John Oldcastle is 
one), and then as the good king and triumphant conqueror of France. 

THE TRUE TRAGEDIE OF RICHARD THE THIRD. 

It appears that Shakespeare was nnder obligations to this play« 
acted by the Queen's Players and printed in 1594 (but of older date), 

* The death-scene in King John (V, vii, 49— 65) reminds one of an account 
related by Holinshed (omitted by Boswell-Stone), according to which the king's 
death was accelerated by an evil tiding. In the older play he receives only con- 
solatory news immediately before his death. 

' "A monk, I teil you; a resolved villain, 

" Whose boweis suddenly hurst out,^^ 

(John, V, VI, 29) 
Compare Grafton (ed. 1809) p. 246; ^The Monke anone after went to the Farmory, 
and there dyed, his guttes gushing out of his belly'. In Caxton's Chronicle we 
read *his wombe was broken in sonder'. (Comp, my Dissertation, Berlin, 19(X).) 

* Facsimiled by Praetorius, with an Introduction by P. A. Daniel, in 1887. 

* CoUier's "harey the vth" of 1592 is either a blander or a forgery. It is 
high time that Henslowe's Diary were re-edited. 



Anon^mous Plays, Henry V, Richard IIL Ä Shrew. A Pre-Timon, 143 

or to some play nearly related to it, for the conception and some 
traits and phrases of bis ^Richard IIL' ^ 

THE TAMING OF A SHREW 

had been acted by Lord Pembroke's Servants as we learn from the 
title page of the play, as printed in 1594. Bat the play must have 
passed into the hands of the Lord Chamberlain's Men in or before 
1594, as we may infer from Henslowe's mention of it among the 
plays acted by the Admiral's and the Chamberlain's Men at Newing- 
ton Butts (South of the Thames) from June 3 to 13, 1594. 

Some commentators maintain, that Shakespeare refurbished the 
old play (which contains the general outlines of The Taming of the 
Shrew) after it had been recast by another band.* 

A PRE-TIMON. 

Professor Herford, pointing out the resemblances between Shake- 
speare's play of Timon and Lucian's Dialogue Timon^ concludes: 
'Lncian's dialogue evidently comes nearer to the drama than either 
'Plutarch or Painter [comp, my note above on p. 41]. The entire 
'scheme of the plot is already there, and the germ of Timon's character.' * 
In what form Lucian's dramatic dialogue reached Shakespeare is not 
known. For my part, I am inclined to believe that he had an older 
play before him which he revised, bringing out into clearer relief the 
character of Timon, one of Shakespeare's most powerful creations.* 
The relation between Shakespeare's drama* and a manuscript aca- 
demic play printed in 'Shakespeare's Library' is well discussed by 
Prof. Brandl. * Whether it was, however, known to Shakespeare remains 
nncertain. 

> See Dr. Cburchiirs dissertation on Richard III. up to Shakespeare (Pa- 
lacstra X, Berlin 1900), — a work seen through the press with patience, care, and 
self-denial by my friend Mr. W. Perrett. Compare also Prof. Brandl's succinct intro- 
duction to the play, in bis edition of Schlegel-Tieck^s translation of Shakespeare. 
Dr. Cburchiirs remarks relating to Henslowe's Play on Richard III. rcquire to be 
corrected aecording to Fleay's Chronicle of the English Drama, vol. II, p. 284, item 13. 

» Comp. Dr. Fumivall, New Shaksp. Soc. Trans., 1874, p. 102—114; and 
also Herford, Eversley Ed., vol. 2. 

* From Herford's able Introduction, Eversley Edition, X, p. 155.— Cf. also 
Lloyd's Essay. 

* An estimable lady, who saw Shakespeare's 'Timon' acted by the Meiningen 
Company, has repeatedly told me that the play made an ineffaceable Impression 
on her mind. 

* Schlegel-Tieck Translation, VI, 235-8. 



144 Chapter 4. The English Drama, 



A PRE-MERCHANT. 

The hypothesis of a pre-Shakespearean play on the same subject 
as his Merchant of Venice is based ou the foUowing passage in 
Stephen Gosson's School of Abuse (1579): ^ 

And as some of the Players are farre from abuse, so some of their 
Playes are without rebukc: which are as easily remembered, as-quicklj 
reckoned. The twoo prose Bookes plaied at the Belsavage, where you shall 
finde never a woorde without wit, never a line without pith, never a letter 
placed in vaine. The ^lew' and Ttolome', showne at the Bull, ihe one re- 
preseniing the greedinesse of worldly chmers^ and bloody mindes of Usurers: 
The other very lively discrybing howe seditious estates, with their owne 
devises, false friendes, with their own swoordes, and rebellious commons 
in their own snares are overthrowne: neither with Amorous gcsture 
wounding the eye: nor with slovenly talke hurting the eares of the chast 
hearers. 

There is a general consensus of opinion that 'The Jew' referred 
to by Gössen is the forerunner of Shakespeare's play. From Hhe 
'greediness of worldly choosers and the bloody minds of usurers' we 
infer that it combined the story of the caskets and that of the pound 
of flesh. ' 

What the 'venesyan comodey' of Henslowe's Diary (1594) was, 
and whether there is any link of connexion between it and Shake- 
speare's play, must for ever remain dubious. 

May we suppose that Sponsor alludes to the old play in a 
humorous letter to Harvey, dated 1579 (?), where he signs himself 
thus: 

He that is faste bownde unto the in more obligations then any 
marchante in Italy to any Jewe there. 

And did Greene, too, make an allusion to the casket story ol the old 
play, in *MamUia' (1583)?— 

1 Arber's Reprint 1868, p. 40. 

* There is one dissentient voice. Mr. Fleay, who is entitled to a respectful 
hearing, seeks to identify Gosson's Jew with The Three Ladies of London (printed 
1584). Moreover he suggests that *chuser.s'=chousers. (Bist of the Stage, p. 40.) 
What Dr. Murray says about *chousc(r)' in his Dictionary seems to teil against 
Mr. Fleay's interpretation of the word. It is difficult to see why The Three 
Ladies of London' should havc ever acquired the name of the Jew, as the Jew 
is not at all the prominent figure of the play: Moreover the Jew is not Jewish, 



Anonymout Piays: A Pre-Merchant; A Pre-Gentiemenj Further Old Plays. 145 

He which maketh choyce of bewty without vertue commits as mach 
folly as Critius did, in choosing a golden boxe filled with rotten bones. 

Bat it wonld be unsafe to build conclasions on these two passages.' 

A PRE-GENTLEMEN. 

The Story of the shepherdess Felismena, related in Montemayor's 
'Diana', had been dramatized as early as 1585 in a play entitled 
*The History of Felix and PhiliÄmena', acted at Greenwich before the 
Qaeen. New, Don Felix in the 'Diana' corresponds to Proteus in 
The Two Gentlemen of Verona, while Felismena is Shakespeare's 
Julia. There is therefore mach probability in the supposition that 
Shakespeare was indebted to a dramatic version of Montemayor's iale 
for the main incidents of his 'Two Gentlemen'.' 

FURTHER OLD PLAYS, 

Real, Htpothetical, and Chimbbical, — süpposed (bightly 

OR WBONGLT) to ha VE FOBMED THE BASES OF ShAEESPEABEAN PlATS. 

In this section dealing with purely hypothetical matter, which 
reqaires further working out, I mention briefly: i) hypothetical plays 
which I consider likely sources of some Shakespearean plays, though 
the extemal evidence is somewhat meagre; ii) old plays, really 
existent, bat probably not the bases of Shakespearean plays; iii) chi- 
merical or unlikely sources, — plays that have been suggested on very 
insufficient grounds to have formed the bases of the respective Shake- 
spearean plays. 

I) HYPOTHETICAL PLAYS, BEING LIKELY SOURCES. 

Shakespeare's Othello, Cymbeline, Much Ado, and The Merry Wives 
are founded on Italian tales, of which English translations do not 
seem to have existed. This circumstance, the marked divergence of 
these plays from their Italian Originals', Stephen Gosson's assertion 
that nnmerous stories of all sorts had been dramatized to furnish the 
play honses of London (cf. ante^ p. 59) — an assertion which extant 
lists of the names of old plays strongly bear out — , Shakespeare's 
apparent want of knowledge of Italian literature beyönd the stories 

I 1 Comp. Fumess, Yll, p. 322; Englische Studien, XYI, 372. 

> Comp, cuue, p. 72. 

' 'Othello^ keeps more closely to its source. 
Anders, Sbakespeare's books. 10 



146 Chapter 4. The EnglUh Drama. 

forming the plots of some of his dramas*, his practice of retouching 
old plays in other known cases,— all this seema to me to point to 
older plays as the bases of his respective dramas just mentioned. It 
would be too much to suppose that a mortal human being, so basy 
in the practical affairs of life, who had to act in the play-house 
every day, and who was one of the leaders of his Company, could 
have written all the plays, the best ever produced, single-handed 
within the short space of about twenty years. 

A Pre-Cymbeline. — The crudeness of some scenes and the un- 
equal execution of the play suggest another hand. 

A Pre-Othello. — *To some readers it will seem likely that 
'Shakespeare had some other or fuller version of the story than 
*[Cinthio's] as his material.' These are the words of Mr. H. C. Hart 
(in his edition of Othello, 1903, p. xxxi), who finds evidence in 
Support of his view in the absence of any of Shakespeare's names in 
Cinthio except Desdemona, in Cassio's commercial pursuits (I, i), io 
the names 'Sagittary' and 'Marcus Luccicos' (I, iii), and in the general 
trend of the historical events in Othello. I would also draw attention 
to the poet's knowledge of Venetian affairs and customs. ' 

Further, I hypothetize a Pre-Müch-Ado, ' a Pre-Twelpth-Night 
(cf. aw^^ pp. 65— 70), and a Pre-Merrt-Wives. Fleay's supposition, 
that the 'gelyous comodey' mentioned by Henslowe, Jan. 5, 1593, is 
connected with the Merry Wives, is very hazardous. As to a Pre- 
Errors, See ante^ p. 32 f.* 

Pericles is only in part" by Shakespeare. Whether he retouched 
a play already finished by another hand, or whether he collaborated 
with another author, we cannot teil with certainty. I am inclined 
to accept the former supposition. In this sense, I believe in a Pre- 
Pericles, which, however, sufifered little change under Shakespeare's 
hands. The hypothesis of a Pre-Pericles of an early date rests on 
spurious and forged data (cf. ante^ P- 81, note 2). 

' Titus Andronicus, too, is partly based on a tale of Bandello's (see p. 66). 

' Mr. Furncss makes the same supposition, Yar. Ed., XII, xx; though his 
conjecture about- ^Benedicte and Betteris', mentioned in 1613, does not holp us 
at all. 

' Is AWs Well based on an older play? 



Further Old Play$, Hypothttical and Real 147 

II) REALLY EXISTENT OLD PLAYS, BUT PROBABLY NOT BASES OF 

SHAKESPEAREAN PLAYS. 

We know that there existed older English plays on the subject 
of Julias Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and 
perhaps also on Romeo and Juliet. Whether Shakespeare was indebted 
to them is open to donbt. It is hardly necessary to say, that pre- 
cedence in time does not involve dependence. 

A Pbe-Romeo?— In the preface to his poem of Romeus and Juliet 
(1562), the basis of Shakespeare's 'Romeo and Juliet', Arthur Brooke says: 
'Though I saw the same arguraent lately set fooiih on stage with more 
^commendation, then I can looke for: (being there much better set foilh 
Hhen I have or can dooe) yet the same matter penned as it is, may 
*8erve to lyke good effect'. It is difficult to see, why the expression, 
'set foorth on stage', should be taken in a figurative sense, as Delius 
saggested. ^ But whether this play was an English play, and whether 
it, or some English play succeeding it or actually founded upon it, 
was known to Shakespeare, is a question which is for ever doomed 
to remain matter for conjectural speculation only. Mr. P. A. Daniel 
thinks he can discover traces of a Pre-Romeo in the first Quarte 
edition. But he admits that it is impossible to give satisfactory 
evidence. 

Julius Caesar had, of course, appeared on the pre-Shakespearean 
stage. A Latin play on Caesar's death, of which Richard Edes was 
the reputed author, had been acted at Christ Church in Oxford in 
1582.' It is very likely that Henslowe's 'Caesar and Pompey', 1594-5, 
consisting of two pai*ts, differed but little from 'The Tragödie of 
Caesar and Pompey or Caesar's Revenge', printed in 1607 (and, 

> Comp. Brooke, v. 2817: 

The prince did straight ordaine, the'corses that were founde 
^Should bc ttt forth upon a atage hye raysed from the grounde.' 

Tiere the expression is certainly not used in a figurative sense. 

' Dr. A. Ward, in his Ilist. of Engl. Dram. Lit., II, p. 141, says that the 
famous et tu Brüte of the marder-scene occurred in Edes^s play. I suspect 
Dr. Ward accepted as a fact what Malone had only stated conjecturally. But the 
phrase must have been pre-Shakospearean. It is placed on the lips of Edward 
in The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of York (printed in 1595): "Et tu, Brüte, 
wilt thou Stab Caesar too?" The expression occurs also in Jonson's 'Every Man 
joni of his Ilumour', printed in 1600, Act V, iv. 

10^ 



148 Chapier 4. The EngUsh Drama, 

possibly, earlier), — a Senecan play, with some Marlowian touches. It 
ends with the death x)f Brutus. Henslowe's play is probably one 
with, or is an enlarged versiou, of ^Caesar and Pompey' mentioned 
by Stephen Gössen, 1582.^ Probably it was known to Shakespeare, 
whose play is, however, based on Plutarch. To representations of 
Julius Caesar on the stage we have two noteworthy allusions in 
Hamlet, III, ii, 104 f., and Julius Caesar, III, i, 111 — 4. 

Alexander's Julius Caesar, printed in 1607, is later than Shake- 
speare's play. According to Collier's edition of Henslowe, Drayton 
and others were occupied upon a play called ^Caesar^s Fall' in 1602. 
This would also be later than Shakespeare's. 

Oldeb Plays on Antony and Cleopatra.— Neither to the Countess 
of Pembroke's Translation of Garnier's Marc Antoine^ 'Antonius, a 
Tragedy', first printed in 1592, nor to Samuel Daniel's Cleopatra' 
(1594), a corapanion-piece to this tragedy, nor to Samuel Brandon's 
*Virtuous Octavia' (printed 1598), does Shakespeare owe anything for 
his 'Antony and Cleopatra' based on North's Plutarch. 

A play on the subject of Tboilüs and Cressida was written by 
Dekker and Chettle in (or very soon after) 1599, as we know from 
Henslowe's Diary. Shakespeare must have heard of it, for his play 
is apparently a rival productiou. Hut the loss of the former renders 
all speculation on this point fruitless. The Troilus-play entered on 
the Stationers' Registers on 7. Febr., 1602 — 3, as a play 'acted by 
'my lord Chamberlens Men' must have been Shakespeare's. 

2. AND 3. Henry VI. — English and German critics are at variance 
in their views with regard to Shakespeare's share in the composition 
of 2. and 3. Henry VI. While the former, led by Malone, agree in 
holding that 'The First Part of the Contention' and 'The True Tragedy 
of Richard Duke of York' were not, or not wholly, by Shakespeare, 
who recast them, forming 2. and 3. Henry VI out of them; — the 
latter, led by Delius, suppose that those plays are imperfect and 

* Gompare Aldis Wright, Clarendon Press Edition of Caesar, p. IX. Hr. Lee, in 
his Life of Shakespeare, p. 211, says: *A play of the same title [Julius Caesar] 
'wa3 known as early as 1589, and was acted in 1594 by Shakespeare's Company'. 
Mr. Lee is referring to Henslowe's play, the title of which is howeyer diiFerent 
Ilis date 1589 is probably an error for 1582. We have no evidence that Shake- 
speare's Company acted the play in question (cf. Fleay, Bist, of the Stage, p. 140)« 



Further Oid PlaySj Real^ Bypothetkal^ and Chimerieal. 149 

pirated copies of Shakespeare's plays. The question ought to be re- 
discassed with an unbiassed mind. ^ 

III) CHIMERICAL AND UNUKELY SOÜRCES. 

Regarding the hypothesis of a Pre-Titus-Andronigus, tbe chief 
facts which reqnire to be attended to are these: 

1) A play 'titus and ondronicus' (probably=Titus Andronicus) 
is mentioned in Henslowe's Diary on 23 Jan., 1594, and marked ne 
(«new play). Now, this ne (whether it is authentic or not) only means 
that the play was then first acted by Henslowe's troupe. The ne has 
therefore little significance for ns.* 

2) Critics have snpposed that there existed an earlier Version of 
Titas' which they believe was identical with 'tittus and Vespacia' 
(=Vespasian), mentioned by Henslowe in 1592, for the reason that 
the German version of Titos Andronicus (printed 1620), in which the 
names are freely altered, Titus's eldest son is called Vespasianus. But 
it is mnch more likely that Henslowe's Titus and Yespasian' was a 
play based on Josephus (cf. ante, p. 43). Moreover the German play 
appears to be founded on Shakespeare's piece, not on a Tre-Titus'.* 

3) Ravenscroft's assertion in 1687, 

I haye been told by some anciently conversant with the Stage, that 
it (Titas Andronicus) was not Originally bis (Shakespeare's), but brought 
by a private Author to be Acted, and he only gave some Master-touches 
to one or two of the Principal Parts or Characters — 

is altogether onreliable. (See Mr. Crawford's paper, of unequal merit, 
in the Shakespeare Jahrbuch xxxvi, 109 f.) 

4) It has been questioned whether Shakespeare was the sole 
author of the play. But Shakespeare must have had a large share, 
to say the least, in the composition of the work, as Mores (1598) 
mentions it among other undoubted plays of Shakespeare, and as it 
is inclnded in the First Folio. My view is that it is the tour de 
force of bis early career.* 

J The First Part of Henry VI. is probably the work of more than oue author. 

' Th. Eichhoff (Der Weg zu Shakespeare, Halle, 1902) says all the nc's 
were forged. This is not correct. See below, Addenda and Gorrigenda. 

' Mr. Füller, in the Publications of the Modem Language Association, Balti- 
more, 1901, Yol. XVI, no. 1, dJscusscs the question, but arrives at different results. 

* Shakespeare might therefore be said to have begun with a play of blood 
and furious revenge, and ended with a play (The Tempcst) of what Goethe calls 
reine Menschlichkeit, 



150 Chapter 4, The EnglUh Drama. 

For the existence of a Pre-Richabd II. there is no shred of 
evidence. On the day before Essex's ill-fated revolt an 'old' play on 
the subject of Richard II. was acted by the Lord Chamberlain's men 
in compliance with a requisition by the Earl. This, I take it, was 
Shakespeare's play. I publicly defended a Hhesis' to this effect on 
the occasion of my 'promotion'. I was, and am, thoroughly persuaded 
of the correctness of my arguments, which I have not at my fingers' 
ends at the present moment. 

The hypothesis of a Pre-As-Yoü-Like-It, which Dr. Furness 
puts forward, * seems to me absolately superfluous. 

Mr. Verity, in his 'Students' Shakespeare' editjon of Macbeth 
(1902), has collected all the arguments in favour of the theory of a 
Pbe-Macbeth. The arguments make no Impression on me. First, 
Mr. Verity says 'a "bailad of Macdobeth" was entered on the Register 
'of the Stationers' Company August 27, 1596; and the same entry 
'records "the ballad entituled The Taming of a Shrew'". On turning 
to Arber's Transcripts, I find no trace of the above entry, which was 
first cited by Collier.' — Again, Mr. Verity refers us to 'Kemp's Nine 
Days' Wender', 1600, where a penny Poet is mentioned, "whose first 
"making was the miserable steine story of Macdoel, or Macdobeth, or 
"Macsomewhat, fori am sure a Mac it was", which, of course, is an 
allusion to the famous names Do-icel and Do-bet in Tiers the Plowman'. 

Again, the play called "Malcolm King of Scottes" which Mr. 
Verity mentions, and which we find entered in Henslowe's Diary, 
April 27, 1602, proves nothing. Nor can Dr. Gwinne's dialogue of 
about thirty lines, recited before the King at the gate of St. John's 
College in 1605, be looked upon as the germ of Shakespeare's play. 
It is only symptomatic of the time and the new interests evoked by 
the accession of a Scotch King. There is nothing to prove that 
Shakespeare's Macbeth is later in dato than 1605. 

I wish my reader to get rid, once for all, of the fiction of a 
hypothetical Pke-Tempest, which is imagined to have had much in 
common with the Schöne Sidea, a play by Jacob Ayrer, who died in 
1605. As a matter of fact, there is not the slightest connexion and 
only the faintest possible resemblance between Shakespeare's Tempest 

» New Var. Ed., vol. VIII, pp. 308 f. 

3 The entry mat/ be in the Registers (cf. Fleay, *Shakesp.', p. '241). Perhaps 
there is a reference to it in Kemp's Nine Days' Wonder. But Macdobeth is 
not=Macbeth. 



Further Old Plays, SuijgesUd Sources. ^Paeudo-Shakespearean' Plays, 151 

and Ayrer's play. The plot of the former is so simple that there is 
DO necessity for assuming either a narrative or a play for its source. 

SOME SUGGESTED SOURCES. 

Professor Koeppel ' points out that a scene similar to that at the 
close of The Winter's Tale, where Hermione is shown as a statue, 
occors in The History of the Tryall of Chevalry, Act iv, acted by 
the Derby's men (not Shakespeare's troupe, cf. Fleay, Stage, p. 154) 
and printed in 1605. A statue is also brought to lifo in Lyly's 
Woman in the Afoon. 

Mr. Boodle' draws attention to some resemblances — but not very 
striking — between Cymbeline and The Rare Triumphs of Love and 
Fortune^ printed in 1589. ^ 

A Wat^ning for Fair Women^ acted by the lord Chamberlain's 
men shortly before its publication in 1599 has a passage very similar 
to one relating to Caesar's wounds in 'Julius Caesar' HI, ii.. If 
Mr. MacMillan' is correct in assigning to Shakespeare's play the 
date 1599, the passage in A Warning may be looked upon as con- 
taining an echo from Julius Caesar. 

The Latin lesson in the Taming of the Shrew may have been 
suggested by a similar scene in The Three Lords and Three Ladies 
of London (printed 1590) by Robert Wilson, who was apparently a 
member of Shakespeare's Company. 

Resemblances between Shakespeare's plays and other dramas con- 
nected with Shakespeare's Company before 1611 — of which Mr. Fleay 
has drawn up a list in his Life and Work of Shakespeare, 1886, 
p. 361 f. — will no doubt be easily discovered. 

THE ^PSEUDO- SHAKESPEARE AN' PLAYS 

present a curious problem. Some of them belonging to Shakespeare's 
Company may have received slight touches by the great poet. On the 
other band, he must have been influenced by the plays in the Per- 
formance of which he took part. I have not worked much at these 
plays, and have to waive a detailed discussion here.* 

* Archiv für neuere Sprachen, 97, p. 3:^1) f. 

3 Notes and Queries, Nov. 19, 1887; and Shakesp. Jahrb. XX XIII, 344. 

* The Arden Shakespeare edition of ^Caesar', 1902. 

* Cf. Shakespeare Jahrbuch XXVII, 135 f.; and Warnke and Proescholdt's 
edition. 



152 Chapter 4, The EnglUh Drama. 



MYSTEMES AND MORALITIES. 

Shakespeare's acquaintance with these early forms of the English 
drama is testified by numerous allusions. 

We have a reference to the Whitsun plays in The Two Gentlemen 
of Verona, IV, iv, 162 f.: 

SilMa. How tall was she? 
Julia. Aboat my stature; for at Pentecost, 
When all oar pageants of delight were play'd, 
Our youth got me to play the woman's part, 
And I was trimmM in Madam Julians gown, etc. 

Probably Shakespeare had seen Performances of miracle-plays at 
Coventry, the home of pageants in the midland connties. Shakespeare's 
sketch of artisan players in A Midsnmmer Night's Dream contain 
probable reminiscences of his early years. It has been surmised that 
he witnessed some of the festivities at the Eenilworth Castle in 1575, 
when Leicester entertained the Queen with lavish magnificence with 
a view of gaining her band at last,— but 

the imperial votaress passed on, 
In maiden meditation, fancy free. 

(cf. Mids. N. Dr., II,i, 148 f.) 

Herod and Termagant, furious and ranting characters of the old 
Miracles, are alluded to in the foUowing passages: — 

O^erdoing Termagant; it outherods Herod 

(Hamlet, III, ii, 16); 

Herod of Jewry dare not look opon you 

Bat when you are well-pleas'd 

(Ant. and Cleop., III, iii, 3); 

What a Herod of Jewry is this? 

(Merry Wiv. II, i, 20). 

We also find characters of the Old Morality alluded to, especially 
the clown, known as the Vice^ — 

Like to the old Vice .... 
Who, with dagger of lath, 
In his rage and his wrath, 
Gries, ah, ha! to the devil. 

(Twelfth Night, IV, ii, 130—141). 

^ Ed. Eckhardt is the author of Die Lustige Person im alten Drama. Berlin, 1902. 



MysterUä and Afaralüies. Masks, 153 

And now is this Vice's dagger become a squire 

(2. Henry IV,, Act III, ii, 343). 

In 1. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 499, Prince Henry calls FalstafF 

that reverend vice, that grey iniquity, tbat father ruffian, that vanity in years. 

Vice, Iniquity, and Vanity occur frequently as characters in the 
Moralities, as also Justice— 

Justice or Iniqnity 

(Meas. f. Meas., II, i, 181). 
Again, Richard III., Act III, i, 82: 

Thus, Hke the formal vice, Iniqnity, 
I moralize two meauings in one word. 

Compare also Hamlet, III, iv, 98: 

A vice of kings — 

and Henry V., Act IV, iv, 75, where the Boy says of Pistol: 

Bardolph and Nym had tcn times more valour than this roaring devil % 
the old play, that every one may pare his nails witb the wooden dagger. 

MASKS. 

Masks may be roughly divided into three kinds. A mask in its 
simplest form is a mere disguise or masquerade without recitals. 
Under this head I would include masked dancing (such as we have 
in Much Ado, II, i; in Romeo, I, iv and v; Henry VIII., Act I, iv; 
and perhaps in Mids. N. Dr., V, 368 — Bergomasc), and masked pro- 
cession (as in Merchant of Ven., II, vi). 

The second sort are masks joined with recitals and dancing, — 
such as we find in Love's Labour's Lost, Act V, u, 157 ff. Puck and 
the other fairies give a very masklike Performance at the dose of 
Midsummer Night' s Dream. The maskers were ushered in by a herald 
or presenter, who introduced them to the audience by way of a pro- 
logue. In Love's Labour's Lost, V, ii, Moth acts the herald of the 
Muscovite mask (cf. v. 97). The customary dance is, however, refused 
(v. 212). In *Romeo' the part of a herald (who might have represented 
Cupid or the like, Act I, iv, ad init.) is purposely omitted. 

More important is the third class of masks,— the Court-Masks, 
which found great favour in the eyes of King James and 'Bel-Anna', 
and became also populär on the public stage. They present a more de- 
veloped and complicated form of the second sort'. We find them in- 

^ The first real 'court-masque' preserved to us seems to be that presented 
before the Qaeen in 1594. It is printed in Nichols's Progresses of Q. Elizabeth, 
111, 309. Is it authentic? 



]^54 Chapter 4. The EnglUh Drama, 

troduced in mauy of the later dramas of the time. In Shakespeare's 
Tempest a court-mask graces the nnion of Ferdinand and Miranda. ' 
In the Archiv für neuere Sprachen CVII, p. 178, I had drawn attention 
to the resemblances between it and Beaumont's 'Masqne of the Inner- 
Temple and Gray's Inn' (1613) and made the Suggestion that it was 
written under the influence of the latter, which may have been ori- 
ginally played in place of the present mask. Professor Thorndike* points 
out that the mask of the Satyrs in The Winter's Tale, IV, iv, was taken 
over from Jonson's Masque of Oberon, acted on Jan. 1, 1611 before 
the King. Hence the remark: 'One three of them [the Satyrs] . . . 
'danced before the king' (1. 345). The mask in Timon, I, ii, was 
also suggested by the court-masks. 

Lastly, the whole play of The Tempest with its characters of Ariel, 
Caliban (an antimask figure), and 'spirits in shape of dogs and hounds' 
(IV, I end\ with its harpy-scene, and the entertainment (already 
referred to) by Iris,* Ceres, Juno, etc., has plainly experieneed the in- 
fluence of the court-masks, which, we may say in general, are respons- 
ible for much of the stage pageantry of Shakespeare's latest plays. 

On populär Performances, such as the Morris Dance, The Nine 
Worthies, and the like, referred to by Shakespeare, compare Dyer's 
Folk-Lore, and E. K. Chambers, The Mediaeval Stage, 1903. 

* Why does Prospero warn Ferdinand not to break the virgin-knot? (IV, i, 
15, 51 f.). The answer sounds frivolous, but I believe it is the only correct one. 
Prospero has to send the couple into the cell all hy themselves, where they are 
afterwards discovered playing chess most innocently. That is why Ferdinand swears: 

the murkiest c/en, 
The most opportune place, the strong'st Suggestion 
Our worser genius can, shall never melt 
Mine honour into lust. 

2 Cf. Tho Influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on Shakespeare, 1901 : — Beau- 
mont's sarac mask presented on 20 Febr. 1613 is also imitated in The Two Noble 
Kinsmen, See New Shakspere Soc, Ser. II, 15, part II, p. 53* or Thomdike, ut 
Äü/>., 44. 

3 Who plays the part of Iris? The answer is very clear: Ariel. Act IV, i, 
vers 49, Prospero had said to Ariel: "Do not approach Till thou dost hear me call". 
And shortly after he calls him: "Well. Now corae, my Ariel!" Thereupon Iris 
enters. — Vers 167, "when l presented Ceres" does not therefore mean *when I acted 
Ceres', as Sehmidt says, but *when I heralded or introduced Ceres'. 



CHAPTER 5. 

POPULÄR LlTERATUßE. 

INTRODrCTORY. 

FoB Contents of this chapter compare the general Table of Contents. 

Dispersed through Shakespeare's text we find a considerable 
number of fragments and scraps of old ballads and songs, of whicU 
no further traces remain. Examples will occur to eveiy reader. 
I have not collected these. It is to be hoped that a list of such of 
them, as have the air of a quotation from some lost poem, will be 
given in a later volume.' It is generally impossible to say with ab- 
solute certainty whether a song only known to us through Shakespeare's 
plays is to be attributed to the poet or not. Such dubious cases 
I pass over without notice. 

Of the ballads and songs referred to by our poet I mention only 
such as have been preserved to us, or of which there are manifest 
traces outside of Shakespeare's works, — traces tending to show their 
contemporary or pre-Shakespearean existence, their vogue, etc. I have 
refrained from quoting in füll or in part the Originals. These poems 
will be published in collected form in a later volume. Such poHions 
as are specially alluded to, or quoted, by Shakespeare will be italicized. 
Meanwhile it was necessary to give some bibliographical information. 

In Shakespeare's days the minstrels had not yet died out. It was 
only in 1597 that a Statute was passed by which minstrels wandering 
abroad were included among rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beggars, 
and were adjudged to be punished as such. In 1589 Puttenham 
writes the following passage, which, though repeatedly quoted by others 
before, deserves a place here: 'The over busie and too speedy returne 
'of one maner of tune, doth too much annoy and as it were glut the 

* Compare ray Preface ante. 



156 Chapter ö. Populär Littraiure. 

'eare, unlesse it be in small and populär Musickes song by these 
^Cantabanqui upon benches and barreis heads where they have none 
'other audience then boys or countrey fellowes that passe by them in 
^the streete, or eise by blind harpers or sach'like taverue minstrels 
Hhat give a fit of mirth for a groat, and their matters being for the 
'most part stories of old time, as the tale of Sir Tapas^ the reportes 
'of Bevü of SotUhampton^ Guy of Warvncke^ Adam Bell^ and Clymme 
'of the Clough^ and such other old Romances or historicall rimes, made 
'purposely for recreation of the common people at Christmasse diners 
'and brideales and in tavernes and alehouses, and such other places 
'of base resort.'* (The Arte of English Poesie, Arber's Reprint, p. 96; 
comp., too, p. 57 ib.). I suppose it is unnecessary to add, that 
Sidney's 'Arcadia', Montemayor's 'Diana', etc., though also called Ro- 
mances, are works of an entirely diiferent character from those treated 
in the present chapter, and are noticed elsewhere. 

Ballads fall into two classes: the Folk-ballads and the Art-ballads. 
Of the former the Robin Hood ballads seem to have been favourites 
with Shakespeare. I am sorry to say that there is no trace in his 
works of 'the old song of Percy and Douglas' which moved Sir Philip 
Sidney's heart 'more than with a trumpet' though 'sung but by some 
'blind crowder'. ' With the Populär ballads the Art-ballads contrast 
rather unfavourably. The chief ballad-makers known to us were 
Eiderton and Deloney. But the rhymesters and cantabanks who bal- 
ladized every trifling event or topic were legion, and their stall-ballads 
were sung and sold in eveiy street. FalstaflF refers to this practice 
in 1. Henry IV., Act II, ii, 48: — 

An I have not ballads made on yoa all, and suDg to filthy tunes, let a 
cup of sack be my poison. 

And in a still more interesting passage in 2. Henry IV., Act IV, in, 49 f.: 

here he [Colevile] is, and here 1 yield him and I beseech your grace, let 
it be booked with the rest of this day's deeds; or, by the Lord, I will 
have it in a particalar ballad eise, with mine own picture on the top on't, 
Colevilo kissing my foot. 

General notices of ballads are fairly numerous in Shakespeare's 
plays. The passages referring to them in The Winter's Tale (Act IV, 

* Compare Lucr. 817 — ^\^i—^ Feast-finding minstreis, tuning my defame, 

''Will tie the bearers to attend each line, 
"Uow Tarquin wronged me, I Collatine." 
and Love's L. L., V, ii, 405: — "Nor woo in rhyme, like a ))lind harper's song". 

* Defence of Poesy. 



Introduetory. Heroes of Romance. ] 57 

SC. iv) are too well known to require a special mention. No doubt 
Mopsa echoed the opinion of many folks of those days, when she de- 
clared: **I love a ballad in print o' life" (1. 263). Evidently Shakespeare 
thooght otherwise as regards the majority of the street-ballads. 

Shakespeare, lover of mnsic that he was, has numerous allusions 
to Songs and tunes. 'Döring the long reign of Elizabeth, music seems 
'to have been in universal cultivation, as well as in universal esteem'.^ 
'If ever a country deserved to be called "musical", that country was 
^England, in the 16^^ and 17^^ centuries'.' 

As for the dance tnnes, it ought to be borne in mind that 'All 

^the ancient dances were originally sung In Elizabeth's reign 

^some dances were sung, and others were simply played'.' Most of 
the populär dance tunes were set to words and sung. 

Chappell's work on Old English Populär Music as well as his 
and the Rev. J. W. Ebsworth's publications for the Ballad Society 
have been of invalnable aid to me. I have occasionally had to refer to 
the earlier edition of the 'Populär Music' (18öö — 59), as it contains 
important information, expunged, for what reason I do not know, from 
the latest edition, 1893, by Mr. Wooldridge. 

The chapter concludes with Populär Tales and Light Literature. 
The llst of populär tales might be further extended by including such 
legends as that of Patient Grissel (mentioned in The Shrew, II, i, 297), 
and the like. Of Jest-books a coUection consisting of three volumes 
has been printed by W. Carew Hazlitt in 1864 under the title 'Shake- 
speare Jest-Books'. It was the custom of writers of the old jest-books 
to attribute them to some well known personage in order 'to throw 
'a halo of popularity round their facetious lucubrations' and to secure 
a mofe ready market. This same charge must be laid at the door 
of W. C. Hazlitt, whose 'Shakespeare Jest-Books', save one or two, have 
nothing whatever to do with Shakespeare. 



THE HEROES OF ROMANCE. 

Of all the heroes of Romance the three most famous in England 
were Arthur, Guy of Warwick, and Sir Bevis, all three of whom are 
referred to by our immortal poet. With 

> Chappell, Old Engl. Pop. Music, 1893, vol. I, 59. 
' Naylor, Shakespeare and Music, 1896, p. 20. 
» Naylor, pp. 113—4. 



158 Chapter 5, Populär LüercUure, 

TUE ARTHrRIAN LEGENDS ^ 

(whether in the form of prose, metrical romance, or bailad, from books, 
broadsides, or from the mouth of *Cantabanqui', or minstrels, etc.) 
Shakespeare is familiär, as might, of course, be expected. ^^ Queen 
Guinov&r of BritairC\ Arthur's wife, is mentioned in Love's Lab. Lost 
(IV, I, 125); and Merlin^ the enchanter and prophet of the Arthurian 
romance, in 1. Henry IV. (Act III, i, 150): ^Hhe dreamer Merlin and 
"AM propheciea^^ [referred to by Hall in his chronicle, Bosw.-Stone, 

p. 139'], and in King Lear, III, ii, 95: Fool "TAts prophecy 

^^ Merlin ahall make; for I live before his time". — Camelot^ where 
Arthur's residence was, is mentioned in Lear, II, ii, 90. In 1. Henry 
VI. (Act III, ii) *Bedford, who has been "brought in sick in a chair'' 
'(1. 40), determines to "sit before the walls of Ronen" (1. 91), awaiting 
'the issue of an attempt to regain the city, for he has '*read"" 

That siout Pendragon in his litier sick 
Game to the field and vanquished his foes: 
Methinks I should revive the soldiers' hearts, 
Becanse I ever found them as myself. 

(IL 95—98.) 
Shakespeare certainly did not read this in Holinshed, as Holinshed 
attributes this deed to the hrother of Pendragon, Arthnr's father. But 
Malory, in his Le Morte Darthur, chapter IV, gives an acconnt which 
agrees with that known to Shakespeare. [Geoffrey of Monmouth, too, 
and Hardyng ascribe the heroic deed to Pendragon.] 

In 2. Henry IV. (Act III, ii, 298) Shallow says:— 

I remember at Mile-end Green, when I lay at Clement's Inn, — I was 
then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show, 

Arthur's show was an exhibition of archery at London, in whicn also 
Sir Dagonet, King Arthur's fool, figured. 

What Arthur the Hostess, in Henry V., Act II, in, 10, — "he's in 
Arthur's bosom" — is thinking of, it would be unsafe to say.' 

In 2. Henry IV. we find a quotation from The Noble Acts of 
Arthüb, op thb Round Table, and of Lancelot Du Lake. To thb 
TuNB OF "Flying Famb". Such is the title of the ballad given in 
The Garland of Good-Will 'written by T[homaÄ] D[eloney]' (who 
died circa 1600) which is dated by Henry Dixon drca 1586, but of which 
we possess only later copies. A reprint of the *Garland' will be found 

* Boswell-Stone, Shakspere's Holinshed, p. 2*26. 
' Of course, she means Abraham's bosom. 



Heroes of Romance: Arthur, 159 

in the Percy Society, vol. XXX. The above ballad is on p. 38, and 
its first stanza rans thus: 

When Arthur first in court hegan, 

And was approv^d king, 
By force of arms great victories won, 

And conquests home did bring; etc. 

The ballad is nothing more thaa a rhymed Version of certain chapters 
of Sir Thomas Malory's 'Le Morte Darthur'. 'FalstafF, as John W. 
Haies pnts it, ^quotes the first line except the last word, and after 
'a brief Interruption the second, which he makes "And was a worthy 
'king", in the 2'^'* part of "King Henry IV.", Act H, sc. iv, 36. It 
'is qnoted also, as Mr. Chappell [I, 92] mentions, in Marston's "Mal- 
'content", and Beaumont and Fietcher's "Little French Lawyer".' 
(Repr. of Percy's Fol. MS., vol. I, p. 84). The ballad, I may add, is 
also qnoted in Th. Heywood's 'Rape of Lucrece', first printed in 

1609, 

When Tarquin first in Court began, 

And was approved King: 
Some men for sudden joy gan weep, 
But I for sorrow sing, 

With the last two lines compare Lear, I, iv, 191 — 2. As to the tnne to 
which Falstaff mnst have hummed the words compare Chappell, ut sup, 
I onght to mention, that FalstafFs words in 2. Henry IV. (Act II, 
IV, 53): "Your brooches, pearls and, ouches" are looked upon by the 
editors as a quotation from The modem verston of The Boy and 
THE Mantle, beginning 'In Carleile dwelt King Arthur' (printed by 
Percy), the 11^^ line of which is: 'With brooches, rings, and owches'. 
I know nothing definite about the dato of composition of this poem 
'as revised and altered by a modern hand'. I rather suspect the modern 
hand was Percy's own. In the older version 'ouches' is not given. * 

' Falstafifs words must be taken in close connexion with the preceding 
passage in the text: 

• FaUt *we catch of you, Doli" .... 

Doli: **yea, joy, our chains and our je weis." 

FaUt. ''Your brooches, pearls, and ouches: for to serve brayely is to come 

'halting off, you know." 

Brooches, pearls, and ouches, of course, refer to something very different from 
gems. Carbuncle is similarly frequently used by us in the seuse of tumour, 
pimple. Falstaff is not quoting from any ballad. (Cf. Comedy of Err., III, ii, 137—8, 
qnoted th/ra, p. 232.) 



X60 Chapter 5. Populär Literature, 

GUY OF WARWICK, 

For bibliographical matter relating to Sir Guy I must refer the 
curious reader to Znpitza's edition, Early Engl. Text Soc, and to 
Tercy's Folio MS.' II, 509 f. ' It will be sufficient here to say that 
the romance existed in print in the 16^ Century. It was also Con- 
densed into a ballad circa 1592. And numerous allusions in Elizabetban 
literature testify to its popularity and persistence. Shakespeare Las 
two: In King John, I, i, 225, the Bastard derisively names his weak 
half-brother ^Colbrand the giant^ that same mighty man". Tbis Ck)l- 
brand, the champion of the Danes, who is with difficulty defeated by 
Guy, is again referred to in Henry VIII., Act V, iv, 22: "I am not 
"Samson, nor Sir Ouy^ nor CoVrrand^ To mow 'em down before me." 

SIR BEVIS OF HAMPTOUN 

was a no less populär hero of romance in the sixteenth Century. For 
particulars concerning old MSS. and editions, see Furnivaira lucid In- 
troduction to Robert Laneham's Letter, and Eölbing's edition, Early Engl. 
Text Soc. The story is sketched by EUis, in his Early Engl. Metr. Rom. 
A summary is also given by Kölbing. 

In Henry VIII. (Act I, i, 33f.) we have the following allusion: 

When these suns [the two Kings] — 
For so they phrase 'em — by their heralds challenged 
The noble spirits to arms, they did perfonn 
Beyond thoaght's compassj \haX former fahulom story, ^ 
Being now seen possible enough, got credit, 
That Beüis was believed. 

In King Lear (III, iv, 144) we find a couplet, a little altered, from 
this old Romance in the mouth of Edgar: 

But mice and rats, and sach small deer, 
Have been Tom's food for seven long year. 

The original verses are part of the description of Bevis's adventnres 
in Damascus, where he was kept in prison seven years. 'Some wheat- 

^ I need scarcely add, that the stories of *Guy', 'Bevis', etc. are given in a modern 
dress by Ellis in his *Specimens of Early English Hetrical Romances^ (Bohn^s 
Libr.).— French, in his ^Shakespeareana Genealogica^ pp. 580 <& 431 ff., asserts that 
the great dramatist is a lineal descendant of Sir Guy's. I mention this as a mere 
curiosity. «Fiddle-faddle", says J. W. E. 

' former fabulous story=the story of old timcs, hitherto thought fabulous. 



Ileroes o/ Romance : Guy, Bevis. Eglamour, The Squire of Low Degret. Jßl 

'bran was daily let down into the dungeon for his support: but neither 
'meat nor corn was allowed to him; and 

Raties and myce and suche smal dere 
Was his mete that seven yere'J 

Besides these two references in Shakespeare's text, we find a third in 
The First Part of the Contention, which is either an imperfect version 
of 2. Henry VI., or, as some maintain, the original of it: 

have at you Peter with downrlght blowes, as Bevys of South-hampton 
feil upon Askapart 

The words in italics are wanting in 2. Henry VI. (cf. Act II, iii, 92). ^ 
Ascapart was a formidable giant subdued by Bevis, whose page he 
then becdme. 

SIR EGLAMOUR. 

Shakespeare may possibly have had this hero in his mind when 
'he calls one of his characters by his name in the Two Gentlemen of 
'Verona: "What think'st thou of tke fair Sir Eglamour"" (Act I, ii, 9). 
This knight "valiant, wise, remorseful, well accomplish'd" becomes 
the agent for Silvia in her escape in a later part of the drama. The 
Romance was 'printed at Edinburgh in 1508 by Walter Chapman, 
'and subsequently at London by Copland and Walley'. It is entered 
on the Stat. Reg., Jan. 15, 1582. 

THE SQÜIRE OF LOW DEGREE. 
This is the title of a most populär romance, which begins thus: 
"It was a squyer of lowe degre". — It is alluded to by Fluellen: 

"You calied me yesterday mountain-sqaire; but I will make you to-day 
"a squire of low degree,^^ 

(Henry V., Act V, sc. i, 36). A reprint will be found in Hazlitt's 
'Early Populär Poetry', vol. II.* 

J fillis, ui sup,, p. 256; Kölbing, p. 75, var. lectio. 

' They are wanting in the Folio. Perhaps they ought to be inaerted into 
Shakespeare's text. 

» These are J. 0. HalliweH's words (Percy's MS., II, 338). He adds The name, 
*howe?er, appears to have passed into a kind of proverb. So in Dekker's Sattro- 
^mastix: "Adieu, Sir Eglamore! adieu, lute-string" ', etc. I find nothing in this 
passage, which points to a proverbial use of the nam^. The words referred to 
by Halliwell are spoken by Tucca, who alludes to all manner of persons and 
things under the sun a la Pistol. 

* 'The squyre of Low deggre' I find entered in the Stat. Reg., 10. June 1560. 
(Arber, I, 128 ) 

Anders, Shakespeare's books. 11 



162 Chapter 5. Populär Liier ature. 

SIR TOPAS 

deserves a passing notice and I prefer to mention him here. He is 
made tlie hero of a burlesque ballad by Chaucer in his Canterburj' 
Tales. The tale of Sir Topas' is mentioned by Puttenham (cf. ante^ p. 156) 
as forming part of the stock of the Cantabanqui and Minstrels. The 
name, Sir Topas, is assumed by the clown in Twelfth Night (IV, ii). 
But 'Sir Tophas' is also in Lyly's Endymion. 

CÜARLEMAGNE ROMANCES. 

Enormous though the popularity was which these romances 
enjoyed in the raiddle ages, the English versions"never took very 
deep root. It is therefore not suprizing to find but few and faint 
traces of the Charlemagne cycle in Shakespeare's works. 

In 1. Henry VI., Act I, ii, 29 — 31, Alen^on is made to refer to 
the two most famous paladins of Charles the Great: 

Froissart, a countryman of ours, records, 
England all Olivers and Rowlands bred 
During Ihe time Edward the Third did reign. » 

Of the Charlemagne Romances, there is only one with which, 
w^e can say, Shakespeare is in some way connected, whether directly 
or indirectly. This is 'Huon of Bordeaux', which was translated 
from the French original by Lord Berners,' about 1530, who, be it 
remembered, was also the translator of Froissart's Chronicle. Of the 
popularity of Huon of Bordeaux in England there is no lack of evi- 
dence. We know, too, from some eutries in Henslowe's Diary, that 
the romance had been dramatized and produced on the London stage 
in 1593 and 1594. From these and other considerations we see that 
Oberen, who, in the old romance, plays almost as important a 
role as Huon himself, had been naturalized in England long before 
Shakespeare classicized him for ever, in his Mids. Night's Dream. 

. Apart from the name and the sovereignty in fairy land, Shake- 
speare's Oberen has in common with his medieval predecessor the 
circumstance that his kingdom is situated in the far East. Compare, 
e, g,^ Mids. N. Dr., II, i, 68, where Titania asks Oberen: 

Why art thoa here, 
Come from the farthest steppe of India? 

* The particular passage in Froissart, if any, alhided to here, has not been 
identified yet. 

' Edited, with an introduction, by Sidney Lee, Early Engl. Text Sog., XL. 



Heroea oj Romance: Topas. Charles (Oheron). BalUids: Robin Hood. Iß3 

It is possible, too, that we have an allusion to 'Huon of Bor- 
deaux' in Much Ado About Nothing, II, i, 271 ff., where Benedick 
declares he would rather fetch a toothpick from the furthest inch 
of Asia, bring the length of Prester John's foot, fetch a hair off the 
great Oham's beard, than hold three words' Conference with Beatrice. 
Here there may be a reference to the grotesque task imposed upon 
Huon who was to go to Babylon and, among other things, to rob 
the 'Admiral (!) Gaudis' of a handful of hair from his beard and of 
four of his largest teeth.* 

FOLK-BALLADS. 

ROBIN HOOD. 

William Shakespeare's fondness for Robin Hood, the people's darling, 

celebrated in so many ballads, is evinced by some striking allusions 

in his dramas. First, in As You Like It (I, i, 119) we have a passage 

which might be set as a fit motte before this exquisite pastoral drama: 

Oliver: Where will the old duke live? 

Charles: They say he is already in the forest of Arden, and a many 
merry men with him; and there they live like the old Robin Hood of Eng- 
land: they say many young gentlemen flock to him every day, and fleet 
the time carelessly, as they did in the golden world.' 

Under the greenwood tree Robin Hood and his merry men of the 
ballads have their abode. Compare As You Like It, II, v, 1 : 

Under the greenwood tree^ 
Who loves to lie with me, etc. 

Compare also 'My Robin is to the Greenwood gone' (see post^ p. 178). 
The two most prominent companions of Robin Hood were Little 
John and Scarlet, referred to by Shakespeare in 'The Merry Wives', I, 
I, 177, where Falstaff addresses the red-faced Bardolph as "Scarlet and 
"John", and in 2. Henry IV., Act V, iii, 107, where Silence sings, "And 
"Robin Hood, Scarlet, and John". This is a line occurring in The 
JoLLY PiNDER OF Wakefield (Child III, 131) st. 3: 

J Of 'The King of Fairies\ a play referred to by Nash (1589) and Greene 
(1592), nothing further is known (cf. Fleay, *Drama', II, 279, 283). I cannot think 
that Greene's Oberon (in James IV.) is the father of Shakespeare's Oberon. 

' The German translation by Schlegel is wretched: 'da leben sie wie 
Zigeunervolk .... und versaufen sorglos die Zeit wie im goldnen Alter'. 

' The whole line occurs freqiiently, as a standing phrase, in the R. H. ballads. 
Compare, e. g., Child III, p. 71, st. 310, 312; p. 72, st. 328; 335; p. 74, st. 377; 
p. 97, st. 2; 98, st. 23; 113, st. 83; 115 a, etc. 

11* 



164 Chapter 5. Populär Literature, 

All this beheard three witty young men, 
'Twas Robin llood, Scarlet, and John. 

The ballad was well known in Sbakespeare^s days, being qaoted 
from in three conteroporaiy dramas, and mentioned iis early as 155| 
in the Stationers' Registers. * It is therefore extremely probable that 
this is the ballad which Shakespeare is quoting. ' 

In The Two Gentlemen of \'erona, Acts IV & V, we find a band 
of civil robbers introduced, who "detest such vile base practices" as 
"outrages on silly women or poor passengers". Of their resemblance to 
Robin Hood's outlawed Company Shakespeare is so fully aware that he 
puts the following expression into the mouth of one of them: "By the 
"bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar." This Friar, however, known as 
Tuck, does no more belong to the populär Robin Hood ballada than 
Maid Marian (mentioned in 1. Henry IV, Act, III, in, 129) both of whom 
owe their association with Robin Ilood primarily to the May-games 
and morris dance. *In the truly populär ballads Friar Tuck is never 
'heard of, and in only two even of the broadsides. Robin Hood and 
'Queen Katherine and Robin Hood's Golden Prize, is he so mach as 
*named; in both no more than named, and in both in conjunction 
'with Maid Marian,' 'who appears elsewhere only in a late and entirely 
'inslgnificant ballad'. (see Child, III, 122 <t 43f.)' 

A Note. 

It is supposed that the following passage in Much Ado (I, i, 259), 

Benedick: If I do, hang me in a bottle like a cat and shoot at me; and 
he that hits me, let him be clapped on the Shoulder, and called Adam, — 

contains an allusion to the famous archer Adam Bell^ celebrated in a 
wellknown ballad: 'Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of 
Cloudesly' (Child, III, 14). But this is by no means self-evident. 

* As to the old tune, comp. Chappell (old ed. 393). 

^ It miist bc admitted, however, that the names Robin Hood, Scarlet, and 
John are to be found together, in this order, in a later version of R. H. and 
Queen Katherine 1,2 (Child, III, 202); Coinpare, too, Child, III, 147, st 1; lll, 132 
b, c; III, 171, st. 1. A passage: 

"No man may comparc with Robin Hood, 
"With Robin Hood's Slathbatch and John a"— 

occurs in a poem in the prose ^History of George a Green' (see Thoms, Early Engl. 
Prose Rom., 1858, II, 189.— Slathbatch=Scarlet). And who knows whether some 
lost ballad does not contain the same words quotcd by Silence. 

• A Robin Hood moiif is introduccd into 1. Henry VI., Act II, iii, where Talbot, 
imprisoned by the Countess of Auvergae,summons his companions by blowing bis hörn 



Ballads: Robin Hood. King Cophetua, lg5 



NARRATIVE ART-BALLADS. 

A SONQ.OF A BEGGAR AND A KING. 
(KING COPHETUA AND THE BEGGAR-MAID.) 

This bailad is preserved in 'A Crowne-Garland of Goulden 
Roses' (Ist. ed., 1612) by Richard JohnsoD, reprinted by the Percy 
Society, vol. VI. It was repeated by Percy in bis Reliques. ^ The ballad 
of King Cophetua is referred to by Shakespeare on five different occasions: 

1) In Love's Lab. Lost, I, ii, Armado, who is '4n love with a 
'^base wench", asks Moth: '*what great men have been in love?" 
Moth reminds him of Hercules and Samson. Not content with these 
aathorities he says (1. 114): 

Is there not a ballad^ boy, of the King and the Beggarl 

Moth: The world was very guilty of such a ballad some three ages 

since: bot I think now 'tis not to be found; or, if it were, it would neither 

serve for the writing nor the tone. 

Arm. I will have that subject newly writ o'er, that I may example 

my digression by some mighty precedent. 

2) To the same ballad Armado's long letter (Love's L. L., IV, i, 
60 — 88) is füll of allusions. The beggar-maid is here called Zenelophon. 
In tbe ballad, Penelophon. 

3) Richard IL, Act V, iii, 77:— 

The Buches» (within): 

Speak with me, pity me, open the door: 

A beggar begs that never begg'd before. 
Bolingbroke, the King: Our scene is alter'd from a serious thing, 

And DOW changed to ^The Beggar and the King\ 

4) The opening words of the second stanza of the ballad are 
particularly alluded to in 'Romeo' (II, i, 11 f.): 

Speak to my gossip Venus one fair word, 
One nick-name for her ^mblind son and heir, 
Young Adam Cvpid, he that shot so irim^ 
When King Cophetua loved the beggar-maid! 

5) A fifth allusion is in 2. Henry IV., Act V, in, 105—6, where 

Falstaff aJFectedly says to Pistol: 

base Assyrian knight, what is thy news? 
Let King Cophetua know the truth thereof. 

' Also Ballad Soc, Roxb. Ball., vol. VI, pp. 659, G6I, both versions. Tennyson, 
it is almost impertinent to mention this, has written a pocm on the same subject. 



166 Chapter 5, Populär Literature, 

Malone thinks that the words, "The king's a beggar" in AU's 
Well, V, III, 335, Epilogue, contain 'some allusion to the old tale of 
The King and the Beggar'. The allusion is, however, not very clear. * 

TUE CONSTANCY OF SÖSANNA. 

The first line: 'There dwelt a man in Babylon' and the bürden, 
'Lady, lady', of this bailad are quoted by Sir Toby in Twelfth Night 
(II, III, 84). It was entered on the Stationers' Registers in 1562/3 
(Arber, I, 210) under the title: 'the godly and constante wyse [=wife] 
Susanna.' But we only possess a later copy of it of the reign of 
James I., to be found in the Roxburghe Collection, I, 60', with the fol- 
lowing title: 'An excellent Ballad / IntituIed: / The Constancy of Su- 
sanna. / To an excellent new tune.' 

The ballad was attributed by Chappell to William Elderton chiefly 
(as it appears) on the score of identity in the measure and bürden 
with a production of W. E.'s, entitled "The Panges of Love and Lovers 
Fittes", 1559-60.' There are, however, four more productions of this 
sort, three anonymous, and one signed H. M. * 

In 'Merry Wives', III, i, 24, Evans, the Welsh parson, sings the 
first line of the metrical Version of the 137^^ Psalm: "When as I 
"[/oco we] sat in Pabylon."" The Eirst Quarte here gives: "There 
"dwelt a man in Babylon". But the First Quarto is not a reliable 
authority and the other reading is more in character. 

It has been supposed, that the words, Mercutio addresses the Nurse 
with,' in 'Romeo', II, IV, 151 : "Farewell, ancient lady; farewell, lady, 
"lady, lady," contain an allusion to the bürden referred to above. 
But this is very doubtful.' 

^ Ben Jouson refers to the ballad iü Ev. Man in his Ilum. III, n: 'rieh as 
*King Cophetua'. Instead of 'Cophetua', however, of the Folio edition 1616, the 
Qiiarto (1601) reads 'Golias'. 

^ Hallad Sog., Koxb. Ballads, vol. I, p. 190, where also a note on the date 
and on other copies of the ballad is given by Chappell. 

' reprinted by the Percy Soc., vol. I, *Üld Ballads', p. 25. 

* First, the anonymous fragment in A Handefull of pleasant delites (1584), 
Arber, Engl. Seh. Libr. 3. p. 25. Then, the anonymous composition in 'The Trial 
of Treasurc; pr. 1567 (Dodsley, III, 292); Thirdly, 'A newe Ballade', signed R. M., 
beginning '() dere Lady Elysabeth' ('bclonging apparently to a rather early period 
of the qucen's reign') rcpriuted in 'Ancient Ballads and Broadsidcs', Lilly, 1870, 
p. 30. A fourth example is found in Twcuty-Hve Old Ballads and Songs, frora 
MSS. in the possession of J. Payne Collier, 1869, p. 19. 

5 Tyrwhitt, Malonc\s Var. Kd., XI, p. 395 (Twelfth Night), compares Ben 
Jonson's Magnetie Lady', Act IV, iir, — Compass: ^^As truc it i>, lady, ladif^ in the 



BaUads: Susanna. Jephthah. Ballads of Titus AndronieuSf Lear, and Gernutus, j[ß7 

/ 

JEPHTHAH JÜDGE OF ISRAEL, 

a ballad quoted by Hamlet (Act II, ii, 422 f.). A copy of it was giyen 
by Percy in his 'Reliques'. But a more perfect one is reprinted by 
the Ballad Society (Roxb. Ball., vol. VI, p. 685-6), by Halliwell (cf. 
Furness III, 174), and others. The supposition that 'a ballett intituled 
Hhe songe of Jesphas Dowgther at his death,' entered on the Stat. Reg. 
156|, is identical with our "pious chanson" is open to serious 
doabts. 



REMARKS ON THE BALLADS OF TlTüS ANDRONICUS, THE JEW OF VENIGE, 

AND KING LEIR. 

**Wenii die Könige bau'n haben die Kärrner zu tun." 

Schiller. 

1. TiTüS Andronicus's Complaint, reprinted, like the following 
two ballads, by Percy, is probably of later date than the'play. The 
Stationers' Registers go some way towards proving this; for on the 
6^ of February 1594 'A Noble Roman Historye of Tytus Andronicus', 
and also 'the ballad thereoP were registered; but 'titus and ondronicus' 
was acted on January 23. of the same year. ^ 

Both 

King Leib and his Thbee Daughters, 
and 

GeRNUTUS THE JeW OF VeNICB, 

are now generally considered not to have contributed in any way to- 
wards Shakespeare's plays, treating the same subjects. They are prob- 
ably later productions, owing their existence to the success of pre- 
vious plays. (Comp. Furness, V, 402 f.; VII, 288 f.) 

seng". These words ought to be taken in connexion with those immediately 
preceding, spoken by Lady Loadstone: "l bid God give you joy, i/ this be true^\ 
as appears from the lines: "7/* thU he true, as true it was, Lady! ladyP"* to be 
found in the ^Pangs* (Ist stanza) and in *A newe Ballad' (st. 7), both referred 
to ante. Comp., too, Old Sh. Soc. 1844 p. XXXIV. — The comraentators of Jonson 
have failed so far to givc a satisfactory explanation of the passage. 

' Gompare my remarks ante, p. 149, and see below, Addeuda aud Corrigenda. 



"IQQ Chapter 5. Populär Liier ature. 

A Note. 

Every reader of Percy's Reliques should bear in mind that The 
Friar of Orden Grey consists of fragments from Shakespeare and 
one from Fletcher strung together by Percy himself. Stanza !'>- is 
from the Shrew, IV, i; 3, 5, 7 are, wliolly or in part, from Hamlet, IV, 
y; 12, 13 from Fletcher's Queen of Corinth, III, ii; 15 from Hamlet, 
as before; 17, 18 from Mach Ado, II, iii; one line of 22 from Lear III, iv. 
(Child, V, 201). If the reader remembers this, he will not commit 
the blander of referring, as Alex. Schmidt did, to this poem as an 
authority for a textual reading. (Cp. Furness, V, 185.) Even the New 
Engl. Dict., our highest lexicographical authority, is guilty of this 
amazing lapms^ making certain lines sung by Ophelia belong to the 
Friar of Orders Gray! and quoting them from Percy's, not from Shake- 
speare's, text. (Cp. 'cockle' sb*. 7 — p. 574.) 

SONGS AND TUNES. 

THE AGED LOVER RENOUNCETII LOVE, 

beginning, 
I LOATHE THAT I DID LOVE. 

From this song by Thomas Lord Vaux, printed by Tottel in his 
Miscellany, *Songes and Sonettes', 1557, etc. (see Arber's Reprint, p. 173), 
the grave-digger in Hamlet (Act V, i) sings three stanzas though 
much corrupted by him. The music is given by Chappell, I, 52, and 
by Rimbault, 'Musical Illustrations of Percy's Reliques', 1850, p. 48.* 

* Malone thinks the Book of *Songs and Sonnets' for which Slender sighs 
in The Merry Wives (I, i, 206) was TottePs Miscellany. But the words *songs 
and sonnets' I have found together rather frequently in Elizabethan Literature. 

It is worth rcmarking here, that Goethe makes use of the clown's song in 
the Second Part of Faust: 

Lemuren (mit neckischen Geberden grabend) 

'Wie jung ich war und lebt' und liebt', 
'Mich deucht, das war wohl süsse; 
*Wo's fröhlich klang und lustig ging, 
*Da rührten sich meine Füsse. 

'Nun hat das tückische Alter mich 
'Mit seiner Krücke getroffen; 
'ich stolpert' über Grabes Tür, 
'Warum stand sie just offen!' 

Note, that 'Krücke' is from the original. Instead of 'crutch' Shakespeare has 'clutch'. 



Son^s and Tunes: The Äged Lover, Bell my Wi/e, Calen o Custure me, 169 

BELL MY WIFE, 
(TAKE THY OLD CLOÄK ABOUT THEE), 

beginDing, 'This winter's weather it waxeth oold'. The earliest allusion 
we have to tbis song is to be found in Greene's Qaip for au Upstart 
Courtier, 1592.* The earliest extant version of it is that contained 
in Percy's Folio Ms. (reprinted by Haies and Furnivall, vol. II, 322. A 
photolithographic impression of it is bound up with vol. I). Shake- 
speare quotes the whole last stanza but one of tho old song in 
Othello, II, III, 92 — 99: "King Stephen was a worthy peer", etc. 
There is another evident allusion to this same stanza in The 
Tempest, IV, 1,221: 

Trine, king Siephano! peer! worthy Stephane! look what a 
wardrobe hcre is for thee! 

And again 1. 225: 

king Siephano! 

CALEN CUSTURE ME. 

This tune known by the above Irish name is alluded to by Pistol 
in Henry V., Act IV, iv, 4: 

Qualtitie calmie custure me! 

Pistol is repeating the bürden of an old song, 'Calen o Custure me', as 
Malone was the first to point out, quotiug the following title from Clement 
Kobinson's 'A Handefull of pleasant delites', 1584 (reprinted by the 
Spenser Soc, Issue No. 8, and by Arber, Engl. Seh. Libr., 3): — 

A Sonet of a Lover in the praise of his lady. To Calen o Custure 
me: sang at everie lines end. 

The first line runs thus: 

When as I view your comly grace, Ca. &c. 

Perhaps the song here referred to is identical with one that was 
licensed to J. Aldee on the lOth of March 1582, Arber, Transcr., II, 407: 

Tollerated to Lim twoe ballades whereof th[e] one [is] intituled 
Callin custure me and th[e] other concerneth the danger of Sailers .. . . 

Calino Casturame is one of the airs contained in the Fitzwilliam 
Virginal Book and reprinted by Chappell, I, 84. "Sir Robert Steward 
"(Grove's Dictionary of Music, art. Irish Music) says, 'It is evidently 
"an attempt to spell as pronounced the Irish phrase, "Colleen; oge 
"astore!" — young girl, my treasure!'" (see Clarend. Press ed. of 

' Fumess, VI, 131. — Regarding the tune see Rimbault, ut supm. 



170 Chapter 5, Popuiar LitercUure, 

Henry V., p. 179). Calino is the tune of 'A pleasant Song made by 
a Souldier', date 1588, reprinted by the Ballad Soc, Roxb. Ballads 
vol. VI, p. 284. 

CANST THOU NOT HIT IT? 

is given as an old dance tune by Chappell (I, 249). In Love's Lab. 
Lost, IV, I, 127 — 130, Rosaline and Boyet recite or sing four lines 
which are a quotation from, or an imitation of, some part of the 
original song sung to that tune: 

Boyet: But she herseif is hit lower: have I hit her now? 

Bo8, Shall I come upon thee with an old saying^ that was a man 
when King Pepin of France was a liltle boy, as touching the hit it? 

Boyet So I may answer thee with one as old, that was a woman 
whcn Queen Guinover of Britain was a little wench, as touching the hit it. 

Jios. Thou canst not hit it, hit it, hit it, 
Thou canst not hit it, my good man. 

Boyet. An I cannot, cannot, cannot, 
An I cannot, another can. 

THE CAREFUL LOVER COMPLAINETH, 
AND THE HAPPY LOVER COCNSELLETH,» 

beginning, 
A [!] ROBYN JOLY ROBYN. 

In his Twelfth Night (IV, ii, 78—85) Shakespeare introduces the 
clown singiug part of the two first stanzas of this song which has 
been recovered from an ancient MS. which seems to have been 
written in the reign of Henry VII L (I am here quoting from Percy.) 

COME O'ER TBE BOURNE, BESSY, 
is quoted from by Edgar in King Lear, III, vi, 27 : 

Come o'er the bourn,' Bessy, to me. — 

And what foUows from the Fool: — 

i The title according to Halliwell, Fol. ed., VII, 409.— Comp. AngliaXII, 
p. 241, aud p. 272. 

-' broomc is in the original text. 'Over the broome, Bessy' is the title of 
the tune in Univ. Lib. Camb. Lute MSS. (Chapp., I, 121). *Broome' (=brook) is 
etymologically probably the same word as 'bourne', the change being due to 
metathesis. Comp. Arber, Transcr., I, 262: 4 Sept. 1564, A ballad licensed to 
Wra. Pickering, *A saynge betwene the quene and Englonde Called comme over 
*the browne Beösye to me.' 



Songs and Tunes: Canst Thou not hit itf — Farewell, Dear Love. 171 

Her boat hath a leak, 

And she mast not speak 

Why she dares not come over to thee — 

DO doubt belongs to the same cid song, now lost, of which we possess 
two imitations (Chappell ,1, 121-2). Apparently the refrain of the 
original song is preserved to us in W. Wager's Morality 'The Longer 
thou livest the more Fool thou art' (circa 1560),* where Moros sings 
the *foot' or bürden: 

Com over the Boome, Besse, ^ 

My little pretie Besse, 

Com over the Boorne, besse, to me. 

The same bürden (with the single change of 'thou' for 'my') is to be 
found in a moralisation reprinted in Chapell, ut sup,^ where also the old 
music is given. The original song and tane must be assigned to the 
early ye.ars of the sixteenth Century. 

THE CROWE SITS UPON TUE WALL, 
PLEASE ONE AND PLEASE ALL. 

Tlease one and please all' is the beginning and the bürden of 
the song by R. T., entered on the Stat. Reg. 1591-2. Only one copy 
is known to exist. ' See note in Furness, XIII, p. 217-8. The heading 
of it is: 'A prettie newe Balhid, intytuled: The Crowe sits upon 
'the wall, Please one and please all. To the tune of, Please one and 
'please all.' The words: 'To the tune of, Please', etc. maj/ imply the 
existence of an earlier tune (and song). The poem is alluded to in 
Twelfth Night, III, IV, 21 f.: 

Malv. Sad, lady! I could be sad: tbis does make some obstruction 
in the blood; tbis cross-gartering; but what of tbat? if it please the eye 
of one, it is with me as the very irue sonnet is, 'Flease one, and please all\ 

FAREWELL, DEAR LOVE 

(or Corydon's Fabewell to Phillis). 

This song, beginning: 'Farewel, dear love, since thou wilt needs 
'be gon', first published, with the music, in Robert Jones's 'First 
Booke of Songes or Ayres', 1600,' is quoted from (with slight variations 

* Reprinted in Shakesp. Jahrb. xxxvi, with an introd., by Prof. Brandl. 

' Reprinted in Anc. Ball, and Broads., 1870, p. 255. 

' The words and music of *Farcwell, dear love' are contained in the First 
Book of Songs which appeared in 16(J(). The Second Book is dated IGOL (Br, 
Mus.; See also Davey's Bist, of Engl Music.) 



172 Chapter 5, Populär Literature. 

to suit the occasion) by Sir Toby and the clown in Twelfth Night 
(II, III, 109 — 121). The words were repeated in 'The Golden Garland 
of Princely Delight', by Rieh. Johnson (a 13 th ed. 'with Additions' 1690; 
the 3"^*^ 'enlarged', 1620), from which Percy reprinted the song in his 
Reliques. The music in Rob. Jones's work is reprinted by J. S. Smith 
in his 'Mnsica Antiqua', 1812, and by Dr. Rimbault in his 'Musical Illa- 
strations of Bish. Percy's Reliques', 1850, see pp. 9 & 52. The first two 
stanzas of the original song are given by Halliwell-Phillipps, Gut- 
lines^ II, 282, and the whole song in A. H. BuUen's 'More Lyrics from 
Elizabethan Songbooks', 1888, p. 33, and by Arber in his *Anthologies\ 

FIRE, FIRE. 

In the 'Taming of the Shrew', IV, i, Grumio calls upon Curtis 
to make fire: 

A fire, good Curtis. 

CurL Is my master and his wife coming, Grumio? 

Gm, 0, ay, Curtis, ay: and therefore fire, fire-, cast on no tcater. 

This seems to be in allusion to a madrigal contained in Thomas 
Morley's well-known First Booke of Balletts which appeared in 1595. * 
This madrigal, consisting of two short stanzas, begins thus: 

Fyer, fyer, my hart! 
and ends with: 

cast cast water on alas and drench mee. Fa la la. 

In Illustration of the above passage in 'The Shrew' the celebrated 
Blackstone had quoted 'an old populär catch [= round] of three parts': 

Scotland barnetb, Scotland burnetb. 
Fire, fire; — fire, fire; 
Cast on some more water. 

(Malone, Var. Ed., V, p. 457.) 

FORTl^NE MY FOE. 

Shakespeare is supposed to allude to this then well-known song 
and tune (see Chappell, I, 76) in the foUowing passage: 

I see wbat thou wert, if Fortune thj foe were not, Nature [being?] 
thy friend. 

(Merry Wives, III, in, 69.) The first stanza of the old song is con- 

* The words have been reprinted in 'Thomas Morley und die Englischen 
*Madrigalisten der Shakespeare-Zeit', 1903, by Dr. Bolle, who drew my attention 
to the song. 



Songs and Tunes: Fire^ Fire, — The Gods 0/ Love, 173 

tained in The Maid's Metamorphosis \ a draraa printed in KKX). The 
whole song is reprinted by Mr. Ebsworth in Ballad Soc, Bagford 
Ballads, p. 961. I ought to mention the fact, too, that the ballad of 
Dr. Faustus, entered on the Stat. Reg. 1588—9, and the ballad of 
Titos Andronicus (see above) are to the tune of Fortune my Foe. 

THE GOD[S] OF LOVE, 

the first four lines of which' are quoted by Benedick in Mach Ado, 
V, II, 26—29, 

The god of love 

That sits above. 

And knows me, and knows me, 

How pitiful I deserve, — 

is an cid song (now no longer extant) by William Elderton.' 'The 
*godes of Love' was licensed for printing in 1567/8. (Arber, Transcr., 
I, 355.) Bat it is of an earlier date, as we find two notices of it in 
the Stationers' Registers 1562/3, the first of which is: 'Recevyd of 
'Rycharde applay for his lycense for pryntinge of a ballett intituled 
Hhe complaynte of a synner vexed wit/i payne\ (Arber, tä sup,^ 205). 
Now, this is a moralization (still extant, bat never republished in 
complete form) of Elderton's poem by W. Birch, and begins thus: 

The God of love, 

that sits above, 

Doth know ns, doth know ns, 

How slnful that we be. 

These lines, it will be seen, come very close to the portion of the 
song repeated by Benedick. 

The second notice of Elderton's poem will be found on the same 
page of the Stat. Reg., where 'the answere (0 the iiu^*^ ballett made 
'to the godes of love^ is booked. 

Perhaps it was Elderton's song which was entered on the Stat. 
Reg. in 1564/5 (Arber I, 271) under the title: "The complaynte of a 
lover beynge vexed with payne &c.". 

Moreover, we possess three other references or allusions of Shake- 
speare's time to our ballad. In 'A Handefull of pleasant delites', 

» Bullen, 'Old Plays', vol. I, p. 125. 

2 or of some later version or adaptation? — I only throw out this as a mere 
possihilitif. 

' See Hazlitt, Coli, and Notes (s. v. Birch) p. 38. 



174 Chapter 5. Populär Literaiure. 

1584, we find (p. 36 ed. Arber): 'The ioy of Virginitie : to, The Goäs 
^of love\ the first lines of which are precisely in the same measure 
as the verses in Mach Ado referred to above, — 

I ladge and finde, 
how God doth minde, 
to furnish, to furnish 
his heavenly throne above. 

In 'Bacchus' Bountie' (tc, 7555,' is a song, beginning — 

'The gods of love, 
Which raigne above.' 

The third allusion occurs in Th. Heywood's 'Fayre Mayde of the Ex- 
change' (pr. 1607): 

Ye gods of Love that sit above, and pitty Lovers paine. 

Looke from your thrones upon the mones, that I do now sustaine. 

GREEN SLEEVES. 

The earliest mention of 'Green Sleeves' is of the year 1580. This 
dance tune to which a number of ballads were sung is printed in 
Chappell, I, 239 and by Naylor, 194. 'A new Courtly Sonet, of the 
'Lady Greensleeves. To the new tune of Greensleeves', brought out 
in 1584 in 'A Handefull of pleasant delites' (Arber, Engl. Seh. Libr., 
III, p. 17), apparently contains something of the original song. 
Shakespeare, in The Merry Wives, twice makes mention of the tune. 
In Act II, I, 62, Mrs. Ford says that FalstalFs disposition and the 
truth of his words "do no more adhere and keep place together, than 
"the Hundredth Psalm to the tune of ^ Green Sleeves^ '^\ Compare Mr. 
Naylor's comment on this passage (p. 75). In Act V, v, 20, Falstaff 
is made to say: 

Let the sky rain potatoes; let it thunder to ihe tune of Green Sleeves 
I will shelter me here. 

•II AVE I CAUGÜT MY ITEAVENLY JEWEL'? 

This 'Second Song', beginning thus, in Sidney's Astrophel and 
Stella (first printed 1591) is alluded to by Shakespeare in The Merry 
Wives (III, III, 45), where he makes Falstaff say to Mrs. Ford, 
Have I caught iliee, my heavenly jewel?^ 

^ Reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany, vol. II, 1809, 8°, see p. 27^. 

' In the first and second Quartes the line Stands without the thee of the Folio. 



Songa and Tunes: Green Sieeves. — The Hunt is up. 175 

UEART'S EASE. 

We find Heart^s Ease mentioned as early as 1560, in Misogonus, 
as the tune of a song. See Chappell, I, 97. The original words are not 
known. It is referred to in 'Romeo', IV, v, 102: 

Peter. Musicians, 0, musicians, 'Hearfs ease^ Jlearfs ease^: 0, an you 
will have me live, play ^Ilearfs ease\ 

First Mm. Why ^Hearts ease'l 

Pet, 0, musicians, because my heart itself plays ^My heart is füll of 
woe^: 0, play me some merry domp, to comfort me. ' 

HEIGH UOI FOR A HUSBAND. 

In Much Ado, II, i, 332, Beatrice says: 
I may sit in a corner and cry heigh-ho for a hushandt 

*This, as M«alone points out, is the title of a song in the Pepysian 
'Collection at Magdalene College, Cambridge (vol. iv, p. 8): Hey ho, 
'for a Ilnsband. Or, the willing Maids wants made known. It is 
*referred to again in III, iv, (11. 54--55), and in Burton's Anatomy of 
'Melancholy (ed. 1651, p. 565), part 3, sec. 2, mem. 6, subs. 3: **Hai- 
ho for an husband, cries she, a bad husband, nay the worst that 
ever was, is better than none".' (Wright, Clar. Press ed. of Much Ado, 
p. 105.) A song 'Oh! for a Husband' is reprinted, in part, with the 
music by Chappell, orig. ed. p. 454 from a MS. dated 1659. The 
bürden of some stanzas of this song (which is perhaps a later Version 
of the original) is: 

Oh! Oh! Oh for a husband! 

Oh! Oh! Oh for a husband! 

Still this was her song, 

I will have a husband, have a husband, 

Be he old or young. — 

*0A/ for a kitaband is included in "A Complete Collection of Old and 
'New English and Scotch Songs, with their respective tunes pre- 
Tixed", I, 91, 1735, and in all the editions of "Pills to purge Me- 
*lancholy", but there reset by Akeroyde'. Chappell, orig. ed., 782. 

TUE HUNT IS UP. 

*The hunt is up' or simply *hunt's-up' is the name of an old 
song and its tune, sung or played to awaken huntsmen in the morn- 

* On 'My heart is füll of woe' see post, p. 180, *A plcasant new ballad of 
Two Lovers'. 



tu 



176 Chapter 5. Populär Literature, 

ing, and also used as a dance. 'It seems to have been almost, if 
'not quite, the most populär of the old ballad tunes'. The expression 
'hunt is up' came to be ased allusively to lueaD a song saug or tane 
played to rouse any one; an early morning song (see Chappell, I, 86, 
New Engl. Dict., s. v. hunt's-up). In this sense it is eraployed by 
Shakespeare in 'Romeo', III, v, 34: 

Hunting thee hence with hunfs-iq) to the dar. 
Compare, too, Tit. Andren., II, ii, 1 seq.— 

The hunt is up, the morn is bright and grey, etc. 

I CANNOT COME EVERY DAY TO WOG. 

Of this song, 'very populär in the early part of Henry VIII. 's reign', 
the first stanza is to be found in 'an ancient MS.' from which John 
StafTord Smith reprinted both words and music in his 'Musica Anti- 
qua', 1812. The song passed through a new phase in 1591 — 2, when 
it was entered on the Stat. Reg. as ''a newe Balhad of John wooinge 
^^of Jo[a]ne (fcc." (Arber Transcr., II, 602.) It is from this, in all 
probability (says Chappell), that the ballad in the Roxburghe Collection 
(II, 74) called 'The Country-man's Delight; or, The Happy Wooing. 
'Being the successful Love of John the Serving-man, in his courting 
'of Joan the Dairy-maid' has been copied. The bürden 'I cannot come 
'every day to woo' may have enjoyed proverbial currency. It is al- 
luded to by Puttenham in his Arte of English Poesie, 1589, (Arber's 
Repr., p. 213) and, what is to our purpose, by Petruchio in The 
Taming of the Shrew, II, i, 115— '6: 

Signior Baptista, my basiness asketh haste, 
And every day I cannot come to woo" etc. 

For more information about the song see Ballad Society, No. 19, 
Roxb. Ball., vol. III, p. 590-'6 [Compare, too, Bibl. Lindes., No. 576, and 
Rimbault, Songs and Ballads, 1851, p. 60.] 

LIGHT 0' LOVE. 

This old tune is mentioned twice by Shakespeare. In The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona, I, ii, 83, we read: 

Julia: Some love of yoars hath writ lo you in rhyme. 

Jjucetta: That I might sing it, madam, to a tune. 
Give me a note: your ladyship can set. 

JuL As little by such toys as may be possible* 
Best sing it to the tune of 'IJght o' love\ 

Luc, It is too heavy for so light a tune. 



Songs and Tunes: I cannot come, etc. — A/y Mind io me a Kingdom is, "177 

Again, in Mach Ado, III, iv, 41 f.: 

Hero. Why, how now? do you speak in the sick tune? [vide post, 
p. 180, 'Sick, sick'.] 

Beflt, I am out of all other tune, methinks. 

Marg. Clap's into 'Light o' love'; that goes without a bürden: do you 
sing it and TU dance it. 

Beat Ye light o' love, with your heels! etc. 

From this passage 'it appears tliat Light o' Love was strictly a ballet, 
Ho be sung and danced' (Chappell, old. ed., 222). The music will be 
found in Chappell, I, H2. The words of the original song are still 
undiscovered. 

Regarding 'MAD TOM' cf. antej s. v. Ovid (pp. 24-25). 

MONSIEUR MINGO. 

In 2. Henry IV. (Act V, iii, 77— 79) Silence sings: 

Do me right, 
And dub me knight: 
Samingo. 

This is from an old song, beginning: 'Monsienr Mingo for quaffing 
'doth surpass', to be found in Nash's 'Summer's Last Will and Testa- 
ment' (1592; pr. 1600-see Dodsley, VIII, 55, 59, 61). Nash gives 'Do- 
mingo' instead of Silence's 'Samingo'. 

MY MIND TO ME A KINGDOM IS, 

a song in praise of contentment and humbleness, composed by 'E. Dier', 
seems to have been a ftivourite poem in the sixteenth Century. It is 
in Percy's Reliques and in Arber's Anthologies, There is some slight 
reason to suppose that Shakespeare had it in view in 3. Henry VI., 
ActIII, I, 59f.:— 

See, Keeper \ . . , thou talk'st as if thou wert a hing, 
K, Henry: Why, so I am, in mind; and thafs enough. 
See. Keep. But, if thou be a kiog, where is thy crown? 
K, Jlen, My crown is in my heart^ not on my head; 
. . . . my crown is called content, 

Sir Edward Dyer's poem* ought to be compared with this passage. 
Regarding the music, see Rimbault, ut sup,, p. 16. 

1 Set to music in 1588. (J. W. E.) The word *slight' is J. W. E.'s. 
Anders, Sbakespeare's books. 13 



]^78 Chapter 5. Populär Literatur e, 

MY ROBIN IS TO THE GREENWOOD GONE; 

or, 
BONNY SWEET ROBIN. 

One tune to this song is at any rate older than 1597. 'The latter 
*of the two vereions given in William Ballet's Lute Book {circa 1600) 
'is headed ''Robin Hood is to the greenwood gone''; it is possible, 
'therefore, that the original bailad was a song of Robin Hood.' This 
title must be the first line of the song. Another title is 'Benny sweet 
'Robin'. 'Nothing more is known of the words, unless the line sung 
by Ophelia in Hamlet (IV, v, 187),— 

"For bonny sweet Robin is all my joy," 

'should be part of them, w^hich, indeed, seems very probable.' (Chappell, 
I, 153.) "A ballad intituled A Dolefull adewe to the last Erle of 
"Darby. to the tune of 'Bonny sweete Robin'" was entered on the 
Stationers' Registers, 26 April, 1594, (Arber, Transcr. II, 647.) 

DEATH, ROCK ME ASLEEP. 

'Then death rock me asleep' is quoted by Pistol in 2. Henry IV. 
(Act II, IV, 211). The song, 'attributed with great improbability to 
'Anne Boleyn, and perhaps with as little likelihood to her brother 
'Viscount Rochford' (Dyce) is very old. *The first stanza of the words 
'with the tnne, is contained in a Manuscript of the latter part of 
'Henry VHI.'s reign', (Chappell, 2°<* ed., p. 238.) Compare, too, Chappell, 
3^** ed., I, p. 111, and Halliwell, ed. of Shakesp., vol. X, p. 112. 

MISTRESS MINE 

is the name of a tune printed in Morley's Consort Lessons^ 1599, 
which book, being for Instruments, does not contain words. Feste's 
'love-song in Twelfth Night, II, in, 40, exactly suits this air, repro- 
duced by Chappell, 1, 103, who remarks': 'As it [the tune] is to befound 
'in print in 1599, it proves either that Shakespeare's Twelfth Night 
'was written in or before that year, or that, in accordance with the 
'then prevailing custom, mistress mine was an old song, introdnced 
'into the play.' 'The latter supposition is doubtless the true one,' 
says Dyce. Mr. Furness expresses his flat dissent from such a supposition, 
which may none the less be correct. A third alternative, however, 
still remains: Shakespeare may have remodelled an old song, or com- 
posed entirely new words for an older tune. 

1 Chappell, 1855-9, I, 209. 



Songi and lunes: Mjf Robin, etc, — Peg-a Ramsey. X79 

SWEET OLIVER. 

This Song, now lost, is quoted by Touchstone in As You Like 
It, III, III, 101 seq:— 

not, — 

sweet Oliver, « 

brave Oliver, 

Leave me not behind tbee: 
but, — 

Wind away, 

Begone, I say, 

I will not to wedding with thee. 

'It would seem that Touchstone is citing two distinct portions of the 
'bailad' (Dyce)— or of two different ballads. — In the Stationers' 
Registers, Aug. 6. 1584 (Arber, II, 434), we find the foUowing entry: 

Ric. Jones. — Receaved of bim for bis license to printe A Ballat of. 
sicete Olyver Leave me not hehind ihele] .... im ^, 

(Comp. Farness, VIII, 190, and Malone, VI, 449 — 451, for more in- 
formation. See also Chappell, I, 88-9.) 

THE PASSIONATE SHEPHERD TO BIS. LOVE, 

beginning, 
COMB LIVE WITH ME, AND BE MY LOVE, 

'that smooth song which was made by Kit Marlow', is quoted, 
or rather misquoted, by Sir Hugh Evans in The Merry Wives (UI, i, 
17 — 29). Compare Chappell, 1, 123. The poem was first published, frag- 
mentarily, in The Passionate Pilgrim in the year 1599, and in 
complete form in England's Helicon, 1600. 

PEG-A RAMSEY. 
Malvolio's a Peg-a-Ramsey, 

says Sir Toby in Twelfth Night, II, iii, 81, referring to a well-known 
dance tune still preserved, and reprinted by Chappell (I, 248). It, 
together with Green Sleeves and other dance tunes, is mentioned by 
Nash in 'Have with you', etc., 1596 (Huth Libr. ed., III, 181). No 
earlier Version of a Teggy Ramsey' bailad is known than the song 
in 'Wit and Mirth or Pills to purge Melancholy' (1707, 1714, vol. III, 
219; or 1719, V, 139). Being amazingly indecorous, it has seldom 
been reprinted. [Burns made use of this or some other Version for 
his 'Cauld is the e'enin blast'. See Cent. Ed., IH, 203, 444.] 

12* 



130 Chapter 5. Populär Literature, 

A PLEASANT NEW BALLAD OF TWO LOVERS, 
TO A PLEASANT NBW TUNE, 

is the title of a song, beginning 'Complaine, my lute, complaine on 
'him,' which has been handed down to us in a copy 'of the commence- 
'ment of the seventeeuth Century.' The first stanza ends with the 
following line: 'Hey, hoe! my heart is füll of woeP It is thought 
that this song (reprinted by the old Shakesp. Soc, — Papers, 1844, p. 13, 
and by the Ball. Soc. No. 9, Roxi). Bds., vol. II, p. 305) is the verj- one 
Shakespeare quotes, in 'Komeo',IV, v, 107 (vide ante 'Heart 's Ease', p. 175). 

SICK, SICK. 

This is the name of two old tunes printed by Chappell (I, 73-74), 
who remarks: 'In Much Ado about Nothing, [Act, III, iv, 41] Hero 
'says, "Why, how now? do you speak in the sick tune?^^ and Beatrice 
'answers, "I «am out of all other tune, methinks."' An old 'ballad 
'in a handwriting of about the last quarter of the sixteenth Century, 
'which may perhaps be the original to which these tunes belong' is 
printed, in part, by ('happell (ut sup.J. 

A SONG TO THE LUTE IN MÜSIGKE;» 

er, 
IN COMMENDATION OF MUSICKE, 

beginning: 'Where gripinge grefes the hart would wounde.' 'This 
'song, both words and rausic, is the production of Richard Edwardes' 
(Rimbault). The words wxre printed in 'The Paradise of Dainty 
Devises', ^vhich first appeared in 1576 and passed through 8 editions 
within 24 years. The first lines are quoted (but with several variations), 
and humorously commented on, by Peter in 'Romeo', IV, v, 128 seq. 
Reprints of the song are numerous. Percy and Rimbault give the 
song from MS. copies. 

THERE WAS AN OLD FELLOW AT WALTHAM GROSS. 

Speaking of the wildness of his youth Shallow says: "cur watch- 
"word was 'Hern boys!'" (2. Henry IV., Act III, ii, 231). Staunton 
observed very pertinently that "With a hem, boys, hem, And a cup 

* The first title is that given in a *MS. volume of old tunes, etc. which 
purports to be "Thomas MuUiner's Boke for y*? Organ or Virginalls.'" Rimbault, 
Mus. 111. of Percy's Rel., p. 7. The music will be found there on p. 49. The 
song is not given by Chappell. — 'In Commendation', etc. is the heading in *The 
Paradise'. 



Songs and Tunes: A PUasant New Bailad of Two Lovera.— Willow, Willoto. 181 

of old sack" is, apparently, the refrain of the above song. * "This is 

"quoted asan old song in Brome's play, The Jovial Crew acted 1641. 

"It is also in the Antidote against Melancholy^ 1661." (Chappell, II, 158, 
where also the air is given.) 

WHERE IS TUE LIFE THAT LATE I LED? 
This song referred to by Petruchio (Shrew, IV, i, 143)' and by 
Pistol (2. Henry IV., Act V, iii, 146) is no longer extant. But we know 
in what metre the poem was written, and what subject it dealt with, 
and when it was probably . composed. First, there is a song to Hie 
tum of *Where is the Life that late I led' in A Gorgeous Gallery of 
Gallant Inventions {1578), This settles the metre question. Then we 
have a poem in a HandefuU of pleasant delites (^1584) entitled 
'Dame Beauties 7'eplie to the Lover late at libertie: and now complaineth 
'himselfe to be her captive, Intituled: Where is the life that late I 
'led.' (Arber, Engl. Seh. Libr., III, 14.) This repli/ to the lost song 
allows US to form some idea as to the contents of the latter. The 
title just given and the general contents of the ^reply'^ harmonize 
with the title ofwhat may be the original song: 'a ti^m?^ ballet of one 
'who myslykeng his lybertie soughte his owne bondage through his 
'owne foUy'. This is an entry on the Stationers' Registers dated 1565/6 
(Arber, Transcr., I, 308.) 

WHOOP, DO ME NO HARM, GOOD MAN. 
This song is alluded to by Shakespeare in The Winters Tale, IV, 
IV, 199 — 201. In 'The Famous Ilistory of Friar Bacon' there is a 
ballad to the tune of "OA doe me no härme good man." (Thoms, 
Early Prose Rom., 1858, vol. I, p. 224.) 'A song [to this tune "Whoop, 
'"do mee", etc.] will be found in Fry's Ancient Poetry, but it would 
'not be desirable for republication,' says Chappell (orig. ed., 208). 
Pourquoi pas? Its date is probably c. 1615. Ford, in Act III, sc. iii, 
of "The Fancies chaste and noble" (pr. 1638) places the line ^'Whoop, 
^^do me no harm^ good womarC^ in the mouth of Secco. — The music 
(1610) is in Chappell (I, 96). 

WILLOW, WILLOW, 
is Desdemona's swan song (Oth. IV, m). Shakespeare, in making use 

1 In An Antidote against Melancholy (1661) it is called a catch (=round). 

> "Where is the life that late I led? Where are those— Sit down, Kate, etc." 
I am inclined to regard "Where are those" [pleasant days?] as the continuation 
of the song. ("No doubt", says J. W. E.) 



182 Chapter 5. Populär Lüerature. 

of the wordß of the old song ("an old thing 'twas", 1. 29) 'has made 
'clianges wbich were necessary to suit them to a female character.' 
A later Version of the song is in the Roxburghe Collection, Ballad 
Soc, 4, Roxb. Bds. I, p. 171, a version, which is nearly identical with 
that printed by Percy in his Reliques from the Pepys collection. Each 
is of the first half of the seventeenth Century, ^ but the former is rather 
to be preferred. But an earlier copy (with the music) than either 
is to be found reprinted in Chappell, Old Engl. Pop. Music, I, 106; 
but it does not everywhere show the greater agreement with Shake- 
speare's version. (Cp., too, Chappell, original ed., 206, 774.) 

ROUNDS. 

JACK, BOY! HO! BOY! 

This round for four voiees, is printed in Th. Ravenscroft's Pam- 
melia, 1609, the first collection of populär rounds printed in England. 
The words are as follows: 

Jacke, boy, ho, boy, newes! 
The Cat is in the well. 
Let US ring now for her knell, 
Ding, dong, ding, dong, bell. 

(see Knight, Pict. Shaksp., Comedies I, p. 316, where the music is 
given). The first line is alluded to in ^The SÄr^w', IV, i, 41:— 

Curtis: "There's fire ready; and thercfore, good Grumio, the news, 
Gru. Wy, ^Jack boy! hol boyf and as much news as will thaw. 
CurU Come, you are so füll of cony-catching! 

THOU KNAVE. 

In Twelfth Night, II, iii, Sir Toby having made the proposal to 
sing a catch, that is, a round or roundelay, Sir Andrew, says (v. 66): 
*'Let our catch be, 'Thou knave'". — Clown: "^llold thy peace, thou 
"knave', knight? I shall be constrained in't to call theo knave, knight." 
Sir Andrew: "*Tis not the first time I have constrained one to call 
"me knave. Begin, fool: it begins 'Hold thy peace'." This catch 
'Hold thy peace' was printed in the 'Deuteromelia', a work supple- 

1 This is Chappeirs opiDion, (Ball. Soc, ut sup.). Mr. Wooldridge, howcver, 
who prepared the latest edition of 'The Poj). Mus.' tliinks (I, 109) the version, as 
found in the Roxburghe Collection, falls after the Restoration. But Mr. Wooldridge 
rnust be in the wrong; as the Roxburghe copy is printed for Edward Wright, 
whose dates are 1620—1655; see Roxb. Ball. I, Ball. Soc, p. 174 and p. XXIII. 



Rounds. Populär Rhymu, 133 

mentary to the Tammelia', both published by Th. Ravenscroft in 1609, 
when he was about 17 years of age. The music, reproduced by 
Hawkins (see Fumess, XIII, 118), is beyond doubt original. 

THREE MERRY MEN. 

The original words are probably the following, given by Peele 
in his *01d Wives' Tale,' 1595: 

let as rebearse the old proverb [=song] — 

'Three merry men, and three merry men, and tbree merry man be we: 
*I in the wood, and thoa on the groand, and Jack sleeps in the tree.' 

The melody as it is preserved to us by Playford, drca 1650, is given 
by Chappell, I, 197, and, Naylor, 189. I have no doubt but that 'Three 
Merry Men' was originally a round, or two rounds, for three voices. 
The three Parts would suit the words as follows: 

ist voice Three merry men and 

2»*d „ Three merry men and 

3^** „ Three merry men be we. 

ist ^^ X Iq the wood and 

2^^ „ Thoa on the ground and 

3'<i „ Jack sleeps in the tree. 

The song is alluded to by Sir Toby in Twelfth Night, II, iii, 81 : 
Three merry men be we'. 

POPULÄR RHYMES. 

1) In The Merry Wives (IV, ii,) we hear that, Mr. Ford, 
considering himself a cuckold, '^buflfets himself on the forehead crying, 
"Teer out, peer out!'" (1.25), — that is, appear horns! Henley thinks 
that ^Shakspeare here refers to the practice of children, when they 
Wl on a snail to push forth his horns: 

^Peer out, peer out, peer out of your hole, 
^Or ehe Fll beat you block as a coal.^ 



2) Pillycock, Pillycock, sat on a hill; 

Jf he's not gone^ he sits there still, 

These lines are given by Ritson in his collection of mursery rhymes 



184 Chapter 5, Populär Lüerature. 

entitled 'Gammer Gurton's Garland, or the Nursery Parnassus', 1783. 
Compare King Lear, III, iv, 78: 

Edgar: "Pillicock sat on Pillicock-hill". 



3) When Adam delved and Eve span, 

Who was then a genüemanf, 

is alluded to by the clown in Hamlet, V, i, 32f.: — 

First Clown: Come, my spade. There is no ancient gentlcmen bat 

gardeners, ditchers, and grave-makers: thcy hold up Adam's profession. 
See. Clo. Was he a gentleman? 

Regarding this old rhyme compare Ilazlitt 'English Proverbs', 1869, 
p. 455. We find it quoted by Greene : 'I will not forget the old wives 
'logick, when Adam delvd and Eve spanne, who was then a Gentleman?' 
(A Quip for an Upstart Courtier, 1592. Huth Libr., XI., p. 225.) 

The Couplet is also to be found in Holinshed (cf. Bosw.-Stone, 
p. 272, n. 2), who relates that John Ball, the fomenter of Wat Tyler's 
Jnsurrection (1381), made it the theme of his sermon at Blackheath. 
There is an evident allusion to this in 2. Henry VI., Act IV, ii, 142: 

Sir Ilumphrey Stafford: Villain, thy father was a piasterer; 
And thou thyself a shearman, art thou not? 
Code. And Adam was a gardener. 

Compare also John Holland's assertion, 11. 9 — 10: 
Well, I say it was never merry world in England since gentlemen came up. 



4) "For I the ballad* will repeat, 

Which men füll true shall find; 
Yoiir marriage comes by destiny^ 
Your cuckoo sings by kindJ*^ 

(All's Well, I, III, 64.) 

Something like two of these lines are to be found in John Grange's 
'Garden', 1577^: 

'Content your seife as well as I, let reason rule your minde, 
'As Cuckoldes come by destinie, so Cuckowes sing by kinde.' 



* ballad='a proverbial saying, usually in form of a couplet'. (New Engl. Dict.) 
2 On folio R.ij. 



Populär Rhymes, Notes and Commenta, lg5 

A Spbll. 
In King Lear (III, iv, 125 flF.) we have the following spell:— 

S. Withold footed thrice the old; 

He met the night-mare, and her nine-fold; 

Bid her alight, 

And her troth plight, 
And, aroint thee, witch, aroint thee! 

In illustration of this truly Teutonic spell, with the epic intro- 
dnction and the winding up with the charm proper, we might cite 
nnmerous examples, beginning with the 'Merseburger Zaubersprüche', 
the oldest of them. A characteristic chann against the nightmare or 
Incubns, coming near to the one quoted by Edgar, is to be found in 
Scott's 'Discoverie of Witchcraft', 1584, (reprinted, 1886, — see p. 68 ib,) 
and deserves to be quoted here: 

S. George, S. George, our ladies knight, 
He walkt by daie, so did he by night: 
Untill such time as he hir found, 
He hir beat and he hir bound, 
Untill hir troth she to him plight, 
She would not come to hir that night. 



FÜRTHER NOTES AND COMMENTS 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF SOME OLD SONGS AND 

BALLADS IN SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS. 

The song in Twelfth Night, II, iv, 52, 

"COME AWAY, COME AWAY, DEATH", etc. 

appears to be a later interpolation and not the original song intended 
by the great dramatist, for it cannot be said to chime in with the 
description of it given immediately before': 

^^it is old and piain; 
"The spinsters and the knitters in the sun 
"And the free maids that weave their thread with bones 
"Do use to chant it: it is silly sooth, 
"And dallies with the innocence of love, 
"Like the old age." 

J J. W. E. objects strongly (see below, Addenda^and Corrigenda). 



186 Chapter 5, Populär LüercUure. 

DoLPHiN MY Boy. 

The words '^Dolphin my boy, my boy, sessa! let htm trot by^\ 
(Lear, III, iv, 104) are declared by Steevens to be part of a ballad. 
But bis Dote sounds too romantic (see Fnrness, V, p. 192). "He shall 
be Dauphin my boy" is a passage in Ben Jonson's Bartbolomew 
Fair (V, iii). 

HOW SHOULD I YOUR TRÜE LOVE KNOW? 

The three stanzas quoted by Ophelia in Hamlet, IV, v, 23 f., show 
a marked affinity with (being also in the same measure as) a ballad 
beginning 'As you came from the holy-land', reprinted by Percy in 
bis Reliques. A better copy is in The Garland of Good-Will (Percy 
Soc, XXX, p. 111) and in Percy's MS. (III, 471).* The substance of 
this ballad is given in the foUowing words by Mr. Haies (lU, 465); 
'A lover growing or grown old, it would seem, has been left in the 
'lurch by the object of his affections. As all the world thronged to 
'Walsingham, the lover supposes she too must have gone that way; 
'and meeting a pilgrim returning from that English Holy Land, asks 
'him if he has seen anything of her runaway ladyship. The lover, 
'having described how his true and untrue love may be known from 
'many another one, learns that she has been met making for Wal- 
'singham; and then, asked why she has deserted him, explains that, 
'though she once loved him, she has lost her love now he waxes old, 
'and generally, that a woman's love is ever capricious and veering' <fcc. 
The Situation is soraewhat similar in Ophelia's fragment, where we 
must suppose the lady to enquire of a pilgrim wbether he has met 
with her lover, to which he replies "How should I your true love 
"know From another one?" (Compare: 'How should' I know your 
'true love, That have met many a one?' — first half of stanza 2 of 
the above mentioned ballad). She teils him by what tokens, and 
learns that he is dead. What the cause of his death is we do not 
ascertain from the fragment. But we cannot be far wrong in sup- 
posing that some clue is to be found in 'Gentle Herdsman' (in Percy), 
where a lover is killed by the scorn of a lady, who now repents when 
it is too late and pijgrims to Walsingham. — After having taken every 
circumstance into consideration, I am inclined to hazard the conjecture 
that Ophelia's fragments (11. 23—39) belong to the original 'Wal- 
singham' song, now lost. 

* Arber has also reprinted it in his *Anthologies' from MS. Rawl. Poet. 
' Rawl. MS., shali. 



Further Notes and Commenta. 137 

JOG ON, JOG ON. 

The tune with this title is preserved in the 'Dancing Master', 
1650, etc., and with the title Hanskin in the Fitz will! am Yirginal 
Book (early 17^^ cent.) and with a third in Pills to purge Melancholy 
1707, etc. Besides the stanza sung by Autolycus, Wint. Tale, IV, iii, 
132, two more a given in the Antidote against Melancholy, 1661, 
no earlier copy of them being known. (see Chappell 1, 159, for the words 
and tune). 

THE MAN SnALL HAVE HIS MAKE AGAIN. 

The man shaü have Ms mare again^ and all shall he well, 

(Mids. N. D., III, II, 463.) See a note in Ballad Soc. No. 37 p. 746. 
Referring to Roxburghe Ballads, vol. I, p. 57, 1. 29 where 'The man 
'shali have his Mare agen' occurs, the Rev. Mr. Ebsworth observes: 
'Compare Midsummer Niffhfs Dream^ Act [III], where the same line 
'is quoted from an older ditty of IIow Alosse found his Mare. She 
'was canght napping, and it is proverbial.' I always regarded the 
phrase as being proverbial. I can give no information about 'the 
'older ditty'. Dr. Ritter directed my attention to the above passage 
in the Ball. Soc. Compare also Wright's note (Clar. Press, or in Furness). 

"0 THE TWELFTH DAY OF DECEMBER", 

is a line put into the mouth of Sir Toby (Twelfth Night, II, iii, 90). 
Walker conjectures 0' for 0, which sounds plausible enough. Kitt- 
redge suggests that the ballad quoted by Sir Toby may be 'Musselburgh 
Field' (Child, III, 378; IV, 507), which celebrates the Battle of Pinkie 
fought in 1547, and begins thus: 

On the tenth day of December. 

(Stanza 5 begins: 

On the twelfth day in the morne) 

This is not certain, There is a ballad of the year 1584, reprinted 
in Ancient Ballads and Broadsides (Lilly, 1870, p. 182) beginning, 

The twelfe day of November last. 

**SLEEPEST OR WAKEST TDOü, JOLLY SHEPHERD?" 

(liOar III, VI, 43-46). Regarding the question 'sleepest or wakest?' 
compare Child, II, 240. 

'TAKE, 0, TAKE THOSE LIPS AWAY', etc 
(Meas. f. Meas. IV, i). The song recurs in the 'Bloody Brother' (Fleay: 



188 Chapter 5. Populär Lütrature, 

c. 1616; Ward: after 1624), by Fletcher, etc., with an additional stanza, 
which is evidently by another and inferior band. The second stanza 
Sounds like a burlesqae of the firat, which may after all be Shake- 
speare's own composition. 

TO-MORROW IS ST. VALKNTINE'S DAY. 

Of this apparently old song consisting of four stanzas 8ung by 
Ophelia (Hamlet, IV, v, 48-55, 58-65) nothing further is known. Douce 
found a parallel to the liues 

Let in the maid, tbat out a maid 
Never departed more — 

in a French ballad of 1598: 

'Elle y entra pucellc 
'Grosette eile en sorta.'' 

WAS THIS FAIR FACE, etc. 

" Was this fair face the cause, quoth she, 
''Why the Grecians sacked TroyV^ etc. 

fAirs Well, I, III, 74-83.) 

Ä ballad^ called 'The lamentations of Hecuba and ye ladies of 
Troye', was entered on the Stat. Reg. in 1586 (Arber, Transcr., 11,451). 

^VE W^ILL BE MARRIED 0' SUNDAY. 

In the Taming of the Shrew (II, i) Petruchio, having decided 
to wed Kate upon Sunday (1. 300), takes his leave saying (l. 324): 

^^Sunday comes apace: 
''We will have rings and things and fine array; 
"Aud kiss me, Kate, we will he married o' Sunday.^'' 

In illustration of this passage, Halliwell gives the foUowing exhaustive 
note, which I quote verbat! m: 

We will be married o' Sunday. Petruchio is here probably 
quoting from some old ballad. The earliest song with a similar 
bürden is one in Ralph Roister Doister, 1566, which commences, 

1 The rcader of Goethe's Faust will be reminded of 
Mephisto . . . 'Lass, lass es sein! 
'Er lässt dich ein, 
*Als Mädchen ein 
'Als Mädchen nicht zurücke.' 
in the scene Strasse vor Gretchens Thür. 



Further Notes and Commenta. 189 

I man be maried a Sunday; 
I mun be maried a Sanday; 
Whosoever shall come tbat way, 
I mno be maried a Sunday. * 

There is a ballad of the last Century, which may be a modernized 
Version of an earlier one, commencing, — 

As I walkM forth one May morning, 
I heard a fair maid sweetly sing, 
As she sat under her cow milking, 
We will be married o' Sunday.* 

Another stanza of which may be quoted, as illustrative of the 
belief that Petruchio's speech refers to a ballad, — 

Then on my finger TU have a ring, 
Not one of rush, but a golden thing; 
And I shall be glad as a bird in spring, 
Because I am married o' Sunday. 

The present ballad is either copied, or is connected in some way, 
with "a country song" which is introduced into Mrs. Centlivre's 
comedy of the Piatonic Lady, 1707, which commences as follows, — 

As I walkM forth one May morning, 
I heard a pretty maid sweetly sing 
As she sat under the cow a milking, 

Sing I shall be marry'd a Tuesday; 

I mun look smug upon Tuesday. 
(Halliweirs Folio ed. of Shakesp., 1856, vol. VI., p. 391.) 

Collier, in his edition of Shakespeare, 1842, vol. III, p. 148, gives verses' 
from oral tradition, which come marvellously near Shakespeare's words. 
But I suspect, Collier is swindling. 

BURDENS. 

In Hamlet, IV, v, 170, Ophelia says, '*You must sing 'a-down 
^^a-down^ And you ^call him a-doum-cCP This, I take it, is the 
way to print this passage. Ophelia desires the by-standers to sing 
the bürden. Again, in The Merry Wives (I, iv, 44) Mrs. Quickly sings: 
^^And dawn^ doum, adovm-a^ ^r." The words 'down, down', etc., as 

* See Dodsley's old Engl. Plays, 1874, vol. III, 159. 

> The whole ballad is reprinted in Old Sh. Soc, Papers, 1844, pp. 80—82. 

' also reproduced by Delios. 






190 Chapttr 5. Populär Literatur e, 

a refrain or nndersoDg, are to be met with rather freqnently in old 
Songs and ballads.^ 

In The Winter's Tale (IV, iv, 195) Autolycus is said to have 
songs ^'with such delicate bnrthens of dildos and fadings^ 'jump her 
"and thump her'", etc. — Dildo occurs as a refrain in old songs. It 
also had a coarse meaning (='mentula factitia. Cotgrape in Godemiche.^ 
Wright, Prov. Dict., Cp. New Engl. Dict.). The curious reader will 
find fall information concerning this bürden in Ballad Society, No. 16 
(Bagford Ballads, vol. I) p. 551, — J. W. Ebsworth's introductory remarks 
to a coarse poem: The Maid's Complaint for Want of a Dil doul'. 

Fading was the name of a dance and 'With a fading' the name 
of a tune, several songs to which with this bürden are known (see 
Chappell, II, 104; old. ed., 235). A Round of Matt. White, The Cour- 
'tier scorns the country clowns' (date about 1600) has for its third 
and last line 'With a fading, fading, fading, fading', etc. (Naylor, 82). 

The bürden ^heg nonny^ nonny\ etc. (Much Ado, II, iii, 71; Haml., 
IV, V, 165; As You L. It, V, iii, 18, etc.; Cp. Lear, III, iv, 103) is met 
with in older songs; e. g., in Chettle's Old Grissill is a song, the first, 
with such a bürden; also in The Two Noble Kinsmen (III, iv) and 
elsewhere. Coverdale refers to this bürden (see Chappell, old. ed., 53-4, 
or Clar. Press ed. of As You L. It, p. 160)./ 

A somewhat similar refrain occurs in As Y'ou Like It, V, ni, 21, 
etc., "A^y ding a ding^ ding^\ This is a bürden in 'Old Simon the 
King' (Chappell, I, 280) and is quoted as the title of a song by Lane- 
ham (Cp. FurnivaU's Introd.). 

A NOTE. 
To ballads on stränge fishes and on monstrosities such as are 

» Comp. Chappell, old. ed., pp. 59, 219, 222, 376, 391 ; and Child, III, Robia 

Hood ballads. Ophelia's bürden ^\vill be found alinost verbatim in a ballad 

'commencing — 

^When as King Edgar did govern this land, 

'"Adowfif adown^ dotan, down, down, 

'And in the strength of bis years he did stand, 

^Call him down-aJ' 

Chappell, old. ed., p. 768. This ballad is reprinted by the Percy Soc , XXX, 12. 

Another song to the same tune is in *A Uandcfull of pleasant delites', 1584, 

(Arber, Engl. Seh. Libr., III, 57, cp. also p. XIII). A third in *Misogonus', circa 1560, 

(Brandt, Quellen, p. 456). A fourth in Anc. Ball, and Broads., Lilly, 1870, p. 78, 

and compare pp. 288-9. No doubt the bürden formed an essential part of the tune, 

'Labandalashot', for such is the name of it. 

' Comp. Anglia, XII, 236. 



Notes and Comments. Populär Tales and Light Literature, ]91 

spoken of by Autolycus in Wint. Tale, IV, iv, Halliwell devotes five 
folio pages and a fall-page illustration, which the reader may turn to 
if he is cnrioas to know something more about these 'stretchers'. 
Examples of ballads of this sort will be found in 'Ancient Ballads 
and Broadsides', Lilly, 1870. 

POPULÄR TALES AND LIGHT LITERATÜRE. 

A HUNDRED MERRY TALES. 

^This is one of the best of our old Jest-Books, and is alluded 
'to by Shakspere in his Much Ado about Nothing', ^ II, i, 134-6: 

Beat. That I was disdainfal, and that I had my good wit out of 
the 'Hundred Merry Tales': — well, this was Signier ßenedick that said so. 

From this passage we may gather that Shakespeare, when he 
wrote his play, considered this production as rather trite. There are 
two editions of it extant, both by Rastell, and of each only one copy 
is known. The more perfect copy (1526) is reprinted by Oesterley 
(London, 1866); the other by Hazlitt. The book is entered twice 
on the Stat. Registers 1557/8 (Arber, I, 75) and 1582 (Arber, II, 405). 
The latter entry implies yet another edition. 

THE JESTS OF SCOGAN. 

In 2. Henry IV. (Act III, ii, 32) Shakespeare relates how Fal- 
staff broke ^'Skogan's head at the court-gate, when a' was a crack not 
"thus high." There can scarcely be any doubt, that Shakespeare had 
in view Scogan, the bufFoon, the hero (fictitious or otherwise) of a jest- 
book named after him, which was booked on the Stat. Reg. in 1565/6 
(Arber, I, 299). But the earliest edition now known is dated 1626. 
For more information see Dict. of Nat. Biogr. The Jest-Book is re- 
printed by Hazlitt, ut aup.^ vol. II. 

ROBIN GOODFELLOW. 

We possess abundant proof that tales of Robin Goodfellow's pranks 
(also called Puck or Hobgoblin) passed current among the people long 
before the dato of Midsummer Night's Dream. One "E. D.", in his 
Briefe and necessary Instruction^ 1572, mentions the 'tales of Robin 
Goodfellow', which, as the writer seems to imply, already existed in 

1 Furnivall, Introd. to Laneham's Letter, p. cvm. 



192 Chapier 5. Populär Literature. 

print. * Whether these 'tales' were in prose or in verse we do not 
know. Perhaps both. What their contents must have been, may be 
gathered from the chap-books and ballads concerning Robin Good- 
fellow printed at a later dato, collected and republished by Halliwell 
in old Shakesp. Soc, 1845, pp. 120f. 

GILLIAN OF BRAINFORD'S TESTAMENT, 

a humorous but coarse poera by Robert Copland, enjoyed a great deal 
of popularity in Elizabethan days. It was first printed shortly after 1562. 
Rob. Laneham mentions it in bis list of populär books (see Furnivall, ut 
sup,), The poem was reprinted by Furnivall in 1871 (for private circulation, 
'in Order to avoid possible annoyance from any cantankerous puritan^). 
Nash, in his Preface to Greene's Menaphon (1589— Huth Libr. ed., 
Greene VI, 13) speaks of *the idle usage of our unexperienst punies' 
into whose 'libraries' 'a tale of Ihon [= Joan?] a Brainfords will, 
'and the unluckio furmentie', wilbe as soon interteined . . . ., as the 
'best poeme that ever Tasso eternisht: which being the elTect of an 
'undescerning iudgement, makes drosse as valuable as gold.' Nash 
again alludes to her in Summer's Last Will (Huth Libr., Nash VI, 89). 
Another important allusion is in Westward Ho (c. 1605): 'I doubt 
'that old hag, Gillian of Brainford, has bewitched me' (Webster, ed. 
Dyce, 1877, p. 238). A drama called 'fryer Fox and gyllen of Bran- 
'forde' is mentioned in Henslowe's Diary, 1598-9. And 'a pleasant 
'newe Bailad of Julyan of Brainfords Last will and testament' is 
booked on the Stat. Reg. 1 March, 1600. 

"The fat woman of Brentford" (Quarte: Gillian of Brainfor(f^)^ 
"a witch" and "hag", is introduced in The Merry Wives. In Cop- 
land's production, however, no mention is made öf her being addicted 
to witchcraft or of her fatness. Her legacy consisted of f — s left to 
some foolish folks. 

THE BOOK OF RIDDLES. 

Slender: "Yoa have not the Book of lUddles aboat you, have you?" 

Simple: "Book of Riddles! why, did you not lend it to Alice Short- 

cake upon AlUhallowmas last, etc.? 

(Merry Wives, I, i, 208) 

This was 'The Booke of mery Riddles. Together with proper 
'Questions, and Wittie Proverbs to make pleasant Pastime. No lesse 
'usefuU then behoovefull for any yong man or child to know if he be 

* See Shakespeare Jahrbuch, 1904 (next year). 

' furinenty=frumenty; accounted unlucky, because it caused the farts. 



Populär Tales and Light Literatur e, 19B 

^quicke-witted or no.' London .... 1600 (8^®- 24 leaves). — 'We can 
*Tery well believe that this .... was the edition which Shakespeare 
'had in bis mind when he wrote "The Merry Wives", about the 
^date when the repHnt before us (for such it no doubt was) was brought 
'out. We take it also, that it was a recent edition of the same "book 
'of riddels" which Langham in his Letter from Kenilworth mentions 
'in 1575'. (Collier, BibL Account of the Early Engl. Lit., vol. II, 264). 
No edition earlier than 1600 is known to us. 

CHILD ROWLAND. 

Those familiär with the story of Jack the Giant-Killer will re- 
coUect the words which are put into the mouth of a giant whose 
Castle Jack enters : 

Fe, fa, fum! 

I smell the blood of an Englishman. 

Some such formula appears to belong to the common stock of ogre 
and giant stories of the Indo Europeans (see Clouston, Populär Tales 
and Fictions ,1887, vol. I, 134). The above lines are quoted by Nash in 
'Have with you', etc., 1596,* and alluded to by Peele in his 'Cid Wives' 
Tale', 1595. And in King Lear (III, iv, 187) Edgar is made to say: 

Chiid Rowland to the dark tower came, 
His Word was still — Fie, foh, and fum, 
I smcll the blood of a British man: 

Now, the earliest known edition of the Jack and the Giants story 
is 1711.' In this comparatively late version of the story, which, I 
suppose, had passed through a good many metamorphoses, we find 
no explanation for "Child Rowland". Here a Scotch folk-story, printed 
by Robert Jamieson in the 'Illustrations of Northern Antiquities', 1814, 
p. 397 f., gives us some clue. Child Rowland, the hero of this tale 
(which is interspersed with poetry) having contrived to enter the 
Castle of the King of Elfland is sniffed by the latter, 

" Huth Libr., Nash III, 53. 

' In the Brit. Mus.; but part 1. is wanting. On p. 16 we find the following 

Verses: — 

Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, 

I smell the Blood of an English Man; 

Be he aliye, or be he dead, 

I'll grind his Bones to make me Bread. 
Halliwell-Phillipps, referring probably to the same copy in the Brit. Mus., says 
the date 1711 must be a mistake for 1741 or 1771. (Folio ed. of Shakesp., vol. 
XIV, p. 465.) 

Anders, Shakespeare 's books. 13 



194 Chapter 5, Populär Liter ature, 

With 'Fi, fi, fo, aud fum! 

'I smell the blood of a Christian man', etc. 

This Story evidently Stands in close literary relationship to Jack the 
Giant-Killer on the one hand, and to three Danish ballads of 'Rosmer 
Hafmand' (translated by Jamieson) on the other.' 

AN OLD TALE, 
in which the words ^it rs not «o, no7* it was not so^ and God forhid it 
sliould he so\ occurring also in Much Ado, I, i, 218, form a significant 
part of the story, ^Yas related by Blakeway and is to be found in 
many editions of the play. This, or some story related to it, may 
have been 'the old tale' referred to by Shakespeare (see Furness,XII,29). 

ABKL SLAIN WITH THE JAWBONE OF AN ASS;— AND MURDERED 

AT DAMASCrS. 

According to an old legend, Cain slow his brother with the jawbone 

of an asg. Skeat^ sees an allusion to this legend in Hamlet, V, i, 

84—87;— 

how the knave jowls it [the skullj to the ground, as if it were Cains 
jaw-hone^ that did the first murder! It might be the pate of a politician 
which this ass now o'er-reaches. 

Cain was Said to have committed the murder on the site where 
Damascus now Stands. Compare 1. Henry VI., Act I, iii, 39: — 

This be Damascus, be thou cursed Cain, 
To slay thy brother Abel, if thou wilt. 

TUE OWL WAS A BAKER'S DAUGHTER. 

In Hamlet (IV, v, 41—44) Ophelia says:— 

Well, God 'ild youl They say the owl was a baker's daughter. Lord, 
we know what we are, but know not what wc may be. God be at your 
table ! 

*Douce was the first to point out that this probably referred to the 
'legend that a baker's daughter, who refused to give bread to Christ, 
'was transformed by the Saviour into an owl. But none of our anti- 
'quaries has, I believe, mentioned that in Cornwall the legend is 
'familiär, and of old date' (Ilazlitt, Pop. Antiq. of Gr. Britain, 1870, 
III, p. 196). Douce had observed that the story was common among 
the vulgär in Gloucestershire. 



' I think thcre is an alhision to our Child Rowland story in Nash's Summcr's 
Last Will ad inU. (Huth Libr., Nash VI, 89). 

2 Notes and Queries, 6th S. IL Aug. 21, '80; and The Academy, Oct. 26, '95. 



Populär Tales and Light Literatur e. 295 

*According to Charles G. Leland (The English Gipsies, etc., 1873, 
'p. 16) even the Gipsies are all familiär with the monkish legend.' 
See Elze's ed. of Hamlet, 1882, p. 213. Compare also Hazlitt, English 
Pro verbs, 1869, p. 381. 

SCHNEEWITTCHEN. 

There are some striking resemblances between this famous German 

fairy-tale and Shakespeare's Cymbeline. While admitting these, I do 

not contend that the author of this play was familiär with the tale 

itself. All I dare assert is, that he was acquainted with some tale 

er tales distantly related with it.' 

From 

BEAST FABLES 

are derived the following names of animals: 

Oianttcleer =zcoc\i. "Crow like Chanticleer" (As Y.L. It, II,vii,30). 

"The strain of struttingChanticleer"(Tempest,l,ii,385). Partlett=heu, In 

1. Henry IV., Act III, in, 60, Falstaff addresses the Hostess as "Dame 

'Tartlett the hen!" Compare also Wint. Tale, II, iii, 75: "Thy dame 

"Partlett." — Chanticleer and Pertelot are familiär to the readers of 

Chaucer (Nun's Priest's Tale) and Caxton's 'Reynard the Fox'. Tibert= 

cat. Cf. 'Romeo', II, iv, 18: ^'Benv. Why, what is Tybalt? Merc. More 

"than prince of cats." Compare, too, III, i, 11. 78 — 81 & 104. Tibert 

occnrs as the name of the cat in 'Reynard the Fox'. In Nash's 'Have 

with you', etc., 1596, we find: "Not Tibault or Isegrim^ Prince of 

"Gattes" (Huth Libr., Nash, III, 74). In Dekker's Satiromastix there 

is another allusion, 'Tyber[t], the long-tail'd prince of Rattes' (s?>).' 

Jonson speaks of cats as Tiberts (Epigr. 133). — As for Shakespeare's 

acqnaintance with the jEsopian Fables, compare ante^ pp. 17 — 19. 

A NOTE. 

"The humour of forty fancies" in the Shrew (IH, ii, 70) 'is ge- 

'nerally understood to mean some collection of the short poems calied 

^FancieSy which Petruchio had stuck into his lackey's hat' (Dyce). 

The supposition seems to me absurd. Fancy, pinning a book on to 

your hat! Why, it has no meaning. I rather think Shakespeare is 

making nse of a bold figure of speech. Malone gives a quotation to 

show that 'fancy' could mean some ornament. The passage would 

therefore mean: the hat is fantastically and humorously trimmed 

with forty Ornaments or ribbons. 

> Compare Germania, IX, 458; Simrock 2»^ ed., p. 274; Anglia, VI, 34 f.; and 
. Qollancz, Gymbel., in the Tempi e Shakespeare. 

' Dekker's Dram. Work's, London, John Pearson, 1873, vol. I, p. 259. 

13» 



CHAPTER 6. 
THE BIBLE AND THE PRAYER BOOK. 

ELIZABETHAN BIBLES. 

Shakespeare's relations to the Bible have been dealt with at length 
though neither altogether exhaustively nor without dilTasiveness by 
Bishop Charles Wordsworth, in his book "Shakspeare's Knowledge 
and Use of the Bible", to which 1 must refer the reader for in- 
formation. Read also Dr. Furnivall's Forewords to "Shakspere and 
Holy Writ" (Marcus Ward). ^ From these works it will appear tbat 
Shakespeare's mind was thoroughly saturated with the Bible story, 
which seems as much part of him as his love of nature and mnsic. 
What Shakespeare himself believed has been debated, but we can scarcely 
doubt that he accepted a good deal more than the 'advanced modern 
thinker'. The Deists, Hume, Kant, and Darwin had not yet appeared 
on the world's stage. 

I do not desire here to go over old ground and repeat what ha5 
been said by others about Shakespeare's knowledge of Holy Writ. 
The present section has only to do with some questions which may 
be Said to belong to higher criticism. 

The two Standard Bibles of Elizabeth's reign were the 'Geneva 
Bible' and the so called 'Bishops' Bible'. The former first published 
in complete form in 1560, became the household bible of the English 
people and no fewer than sixty editions of it passed into circulation 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. For many years it successfully 
competed even with the Authorised Version of 1611. The Bishops' 

^ Corapare also J. B. Selkirk, Bible Truths with Shakspearian Parallels; and 
Colton, Shakspcare and the Bible. 



Elizahethan Bihles, 197 

Bible first printed in 1568 was the version authorised to be read in 
the churches and passed through nineteen editions. *It may be 
*doubted whether it was ever cordially received. The Great Bible of 
'1539 was still used in many churches, and the Geneva Bible was in 
*almost every house.' (Encyclop. Brit., VIII, p. 388.) If this was the 
case, it is just possible that the Great Bible may have been used in 
a provincial pai'ish church like that of Stratford. Moreover, we have 
to bear in mind that the Common Prayer-Book contained the Psalms 
and the Epistles and Gospels for each Sunday, etc., in the version of 
the Great Bible (which the Psalter of the Prayer-Book of to-day still 
follows). Of the Genevan New Testament version there existed a 
revised edition by Laurence Tomson, which differs slightly from the 
Genevan translation and contains copious marginal notes. It is fre- 
quently bound up with the Genevan Old Testament. Shakespeare 
may therefore have heard or read four different versions of portions 
of the Scriptures. The bible he would have been most likely to use 
himself, was the Genevan Version, as w^e might infer on a ptnori 
groands. This, like the Bishops' Bible, contained the Apocrypha, 
thongh they are wanting in some copies. 

The Bible- Versions I used are the following: — 

1. 'The Holy Byble, conteynyng the Olde Testament, and the New. Set 
'foorth by aucthoritie. 1576,^ — The colophon states that it was 'Im- 
'printed at London, by Richarde lugge'. This is the Bhhops' Bible, 
(It is a quarto volume in black-letter.) 

2. [Title page wanting]. A copy of the Geneva Bible \yith. this colophon: 
'Imprinted at London, by Christopher Barker Printer to the Queenes 
'Maiestie. 1378: (Folio in black-letter.) 

3. 'The Bible, that is the Holy Scriptures conteined in the Old and New 
'Testament . . . London . . . Christopher Barker . . . 1399.* The 
Title-page before the New Testament is this: 'The New Testament of 
'our Lord Jesus Christ, Translated out of Greeke by Theod. Beza: 
'With briefe Summaries and expositions upon the liard places by the 
'said Authour, loac. Camer. and P. Loseier. Villerius. Engelished by 
'L. Tomson . . . London . . . Chri-itopher Barker . . . 1599.' A quarto 
volume in beautiful Roman type, with an appendix of mctrical Psalms. 
The Apocrypha are wanting. This is the Geiieva- Tomson Bible, The 
text of the New Testament differs in a few places from the tcxt of 2. 
The Old Testament is the same in both. When I cite the text of the 
Genevan Version I usually quote from the copy of ir)78. with which 
the 1599 copy is to bo understood to agree uiiloss otherwise stated. 



298 Chapter 6. The BibU and the Prayer Book. 

4. I have compared the New Testament of the "Great Bible", iö39^ as 
given ia the ^^English Hexapla'\ London, 1841, and the ^Epistles, and 
'Gospels, to be used at the celebration of the Lords Snpper\ in 'The 
'Booke of Common prayer', etc. London . . . Christ. Barker, 1586. 1 
compared, too, the Prayer-Book, Anno 1559^ reprinted in the Parker 
Society Publications. 

5. The Great Bible of 1549, entitled 'The Byble in Englishe, that is, the 
'olde and new Testament, after the translacion appoynted to bee read 
'in the Churches'. (Brit. Mus.). 

G. The Psalms of 1. are not in the version proper to the Bishops' Bible. 

These I quote from the Bishops' Version of 1572. 
7. I have also compared several other copies of Elizabethan Bibles. 

THE ELIZABETHAN BIBLE-TEXTS DIFFER FIIOM THE TEXT OF THE 

AUTHORISED VERSION 

and from one another. The following examplfes will show that Shake- 
speare's text, differing from our Authorised Version, agrees with the 
Elizabethan. 

i) 'Hhis dishonour in thine age 

''Will bring thy iiead with sorrow to the ground!" 

(2. Uenry VI., Act II, iii, 19.) 

This is an allusion to Genesis, XLII, 38, where our Authorised 
Version reads: 

then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 

The Version of the Genevan, the Bishops', and the Great 
Bible is: 

ye shall bring my gray head with sorow unto the grave. 

ii) "Saba was never 

"More covetöus of wisdom and fair virtue 

'•Than this pure soul shaU be." (Henry VIII., Act V, v, 24.) 

See 1. Kings, X, where the Authorised Version has *Sheba', 
The Bishops' Bible and the 'Great Bible': 'Saba*. The Geneva: 
'Sheba'; but in the heading of the chapter: 'Saba'. 

iii) "Satan, avoid! I charge thee, tempt me not." 

(Com. of Err., IV, in, 48.) 
[Comp. '-Avoid then, fiend!" {ib., v. 66); "false fiend, avoidf' 

(2. Henry VI., I, iv, 43)]. 
Here there is a piain allusion to the temptation-story, see 
Matth. IV, 10, where the Authorised Version has: Get thke 



Elizahtthan BibUs, 199 

HENCE, Satan; the Bish. Bible: 'Geat thee hence behinde 
'me Satan'. It must have been the text given by the Geneva 
Bible and by the Great Bible (whose version was in the 
Prayer-Book, Gospel for the first Sunday in Lent) which Shake- 
speare had in mind: 

Then said Jesus unto him, Avoyde Satan.* 

iv) ''To pray for them that have done scathe to us." 

(Rieh. III., Act I, iii, 317.) 

Compare the Authorised Version, Matth., V, 44: 

pray for them which despitbfülly üse you, and persecuto you, 

for which the Genevan, the Bishops', and the Great Bible give: 
pray for them which hurt you, and persecute you. 

This comes nearer to Shakespeare's text. 

TU AT SHAKESPEARE WAS FAMILIÄR WITH TUE GENEVA HIBLE, 

the following passages, compared with the contemporary versions oi 

the Bible, go to show: 

i) "the king's name is a tower of strength." 

(Rieh. III., Act V, tu, 12.) 

Compare Prov., XVIII, 10, in the Genevan version: 
The name of the Lord is a strong tower. 

Instead of 'tower' the Bishops' Bible and the Great Bible 
read: 

'Castle', 
[The Authorised Version has Hower'.] 

ii) ''Nebüchadnezae" in the Folio edition of All's Well (IV, v, 21) — 
and no earlier edition exist — agrees with the form of the name as 
given by the Geneva Bible. The Bishops' and the Great Bible have 
Nalmchodonosor, 

iii) "You would tbink that I had a hundred and fifty tattered prodigah 
"lately come from swine-kecping, from eating drafFand husks". (1. Henry IV., 
Act IV, II, 36.) 



' I quote from the Geneva Bible 1578 with whirb the version in the Prayer- 
Book and Great Bible agrees (except that it has *saith' for 'said'). — Tho temyjtation- 
narrative as given by Luke does not help ns. For Luke, IV, 8, the Great' and 
the 'Geneva' Bibles have: 'Ilence from me, Satan'; the ^Bishops': '(Joat thee hence 
'bebynde me Satan'; the Authorised Version: 'Get theo beliind rae, Satan'. 



200 ^A« Bi^^ an^ <^« Präger Book 

Compare what the Geneva Bible says about ihe prodigal son, 
Luke, XV, 16: 

And he wonld faine havc filled his bollie with the hdskbs that 
the swine ate. 

Instead of 'husks' the Bishops' Veraion and the Great Bible 
read: 'coddes'. (Comp., too, 'As You Like It', I, i, 39 — 42.) 

iv) In 2. Henry VI., Act IV, iv, the messenger having related the 
doings of Jack Cade and his men, the king exclaims: 

"0 graceless men! they know not what they do". 

This is, of course, a quotation from Luke, XXIII, 34. Instea«! 
of *KNOw' of the Geneva Bible, the Bishops' Version and the 
Great Bible have 'wotb'. 

v) In the Merchant of Venice (I, iii) the strategy of the patriarch 
Jacob is instanced in the passage: 

"That all the eanlings which were streak'd and pied 

"Should fall as Jacob's hire .... 

"The skilfal shepherd peeFd me certain wands 

"And . . . . stuck them up before the fulsome ewes, 

*''Who then conceiving did in eaning time 

"Fall parti-colouu'd lambsy and tbose were Jacob's.*' 

As Halliwell-Phillipps* pointed out, the word parti-coloured must bc 
due to the Geneva veraion, Genesis, XXX, 39, 40: — 

[They] brought forth yong of pautie colour, and with sraall and great 
spots these lambes partje coloured .... 

The Bishops' Bible reads: 

[They] brought foorth lambes ryngstraked, spotted, and Partie 

these ryngstraked, etc. 

The Great Bible (XXX, F), also, has the word 'party coloured'. But 
it is a much less likely source. 

* 'An attempt to discover which version of the Bible was that ordinarily 
used by Shakespeare', 1867. As only ten copies of this booklet were printed 
Halliwell-Phillipps evideutly did not think highly of his own production. I have 
not seen it. Even the British Museum does not possess a copy. I only know the 
book through Carter'« ''Shakespeare Puritan and RecusanC (a Tendenz book), 1897, 
p. 197. The conclusion Halliwell-Phillipps arrives at is, that the poet used the 
Gene van version. 



Elizabelhan Bibies. The Apoerypha, 201 

THE BTBLE USED IN TRE CIIURCU. 

Shakespeare's acquaintance, too, with the Bible text used in the 
church the following passages compared with the diflTerent vei-sions go 
to evince: 

1) "A liorson Achitophel; a Rascally-yea-forsooth-knave", 

2. Henry IV., Act I, ii, 41, Folio; — the Quarto gives the aame form 
of the name, ivhich is also found in the Bishops' Bible. The present 
Authorised, the Genevan, and the 'Great Bible' versions have 
AhithopheL 

2) "for wisdom cries out in the streets, and no man regards it." 
(1. Henry IV., Act I, ii, 99.) 

CoDopare Prov., I, 20 and 24, in the Bishops' Version: 

V. 20: Wisdome crieth without, and potteth foorth her voyco in 
the streetes. 

V. 24: Because I have called, and ye refosed, I havo stretched 
out my hande, and no man regarded, 

Instead of these italicized words the Geneva Bible has: ^none 
^woulde regard\ The Great Bible reads: ^and no vian re- 
^garded it\ 

3) "Did they not sometime cry,.'ali hail!' to me? 

''So Judas did to Christ." (Rieh. 11., Act IV, i, 169.) 

"so Judas kiss'd his master, 
''And cried 'all hail!' when as he meant all harm'\ 

(3. Henry VI., Act V, vii, 33.) 

Compare Matth., XXVI, 49, where the Bishops' Bible reads: 

And foorthwith when he came to lesus, he sayd, Hayle maister: 
and kissed hym. 

This agrees also with the words of the Great Bible which 
were included in the Prayer-Book in the Gospel for the 
Snnday before Easter. The Geneva Bible does not give the 
Word 'hail' except as a marginal reading. 'Hail' is, however, 
in Tomson's translation of Mark, XIV, 45, where no other 
Version has it. 

THE APOCRYPHA. 

We should remember that Shakespeare was familiär with the 
Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament which no longer find a place 
in the common editions of the Authorised Bible. 



202 Chapler 6, The Bible and ihe Prayer Book. 

The History op Süsanna. 

In 'The Merchant of Venice' (Act IV, i, 223) the Jew is made 
to say: 

A Daniel come to jndgement! yea, a Daniel! 
wise young judge, how I do honoar thee! 

(Cp., too, V. 333 dt V. 340.) 

Here Shakespeare is thought to have had in view 'The historie of 
Susanna', where 'a yong child, whose name was Daniel'* proves 
wiser than the judges and convicts the two wicked eiders 'of false 
'witnesse by their owne mouth', thus saving Snsanna from imminent 
death. 'Fro[m] that day forth was Daniel had in great reputation in 
'the sight of the people'. Bat I ought not to forget remarking that, 
apart from this Susanna incident, Daniel's wisdom was held in high 
esteem of old. Compare, e. g., what is said about him in Daniel 
V, 11, 12: 

There is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is f spirit of the holy 
gods, and in the dayes of thy father, light and understanding and wis- 
dome like the wisdome of the goddes, was found in him .... Because 
a more excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding .... were 
found in him, etc. 

Comp., too, Daniel, IV, 6; VI, 3; Ezech., XXVIII, 3; The Bei and the 
Dragon; etc. 

The above narrative of Snsanna is also apparently alluded to in 
AlVa Well (II, i, 141): 

He that of greatest works is finisher 
Oft does them by the weakest minister: 
So holy writ in hohes hath jndgement shown^ 
When judges have been hohes '"^ 

The History of Bel and the Dragon. 

In Much Ado About Nothing (Act III, iii, 143) Borachio says 
that fashion makes young men appear "sometime like god Bel's 
"priests in the old church-wiiidow",— the subject of the painting being 
taken from the apocryphal narrative, where Daniel detects the im- 
posture of the priests of Bei. 

^ I am quoting from the Geneva Bible, 1578. *young child' is also in the 
Bishops' Bible and in the Great Bible. The Authorised version subslituted 'young 
youth' for 'young child', which latter agrees better with the passage quoted from 
AU's Weil (11, 1, 141). See Clarend. Press ed. of Merch. of Yen., p. 120. 



The Apoerypha, French Bibie. 203 

The Wisdom op Jesus thb son op Sirach, called Ecclesiasticus. 

The saying of Jesus, the son of Sirach, {Ecclesiasticus^ chapt. 
XIII, 1) 

He that toucheth pitche, slialbe defiled 

had no doubt become a current proverb. Shakespeare refers to it in 
Much Ado, III, III, 60: 

thej that touch pitch will be defiled; 
in 1. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 455: 

this pitch, as ancient writers de report, doth defile; 

and in other dramas (Love's Lab. Lost, IV, in, 3; Ali's Well, IV, iv, 
24; 2. Henry VI., Act U, i, 196; Timon, I, ii, 231). 
In illustration of Merch. of Ven., IV, i, 184—186: 

The qnality of mercy is not strain'd, 

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven 

Upon the place heneatb. 

the commentators quote from Ecclesiasticus^ XXXV, 20: 

Oh, how faire a thing is mercie, in the time of angnish and troable! 
It is like a cloude of raine, tbat commeth in the time of a drought. 

Compare, too, Deuter., XXXH, 2. 

Thb Maccabees. 

Judas Maccabaens, the hero of the Apocryphal Maccabees^ appears 
as one of the Nine Worthies in Love's Lab. Lost, Act V. 

FRENCH BIBLE. 

In Henry V. (Act III, vii, 68) the Dauphin is made to say: 

Le chien est retoume a son propre vemissement est la leuye lauee au 
bourbier. 

This passage as it Stands in the V^ Folio contains three obvious mis- 
prints: 'vemissement' for 'vomissement', the second 'est' for 'et', 
and 'leuye' for 'truye'=truie. 

The quotation is taken from the French Bible (2. Peter, II, 22), 
of which there were diifering versions in use in the sixteenth Century, 
most of them being apparently re-edited from, or based on, Olivetan 
and Calvin's Translation. I have compared several French Bibles and 
New Testaments. The text coming nearest to the above quotation 
I find given by La Sainte Bible, Lyon MDXXXXX [sie] (par Balthazar 
Amoullet): 



204 Chapier 6. -■ The Bible and the Präger Book. 

Le cbien est retoarne ä son propre yomissement : & la truye laaee est 
retournee au bourbier. 

This is identical with Shakespeare's wording except for 'est re- 
'tournee' repeated here with the required change of gender. I^e 
Nouveau Testament ä Lyon, 1584, offers the same version as the above 
Lyon Bible, but spells 'tniie' instead of Hruye'. The French Bibles 
printed at Geneva 1588, 1605, at la Rochelle 1616, and the New 
Testament, Geneva 1562, all agree in rendering the latter part of the 
verse thus: 
& la truye lauee est retournee a se veautrer au bourbier. 

(The italics are in the original text.) Other Bibles differ still more. 

LATIN. BIBLE. 

The phrase Medice^ teipsum used by the Cardinal in 2. Henry VI. 
(II, I, 53), which is from the Vulgate (Luke, IV, 23: Medice^ cura te 
ipsum!) probably enjoyed proverbial currency. 

THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER REFLECTED IN 

SHAKESPEARE'S WORKS. 

In the present section I purpose to follow up traces and remi- 
niscences of the Prayer Book in the poet's works, a subject which ought 
to be of sufficient interest to demand the attention of the Shakespearean 
Scholar. The Prayer Book, I may state, has experienced comparatively 
few changes since the Elizabethan age, so that Shakespeare worshipped 
according to the same rites, read the same version of the Psalms, and 
used much the same prayers, etc., as the English churchman of to-day. 
I quote from 'The Booke of Common prayer', 1586. 

I begin with the phrase: ^world loithout endd used by the poet in 

Love's Lab. Lost (V, ii, 799) and in Sonnet 57,5, and no doubt caught 

from the Prayer Book, where it occurs so frequently. 

In 

'TUE LETANIE' 

the words Good Lord deliver us form the recurring response to such 
supplications as, *From all evill and mischiefe, from sinne', etc., 'From 
'fornication, and all other deadly sinne, and from all the deceits of 
'the World, the flesh and the devill'. 

Corapare Tam. of the Shrew, I, i, 66: 

Hör, From all such devils, good Lord deliver us! 
Gre, And me too, good Lord! 



Tke Book of Common Praytr, 205 

BAPTISM. 

The Priest administering baptism puts the following question: 

Doest thoa forsake the devil and all bis workes, the vaine pompe and glory 
of the worlde, with all covetous desires of the same, etc.? 

Compare, 

Vain potnp and glory of this world, I hate ye. 

(Henry, VIII., Act III, ii, 365). 

What King Henry V. says in the drama called after him (Actl,ii,31): 

what yoa speak is in yoar conscience wash'd 
As pure as sin with baptism — 

agrees with the belief expressed in the baptism Service: 

Almightie and everlasting God, which by the Baptismc of thy 

welbeloved Sonne lesus Christ, diddest sanctifie the flood lordan and al 
other waters, to the mysticall washlng away of sinne. 

(Comp. Acts, XXII, 16). 

THE CATECHISM. 
*A Catechisme, that is to say, an Instruction to be learned of every 
'childe, before he be brought to be confirmed of the Bishop'. From 
ä priari considerations we might infer that young Will Shakespeare 
learned the Ten Commändments from the Catechism, and not from 
Exodus, XX, or Deuteronomy, V. This is established apo«<^mn by a 
passage in Richard III., ActI, iv, 200 — 202: 

the great King of kings 
Hath in the tahles of kis lata commanded 
That thou shalt do no mar der. 

This agrees with the words of the Catechism: Thou shalt doe no 
murther', for which the Geneva Bible, the Great Bible, and the Bishops' 
Version, and the Authorised Version have: 'Thou shalt not kill' (or 
Do not kill). See Exod. XX, 13; Deut.V, 17; Matth. V, 21; Rom. XIII, 9; 
Mark X, 19; Luke XVIII, 20; Jam. II, 11.— Only for Matth. XIX, 18, the 
Bishops' Bible and the Authorised Version give the same wording as 
the Catechism. 

The Decalogue is moreover quoted from, or alluded to, in the 
following passages: — 

Could I come near yonr beauty with my nails, 
rid set my ten commandments in your face. 

(3. Henry VI., 1,111,144.) 

Thy sins are visited in this poor child; 
The. Canon oj the laxo is laid on him, 



206 Chapter 6, The BibU and the Prayer Book, 

Bcing but the second generation 

Removed from thy sia-conceiving womb, etc.» 

(King John, 11,1,179.) 

The sins of the father are to he laid upon the chüdren. 

(Merch. of Ven., HI, v, 1.) 
so the sins of my mother ghoxdd he visited upon me, (v. 15.) 
we shall see wilful adultery and murder committed. 

(Henry V., H, i, 40.) 
Lucio. Thou concludest like the sanctimonious pirate, that 
went to sea with the Ten Commandments, bat scraped one 
out of the table, 
See, Gent, *Thou shali not steaT^ (Meas. f. Meas., I, ii, 7.) 

The 10**» Commandment is aUuded to inTheTamg. of theShrew, III,ii,232: 

She is my goods, my chatteis; she is my house, 
My household staff, my field, my harn, 
My horse, my ox, my ass, my any thing, 

Respecting his duty towards his neighbour the catechumen is made 
to learn: 'My duetie towards my neighbour is, to love him as my seife 

'[cf. Matth., XIX, 19] To keepe my hands from picking and 

'steaUng', etc. 

Compare: — Thou hast my love: is not that neighbourlyt 

(As You Like It, HI, v, 90.) 

The phrase Spickers and stealei*9^ (Hamlet, III, u, 348) for ^hands' 
was probably suggested by the words just quoted from the Catechism. 

'My good childe', says the catechist, 'know this, that thou art not 
'able to do these things of thy seife, nor to walke in the co[m]mande- 
'ments of God, and to serve him, wÜhout his speciall grac€\ etc. 

Compare: 

For every man with bis affects is born, 

Not by might master'd but by special grace, 

(Lov. Lab. Lost, I, i, 152.) 

The Patbbnostbb 
is echoed in the following passages: 

i) Your will be done. (Rieh. IL, Act I, iii, 144); 
God's will be done! (2. Henry VL, Ill,i,86); 
Cp. Tempest, I, i, 71; Cymb., V, i, 16; — etc. 



' *I visite the sinnes of the fathers upon the children, unto the third 

'and fourth generation', etc. (Catech.). Instead of *sins' the Geneva Bible and the 
Authorised Version have ^iniquity^ (Exod., XX, 5); The Bishops* Bible and the Great 
Bible: sin (singular). 



The Book of Common Praytr, 207 

ii) Forgive us our sins! (Othello, II, iii, 116); 
0, forgive me my sins! (Tempest, III, ii, 139); 

I as free forgive you 
As I would be forgiven: I forgive all. 

(Henry VIII., Act II, i, 82.) 
Instances might be mnltiplied. 

in) The following passage: 

Isah. Heaven keep yoor honoiir safe! 

Ang. [Aside] Amen: 

For I am that way going to temptation, 
Where prayers cross. (Meas. f. Meas., II, ii, 157) — 

DO doubt contains a reference to the petition: 'Lead us not into 
temptation'. 

THE FORM OF SOLEMNIZATION OF MATRIMONY. 
The English Marriage Service, which has remained unaltered 
(excepting a few slight changes in phraseology) since Shakespeare^s 
time, is referred to on several occasions. First, what Benedick says 
in Much Ado About Nothing, Act V, iv, 29, 

this day to be conjoirCd 
In the state^ of honourable marriage^ 

may be an echo of the opening words of the Marriage Ceremony: 

Dearely beloved friendes, we are gathered together here in the sight of 
God, and in the face of bis congregation, to ioyne together this man and 
tbis woman in holy Matrimonie^ wbich is an honourable estate, etc. 

The Priest proceeding says: 

Therefore, if any man can sbew any iust cause, why they may not law- 
fally be ioyned together, let him now speake, or eis hereaftcr for ever 
holde bis peace. 

And also speaking to the persons that shall bc maried, he shall say. 
I Require and Charge you (as you wil answere at the dreadfull day of 
indgement, when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed) that if 
either of you do know any impediment, why ye may not be lawfully 
ioyned together in Matrimonie, that ye confesse it, etc.* 

This is allnded to in Much Ado, IV, i, 12: 

Friar. If either of you know any inward impediment why you shouhl not 
be conjoined, I Charge yoti, on your souls^ to uiter it, 

' Some editors read: estate, 

' An exhortation similar to this is now also pronouneed at the publication 
of the banns. Whether it was done in Shakespcare's timc, too, I know not 
I scarcely tbink so. The formula is at least not priutcd in the cid Prayer Bocks. 



208 Chapter 6. The BibU and tht Prajftr Book. 

Compare, too, Act III, ii, 91: — 

D. John [to Claudio]. Means your lordship to be married to morrow? 

/>. Pedro. Yoii know he does. 

D. John. I know not that, when he knows what I knovr. 

Claud. 1/ there be any impedimeni^ I pray you discover iL 

The Priest, continuing, says unto the man. 

N. Wilt thoa have this woman to thy wedded wife\ etc.? 

The man shall answere. 
I will. 

Then shall the Priest say unto the woman. 
N. Wilt thou have this man to thy wedded hasband, to live together after 
Qods ordinance, in the holy estate of Matrimonie? Wilt thoa obey bim, 
and serve him, love, honour, and keepe him in sicknes and in health, t 
forsaking all other, keepe theo onely unto him, so long as you both sbajl 
live? 

The woman shall answere. 
I will. 

Then shall the minister say. 
Who giveth this woman to be maried to this man? 

Then shall the man say.^ 
I N. take thce N. to my wedded wife, to have and to hold from this day 
forward, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sicknesse and in 
health, to love and to cherish, tili death us depart, according to Gods holy 
ordinance: and thereto I plight theo my trouth.' 

The Bride uses similar words: 

I N. take thee N. to my wedded husband, etc. 

Compare, first, As You Like It, Act IV, i, 124 — 140: 

Bo8. . . . Come, slster, you shall be the priest and marry us. Gite me 

your hand, Orlando. What do you say, sister? 

Orl. Pray thee, marry us. 

Cel. I cannot say the words. 

Ros. You must begin, ^Will you^ Orlando—^ 

Cel, Go to. Will you, Orlando, have to w\fe this Bosalindl 

Orl. I will. 

Bos. Ay, but when? 

Orl. Why now; as fast as she can marry ns. 

Bos. Then yon must say '/ take thee, Bosalind, for w\fe.^ 



* The Book of Common Pray er, prefixed to the Gcneva Bible, 1578, states 
more fully: 'And the Minister receiving the woman at her fathcr or friends hands, 
shall caiise the man to take tbe woman by the right hande, and so either to give 
their troth to the other, the man first say in g. I. N., etc. 



The Book of C-ommon Prayer. 209 

OrL I take thee, Bosalind^ Jor vy\fe. 

Hos. I might ask yoa for your commission ; but / do take thee, Orlando^ 
for my husband: there's a girl goes before the priest. 

Corapare, too, Mach Ado, Act IV, i, 1 — 11. 

The ceremony of giving away the bride to the bridegroom is 
performed in Much Ado, Act IV, i, 25: 

CJaud. Stand thee by, friar. Father, by your leave: 

AVill yoa with free and unconstrained soul 

Give me this maid, your daaghter? 

Leon. As freely, son, as God did give her me. 

Compare Act III, v, 59 (immediately before the marriage ceremony 
of Act IV, i):— 

Messenger: My lord, they stay for you to give your daughter to her husband. 
Leonato: VW wait upon them: I am ready. 

In As You Like It, Act III, in, 68, Sir Oliver Martext, a vicar, 
who purposes to marry Touchstone and Audrey, asks: 

Is there none here to give the woman? 

Tauch, I will not take her on gift of any man. 

Sir Oli. Truly, she must be given, or the marriage is not lawful. 

Jaques [Advancing]-, Proceed, procecd: 77/ give her. 

The formula spoken by the woman (which is similar to that 
pronounced by the man, see above), 'I N. take thee N. to ray wedded 
^hasband, to have and to hold from this day forward, for better, for 
Vorse', etc., is alluded to in Hamlet, Act III, ii, 261:— 

Oph. You are keen, my lord, yoa are keen. 

Ilam. It would cost you a groaning to take off my edge. 

Oph, Still better^ and worse, 

Harn, So you must take your husbands. 

About the ring, the Symbol of marriage in all chi'istendom, I need 
not waste any words. 

Then stiall the Priest ioyne their right hands togcther, and say. 
Those whom God bath ioyned together, let no man put asunder. 
Compare, 3. Henry VI., Act IV, i, 21: 

No, God forbid that I should wish them sever^d 
Whom God haih join^d together; ay, and 'twere pity 
To sunder them that yoke so well together. 

In 'Romeo*, Act IV, i, 55, Juliet says to the Friar: 

God join'd my heart and Romeo's, thou our hands. 

Anders, Shakespeare'^ books. I4 



210 Chapter €. The BibU and ihe Präger Book. 

What I have just qnoted from the Book of Common Prayer is, 
of conrse, ultimately derived from Holy Writ, Matthew, XIX, 6, aod 
Mark, X, 9. Bat the wording of both the Geneva Bible and the 
Bishops' Bible and, I may add, of the Anthorised Version, dißers/rom 
(hat of the Prayer Book, 

The Bishops' Bible has: 

Let not man therefore pnt asunder, ihai which god hath coupled togeather. 

(Matth., XIX, 6.) 

Therfore, what God hath coupled togeather, let not man separate. (Hark, X,9.) 

The rendering of the Geneva, and of the ^Great', Bibles agrees with 
that of the Bishops' Bible. ' 

The fonrth Act of Mach Ado opens with the following words spoken 
by Leonato: 

Come, Friar Francis, he brief ; only to the piain form of marriage, and yoa 

shall recoant their particular duties afterwards. 

The 'particnlar duties' may refer to the long enunciation of the 
duties of man and wife at the close of the Marriage Service. Some 
duties, too, set forth in the form of a question, are contained in the 
formulae beginning *Wilt thou', etc. (see above). — Kate's words, at 
the end of the Taming of the Shrew (Act V, ii, 135 seq.), which are 
calculated to impress on ''headstrong women What duty they do owe 
'^their lords and husbands" (v. 130), are thoroughly in keeping with 
the duties of wives towards their husbands, as declared in the Mar- 
riage Service. 

THE BÜRIÄL OF THE DEAD. 

Burying of the dead takes place twice in Shakespeare's plays (Cymb., 
IV, II, and Hamlet, V, i). But there are no rites performed specially 
characteristic of the English Burial Service. Ophelia's remains are 
denied Christian burial. ^The rubric before the Burial Office forbids 
^it to be used for persons who have laid violent hands upon them- 
'selves'. But Ophelia has not committed suicide according to Act IV, vii. 

The Queen, scattering flowers on the corpse, (Hamlet, V,i,266) says: 
Sweeis to the sweet: farewelll 

after the manner of the Priests who, while the earth shall be cast 
upon the Body by some Standing by, say: 

^ Tomson^s Version is, as I expected, identicat with the translation givea 
by the Geneva Bible. Tomson's marginal note to 'coupled^ Matth. XIX, 6, offers 
a point of interest in illustration of 3. Henry YI., Act IV, i, 23, quoted above: 
'Hath made thero yoke-fellowes, as the marriage it seif is by a borowed kinde 
'of Speech calied a yohe.^ 



The Book of Common Prayer, . The Psalms. 211 

. . . , we therefore commit bis body to the ground, eartb to earth, 
ashes to ashes, dost to dast «... 

THE PSALMS. 

In the English Church the Psalms are read or chanted daily in 
the Version retained from the Great Bible of 1539. This Version, 
which is imbedded in the Book of Common Prayer and which has 
remained practically unaltered throngh all the centnries, differs, as is 
well known, from all the translations of the Psalter made since that 
data. To Shakespeare, English charchman as he was (perhaps he had 
belonged to the choir of Trinity Church at Stratford, when a boy), 
the Psalms would be most famiuab in the Pbatbb Book vebsion. 
This will be apparent from a comparison with the translations of the 
Geneva Bible and the Bishops' Bible. Striking instances I have 
' occasionally noted. (See below (2), (5), (6), (8;, (9), (10), (12), (20).) 
How thoroughly Shakespeare was converaant with the Book of 
Psalms will be made evident by the foUowing parallelisms. The 
passages from the Psalms I quote from The Booke of Common 
prayer' of the year 1586. 

(1) Ps, VIT, iö: Beholde, hee travaileth with mischiefe. 

V. 17: For bis travelP sball come upon bis owne head: and bis 
wickednes sball fall on bis owne pate. — 
Cf. Ps. CXL, 9: Let the mischiefe of tbeir owne lips fall upon the 

head of them: that compasse me about. 
Compare: 

^'0 God, what mischiefs werk the wicked ones, 
'^Heaping confusion on their own heads thereby!'' 

(2. Henry VI., Act 11, i, 186-7.) 

(2) Ps. XXII, I2y 13: Many oxen are come abont me; fat hulles of Basan 

close me in on every side. Tbey gape upon me with their 
moathes: as it were a ramping and roaring Lion. 
Cf. Ps. L XVIII, 15: As the hill of Basan, so is Gods hill: even an 

high hill, as the hill of Basan. 

Compare: 

"0, that I were 

'^üpon the hill of Basan, to outroar 

'^The homed herd! for I have savage cause." 

(Ant. and Cleop., IIF, xnr, 125.) 

The Geneva [and the Anthorized] Version have Bas/ian instead 
of Basan. The Bishops' Version prefers Basan. 

' 'mischiefe', Geneva Bible, 1578. 

14* 



212 Chapter 6, 77.« BibU and the Praytr Book. 

(3) P«. XXIV ^ 7^9: Lift up your heads, ye gates, and be ye lift ap 

ye everlasting doores: and the king of glory shali come in. 

Compare: 

^Then, heaven, set ope thy everlasting gates, 
""To entertain my vows of thanks and praise!" 

(2. Henry VI., Act IV, ix, 13.) 

In the metincal verston of this Psalm we read: 

Ye Princes open your gates, stand open the everlasting gate: 
For thcre shall entcr in thereby, the king of glorious state. 

(4) Ps. XX Vy 6: Oh remember not the sinnes and offences of my youth. 

(See also Job, XX, 11.) 
Compare: 

"if the sins of your youth are forgiven you, you're 
"well to live". 

(Wint. Tale, III, ra, 124.) 

(5) Ps, XXX/X^ 6: Beholde, thou hast made my daies as it were * 

spanne long. 

Compare: 

"A life's but a span" {Fol: "Oh, mans lifeV, etc.) 

(Othello, II, III, 74.) 
"how brief the life of man 
"Runs his erring pilgrimage, 
"That the stretching of a span 
"Buckles in his sum of age." 

(As Y. L. It, Act III, II, 137.) 

"Timon is dead, who hath outstretchM his span.'^ 

(Tim. V, III, 3.) 

Cp. "My life is spann'd already." 

(Henry \U1,, Act I, i, 223.) 
The Geneva Bible has: 

Beholde, thou hast made my daies as an hand breadth 

The same is the rendering of the Authorised Version; and the 
Bishops', too, has: 

". . . . as an hande breadth long." 

(6) Ps. XLIVy 15: Thou makest ns to be a byworde among the Heathen. 

Compare: 

"whose cowardice 
"Hath made us by-words to our encmies." 

(3. Henry VI., Act I,i,4I.) 

Geneva Version: 

Thou makest us a proverb among the natlo[n]s. 



The Psalms. 213 

Instead of 'by-word' in otber passages of the Authorised Version 
the Geneva Bible invariably has: 'a common talke' or simply 'talke', 
excepting Job, XVII, 6: "He hath also made me a byword of y people." 
But Shakespeare conld have scarcely had this verse in bis mind. Nor 
can Shakespeare be sapposed to have had in view Job, i6., or Jeremiah, 
XXIV, 9, in the versions of the Bishops' and the Great Bibles. 

(7) Ps. L Vllly 4, J: They aro as venemous as the poyson of a serpent: 

even like the deafe adder tbat stoppeth her eares. Which 
refnseth to heare the voyce of the cbarmer: charme he 
never so wisely. 

Compare: 

"What! art thou, like the adder, waxen deaf? 

*'Be poisonous too and kill thy forlorn queen.^' 

(2. Uenry VI., Act III, ii, 76.) 

"for pleasure aud revenge 

*'IIave ears more deaf than adders to the voice 

"Of any true decision." 

(Troil. <fe Cress., II, ii, 171.) 

"my adder's sense 

"To critic and to flatterer stopped are." 

(Sonn., 112, 10.) 

(8) Ps, L VIII, 6: let them fall away like water. 

Compare: 

[they] "fall away Like water." 

(Henry VIIL, II, II, 129.) 
The Geneva Bible has: 

Let them melt like waters. 

The Authorised: 

Let them melt away as waters. 

The Bishops': 

Let them be dissolved as into water. 

(9) Ps, LXVIII, ö: He is a father of the fatherlesse, and defendeth the 

cause of the widowes: even God in bis holy habitation. 
Cf. Ps. CXLVI^ 9: he defendeth the fatherlesse and widowe. 

Compare: 

"To God, the widow's champion and de/ence,^^ 

(Rieh. IL, Act I, II, 43.) 

The Geneva version gives for Ps. LXVIII, 5: 
He is a Father of the fatherlesse, and a ludge of the widowes . . ., 

and for Ps. CXLVI, 9: 

he relieveth the fatherlesse & widowe. — 



214 Chapter 6. The Bible and ihe Prayer Book. 

The Authorised Version gives the same renderings. The Bishops^ 
Version, ioo, is almost exactly the same as ihe Genevan Version. 

(10) Ps. LXXX, 13. Of the vine brought out of Egypt the Psalmist 

says: 

The wilde Bore out of the wood doeth roote it up. 

Compare: 

**so soon we shall drive back 

'^Of AIcibiades the approaches wild, 

"Who, like a boar too savage, doth root up 

"Ilis country's peace." 

(Timon, V, I, 166.) 

The Geneva Version is: 

The wilde bore oat of the wood hath destroyed it. — 
The Authorised Version: 

The boar out of the wood doth waste it. 

The Bishops': 

^'-rooteth it up." 

(11) In 2. Henry IV., Act III, ii, 41, Shallow says: 

'^death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain to all; all sball die.'^ 

The Psalmist nowhere uses these words, though the certainty of 
death is frequently alluded to. If Shakespeare had any one passage 
in view it was probably this: 

Ps, LXXXIXy 47: What man is hee thatliveth, and shall not see death: 

and shall he deliver his soule from the band of hell? 

Compare, too, Hamlet, I, ii, 72: 

"All that lives" must die." 

(12) Ps. XC^ 9: we bringe our yeeres to an ende, as it werc a tale that 

is tolde. 

Compare Macbeth, V, v, 26, where the poet says: 

Life "is a tale 
"Told by an idiot." 

and King John, III, iv, 108: 

"Life is as tedious as a twice-told tale," 

Compare Romeo & Juliet: V, in, 230: 

"I will be brief, for my short date of breath 
"Is not so long as is a tedious tale." 
Geneva Bible: 

we have spent our yeres a8 a thoughu 

Bishops' Bible: 

we spende our yeeres aa (in speaking) a woorde. 



The Psalms, 215 

Authorised Bible: 

we spend our years as a tale that is told. 

(13) Ps. XCII, 11: The righteoas sball florish like a Palme tree: & shall 
spread abroad like a Gedar in Libanus. Cjp., too, Ps, LXXX, 10, 11, 

Compare: 

^'he shall ßourish^ 
^'And, like a mountain ctdar^ reach hit branehes 
'*To all the plaius about him." 

(Henry VllL, V, v, 53.) 
^4ove between them like the palm might flourM"* 

(Hamlet, V, u, 40.) 

"you sball see him a palm in Athens again, and 
''flourish with the highest.'' 

(Timon, V, i, 12.) 

(U) Ps. cm, 15, Iß: The dayes of man are but as grasse: for he florisheth 

as a flowre of the field. For as soone as the winde goeth 

over it, it is gone: and the place thereof shall knowe it 

no more. 

Cf. Job XIV, 1, 2; Is. XL, 6; 1. Pet. I, 24. 

Compare: 

"How that a life was but a flower 
"In spring time." 

(As You Like It, V, m, 29.) 

(15) Ps. CIV, 13: That hee may bring foode out of the earth, and wine 

that maketh glad the heart of man: and oyle to make 
him a chereJuU conntenance, and bread to strength mans 
heart. 

Compare: 

"Her üine, the merry eheerer of the heart," 

(Henry V., Act V, ii, 41.) 

(16) In King Henry V., Act IV, viu, 110, the English king says: 

"0 God, % arm was here; 

"And not to us, but to thy arm ahne, 

"Ascribe we all!'* etc. — 

V. 128. he continues: 

"Let there be sung ^Non nobia' and 'Te Deum'." 

Two Psalmes were here before Shakespeare's mind: — 

Ps. XLIV, 3, 4: For they gate not the land in possession throngh their 

owne sword: neither was it their owne arme that helped 
them. Bat thy right band, and thine arme, and the 
light of thy coa[n]tenance. 

(Comp, Ps. XC VIII, 2.) 



216 Chapter 6, The Bihle and Ute Präger Book, 

Ps. CXV: Non nohia Domine, 

Not unto US, Lord, not unto us, but unto tby namc glve the praise. 

The idea of 'Noa nobis' was caught from Ilolinshed, who says: 

"the king . . . gave thanks to almightie God for so happie a victorie; 
"causing bis prelats and chapleins to sing tbis psalme: "In exitü Israel de 
"Äegypto"; and commanded everie man to kneel downe on the ground 
"at tbis verse: "Non nobis, Domine, non nobis sed nomini tuo da gloriam." 
"Wbich doone, he caused Te Denm, with certcino anthems to be soong; 
"giving laud and praise to God, without boasting of bis owne force or 
"anie humane power." 

(Boswell-Stone, Sbakspere's Ilolinshed, p. 197.) 

(17) Ps, CXVIIT, 9: It is better to tiust in the Lord: then to put any 

confidence in princes. 

Cf. Ps, CXLVI, 2: put not yonr trust in princes, nor in any childe 

of man: for there is uo helpe in them. 

Compare: 

"0, how wretched 

"Is that poor man that hangs on princes' favours!" etc. 

(Henry VIII., Act III, ii, 366.) 

(18) Ps. CXIXy iOö: Thy werde is a lanterne unto my feete: and a light 

unto my paths. 

Compare: 

"God shall be my hope, 

"My stay, my guide and lantern to my feet." 

(2. Henry VI., Act II, ni, 24.) 

(li)) Ps, CXXXII, 2, 4, 5\ [David] sware unto the Lorde: and vowed a 

vowe unto the Almightie God of Jacob. I iciU not sufffT 
mine eyes io sleepe, nor mine eye liddes to slumber: neither 
the tcmples of mine head to take any rest. Untill I finde 
out a place for the temple of the Lorde: an habitation 
for the mightie God of Jacob. 

Compare: 

"Victorious Prince of York, 
^^Before I see theo seated in that throne 
"Which now the hoiise of Lancaster usurps, 
"I vow hy keaven these eyes shall netter cfo«e." 

(3. Henry VI., Act I, i, 21.) 

(20) Ps, CXXXVJII, 5: li l forget thee, Hierusalem: let my righthand 

forget her cunning. 

Compare: 

"We therefore havc great cause of thankfulnessj 
"And shall forgfct the office of cur band, 



Th€ PMlms. Metrkal Psalms. 217 

^'Sooner than quittance of desert and merit 
"According to the weight and worthiness." 

(Uenry V., Ad II, ii, 32.) 

Geiieva Bible: 

. . . let my ryght band forget to play, 

Tho Bishops' and the Authorised Versions aro identical with the 
Prayer liook Version. 

(21) Ps. CXLIV^ 4: Man is like a thing of nought. 
Compare Hamlet, IV, ii (end): 

Harn. ... the king is a thing — 
Guild. ' *A thing', my lord? 
Ifam, Of nothing; etc.^ 

{"22) In conclusion, I draw attention to the following passage: 

Ps. IVy 8: Thou hast put gladnesse in my heart: since the time that tbeir 
corue and wine and oyle increased. 

The phrase *corn, wine, oil' (with the words in this order) occurs 
frequently in the Old Testament. Cp. Deut., VII, 13; XII, 17; etc.; 
2. Chron., XXXI, 5; Neh., V, 11; etc. 

Compare: 

"No use of raetal, com, or wine, or oi7." 

(Tempest, II, i, 153.) 

Montaigne^ who is Shakespeare's source for the passage, 
where this verse occurs, has only: 

'nul metal; nul usage de vin ou de bled,^ 
Florio's Translation (used by Shakespeare) gives: 

'no use of wine, come, or mettle.'' 

METRICAL PSALMS. 

Notwithstanding the example of Germany with its magnificent 
hymns no congregational hymnody worthy of the name arose in England 
tili Wesley's times. The hymns of the Elizabethan Church could be 
counted on one's fingers' ends. Te Deum', the most famous non-biblical 
hymn of the Western Church (still forming part of the Morning Service 
of the Anglican Church, '\Ve praise theo, God'), 'Veni Creator', and 
one or two more, were all the hymns the English Church could boast 

») But cf. Kyd's Spanish Tragedy, III, ii, 72 f. 

2 Compare tho following passage in Nash's 'Christ's Tears over Jenisalem', 

1593, (Huth Libr., p. 100): "there were Store-houses, lilled up to the toppe 

"with victual, Com, Wine and Ot/le, sufficient to maintain^^ etc. Both Shakespeare 
and Nash knew their Bible. 



218 



Chapter 6. The Bible and ihe Präger Book» 



of. — 'Te Deum' is mentioned twice by Shakespeare: Henry V. (Act IV, 
viii, 128); and Henry VHI. (Act IV, i, 92). In both cases he foUows 
his source, Holinshed. — In place of hymns proper the Elizabethan 
Church sung metrical versions of Psalms, for which the Reformed 
Church of France and Switzerland gave the example. A coUection of 
such versitied Psalms set to music (which is said to be Germaa) I 
find attached to the Prayer-Book before me (1586) and to the Geneva- 
Tomson-Bible (1599), where the title runs thus: 

The Booke of Psalmes: coUected into English Meeter, by Thomas 
^Sternhold, lohn Hopkins, and others: conferred with the Hebrew; with apt 
^Notes to sing them witball. Set forth and aliowed to be sang in all 
^Ghu rohes, of the people together, beforo and after Moming and Eveniog 
'Prayer: As also before and after Sermon; and moreover in private hoiises, 
^for their godly solaco and comfort, laying apart all ungodly Songs and 
'Ballads, which tend onely to the nourishment of vice, and corrupting of 
'youth.' 

The first words of the 137 th Psalm versified by W[illiam] 
W[hittingham] are sung by Sir Hugh Evans, the Welsh parson: 

"When as I sat in Pabylon" 
(The Merry Wives, III, i, 24), the air of which is this:— 




gzrrizn 



t 



=^ ^-t-al- 



When as we säte 



in 



t=J: 



?izzrjö=:t 



Ba - by - Ion the 



m 



rivere round 



^^^^^^^^^^ 



m 



t 



3=t 



a 



bout: 



And in re - membrance of Si - on, the teares for 



i 



i 



/BN 



g z^ j^iJ-^ g^ 



z£:z=itö 



t 



SL 



griefe burst out, We hang'd our harpes and in - stru - ments the 



m 



/f\ 



t 



t 



t 



■gi — t— g — gl 



^^^^^s 



wil - low trees u - pon : For in that place men for their usc 



i^^si 



/9\ 



~m^ 



•^ — ^ 



had plant - cd ma - ny 



one. 



Melrieal Psalms, Qraces. 219 

The music is from Sternhold and Ilopkins's versifiod Psalms, 
1586, but with modernised notation which I owo to the kindness of 
Herr Kawerau, the Organist of the Berlin Dom. 

In the Merry Wives (Act II, i, 63) Mrs. Ford says, that FalstalTs 
disposition and his words 

de no more adhere and keep place together than the Hundredth Psalm 
to the tune of 'Green SIeeves'. 
Every child knows the famous Old Hündbedth, which Shakespeare 
must have had in mind and which begins thus: 



m 



iE 



±=t 




j: 



t=^ 



etc. 



All people that on earth doe dwell 



For the Gene van Psalmody the puritans would natural ly have a 
predilection, hence a 'paritan' 'sings psalms to hornpipes' in the 
Winter's tale (IV, in, 47). The weavers are referred to by Falstaff 
as psalmsingers, 1. Henry IV. (Act H, iv, 146). Falstaff, by the way, 
pretends to have lost his voice with 'singing of anthern^^ 2. Henry IV., 
(Act I, II, 213). Remember, that St. PauPs possessed 'a very fine 
'organ, which at evening prayer, accompanied with other Instruments, 
'is delightfuP, as Paul Hentzner says, who visited London, while 
Shakespeare was there. (Ordish, ShakespeaiVs London, p. 11.) 



In conclusion, I add a brief note on 

GRACES. 

Of Elizabethan 'gcaces' before and after meat both in prose and 
in verse specimens may be seen in the Publications of the Parker 
Society (see index, s. v. grace). 

Gratiarum actiones a cibo [=post cibum] semper concludantar hac preca- 

tiuncula: "Dens servet ecciesiam regem vel reginam castodiat et 

^'pacem nobis donet perpetoam. Amen.'' 

So we read in the Preces Privatae, 1564, p. 402.* 

Compare the Primer', 1559: 'Grace after supper', which concludes 
thus: 

God save cur Queen and Realm, and send us peace in Christ. Amen. 



* Parker Society: Private Prayers of the ilei^ of Queen Elizabeth. 
2 ibid., p. 18. 



220 Cliapter 6. The Bible and the Praytr Book. 

Some such petition probably formcd the conclusion of every grace 
after meals, though this Is not expressly stated in cach case. In 
'The ABC With the Catechism: That is to say, An Instmetion to 
'be Learned of every Person before he be brought to be ConOrmed 
'by the Bishop,' London, 1680', wo find the following prayer added 
to the graces before and after meat: 

God save his Churcb, our Kiug, Queen, and Realm, 
And send us peace in Christ our Lord. Amen. 

A grace in prose is Said by Timon (Act III, vi, 79 — 94), in 
verse by Apemantus (ibid, I, ii, 63—72). 

In 'Measure for Measure' (Act I, ii, 14 seq.) occurs the following 
passage: 

First Gent. . . . There's not a soldier of us all, that, in the titanksgicing 

before^ meaty do relish the j)etition well that prays Jor lyeace. 

See. Gent. I never heard any soldier dislike it 

Lucio. I believe thee; for I think thou never wast xchere grace was said. 

See. Gent. No? a dozen times at least. 

First Gent. What, in metre? 

Lucio, In any proportion or in any language. 

First Gent. I think, or in any religion. 

Lucio. Ay, why not? Grace is grace, despite of all controversy: as, for 

example, tbou thyself art a wicked villain, despite of all grace. 

Other references to the custom of ofifering grace at table will be 
found in: 1. Henry IV., Act I, u. 19—23; Tarn, of Shrew, IV, i, 162; 
Coriolanus, IV, vii, 3—4; Merchant of Ven., II, n, 202. 



' I could find no copies, of the ABO with the Catechism, issued by the 
Anglican Church, between 1549 and 1680 (cp. above, p. 48). 
* Comp. Camb. (2nd ed.) Edition of Sh., vol. 1, p. 434. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 6. 

I venture to add here a few bible reminiscences, to which, so far as I 
am aware, attention has not yet been drawn: 

i) Caliban : "TU yield bim theo asleep^ 

"Where thou mayst knock a nail into his head^ 

(Temp., IIT, ii, C8.) 

This has always reminded mc of the borrible assassination of Sisera 
by Jael. See Judges, IV, 21. 

Deborah, another heroine of this cbapter, is menüoned in 1. Henry 
VI., Act I, II, 105. 

ii) The prophetic words uttered by Arcbbishop Cranmer regarding tho 
royal infant, Elizabeth, (Henry VIII., Act V, sc. 5) call up to my mind 
Simeon's prophecies of Christ, see Luke, II. 

iii) ''^Elb. Marry, sir, by my wife; who, if she had been a woman 
"cardinalJy given, might have been accused in fomication, aduUerijy 
'•^and all uncleanlinesa there." (Meas. f. M., II, i, 80.) 

Comp. Galat. V, 19. 

iv) "Withhold thine Indignation, mighty heaven, 
"And iempt us not to bear above our power T^ 

(King John, V, vi, 37.) 
Comp. 1. Corinth., X, 13. 

v) "Thou god of this great vast, rebüke these mrges,^^ 

(Pericles, III, i, 1.) 
Comp. Matth., VIII, 26; Mark, iv, 39; Luke, VIII, 24. 
Other allusions like 

«thou scarlet sin" (Henry VlIL, III, ii, 255); 

^*If then the trec may be known by the fruit, as the fruit by the 

tree" (1. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 470)— 

etc., etc., are easily recognized by everybody. 



CHAPTER 7. 
SHAKESPEARE'S BARTH AND HEAVEN. 

SECTION 1 — NEW AND STRANGE 

LANDS AND BOOKS AND TALES ABOUT THEM, AS 

REFLECTED IN SHAKESPEARE'S DRAMAS. 

Whilo considering Shakespeare's relations to the contemporary 
OcEANic LiTERATüRE and BooKS OF TRAVEL, I feit that the subject-matter 
demanded a less superficial treatment than a mere enumeration of bis 
probable and possible sources. The present section thus took shape, 
while the remaining portion of the chapter suggested itself as a natural 
complement, though I am conscious that some of the matter goes rather 
beyond the limits of my theme. 

I desire first to take notice of Shakespeare's references and 
allusions to the new discovered lands, which attracted so vast an 
amount of attention in Elizabeth's reign, famous for its maritime ex- 
ploits and enterprizes, which led to the founding of Britain's great 
colonial Empire and her ruie of the waves. For our present purpose 
it is sufficient to make mere mention of the names of Drake, Ca- 
vendish, Frobisher, Davis, and Ralegh, not to forget the Earl of 
Southampton, the poet's patron, who took an active share in the work 
of colonization. 

This age of maritime discovery and enterprize found an able chro- 
nicler and geographer in Richard Hakluyt, whose great work, "The 
Principal] Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation", 
appeared in 1589, and, edited anew, in 1598 — 1600. This compilation 
contains a great variety of accounts of naval feats and explorations 



Magellan*8 Gireumnavigatlon of the Earth, 223 

of Eoglishmen, exclosive for the most pari of the deeds of other 
nations. So that it forms a fit complement to the ^vo^ks of Peter 
MartjT, Oviedo, Gomara, Ramusio, etc., extracts from whose volumes 
had beeo given in an English dress by Richard Eden. * 

From the lips of travellers and other inen, from works like those 
of Haklayt, Eden, etc., from tracts and pamphlets, Shakespeare could 
derive all necessary Information relative to the discoveries and the 
new lands. 

MAGELLAN'S CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE EARTH. 

In 'The Tempest' (I, ii, 372) Caliban says of Prospero: 

his art is of such power, 
It woald control my dam's god, Seiebos. 

In Act Y, i, 261, we find the name Setebos mentionod again. 

It was Farmer, who first suggested that Shakespeare had got this 
name from The Bistory of Travayle in the West and East Indies^ 
etc.y 1577, by Richabd Eden, the pioneer of British Oceanic Litera- 
tare and foreranner of the more famons Hakluyt. This work is merely 
a new and enlarged edition of Eden's Decadea of the newe worlde 
CT west India, 1555, which 'made to the English public the first really 
'collective presentation of the results of the maritime enterprize of 
'that time'. This compilation has been re-edited by Edward Arber 
in his Yolnme 'The first Three English books ou America" (1885), 
from which I qnote the following passages: 

Departynge frome hense, they sayled to the. 49. degree and a hälfe 
nnder the pole Antartyke: where beinge wyntered, they were inforced to 
remayne there for the space of two monethes, all which tyme they sawe 
no man except that one daye by cbaunce they cspyed a man of the stature 
of a giante, who came to the haven daunsyng and syngynge, and shortly 
after seemed to east dust over his heade. The capitayne [i. e. Magbllan] 
sente one of his men to the shore with the shyppe boate, who made the 
lyke signe of peace. The which thynge the giante seinge, was owt of 
feare and came with the capitaynes servaunte to his presence into a lyttle 
Ilande. When he sawe the capitayne with certeyne of his coompany 
abowte hym, he was greaily amased and made signes holdynge uppe his 
hande to heaven, signifyinge therby that owre men came from thenso' . . 
This giante was so bygge, that the heade of one of owr men of a meane 
statore, came but to his waste. Ile was of good corporature and well made 

' The Decades of the Newe Worlde. 

' cf. Tempest, If, ii, 140, Cal: "Hast thou not dropp'd from heaven?" 



224 Chapter 7. Shaktspeart^s Earth and Heaven, 

in all the partes of bis bodie, with a large vysage paynted, with dyvers 
coloures, but for the most parte yelowe. Uppou bis cbeekes were paynted 
two .bartes, and redde circles abowt bis eyes. The heare of bis headde 
was coloured whyte, and bis apparell was the skyone of a beaste sowde 
togyther. 

[Later on] there came foure other giantes, witboat any weapons, bat 
bad bydde theyr bowes and arrowes in certeyne busshes. The capitayne 
reteyned two of these which were youngest and beste made. He locke 
them by a deceyte in this maner, that gyvynge them knyves, sheares, 
lookynge glasses, helles, beades of crystall, and such other tryfels, he so 
fylled theyr handes that they coulde hold no more. Then caased two 
payre of shackels of iren to bee put on theyr legges, makynge signes that 
he wold also gyve them those chaynes: which they lyked very wel by 
cause they were made of bryght and shynynge metal. And wheras they 
could not cary them bycause theyr handes were füll, the other gyantes 
wolde have caryed them: but the Capitayne wolde not suflfer them. When 
they feite the sbakels faste abowte theyr legges, they begunne to doubtc: 
but the Capitayne dyd put them in comforte and badde them stände stylL 
In fine when they sawe how they were deceaved they rored lyke balies 
and cryed uppon theyr greate devyll Setehos to helpe them . . . 

They say that when any of them dye, there appere. X. or XII. de- 
vyls leapyngc and daansynge abont the bodye of the deade, and seeme 
to have theyr boddycs paynted with dyvers colours. And that amonge 
other, there is one seene bygger then the residue, who maketh great mirth 
and reioysynge. This greate devyll they caule Setebos^ and caule the 
lesse Cheleule, One of these giantes which they toke, declared by signes 
that he bad seene devyls with two hornes above theyr heades, with longe 
heare downe to theyr feete: And that they cast furth fyre at theyr throtes 
both before and behynde. The Capitayne named these people Patagoni. 

One of the giants remained some months with Magellan. 

On a tyme, as one made a Crosse before bim and kyssed it, shewynge 
it unto hym, he suddeynely cryed Setehos^ and declared by signes that if 
they made any more crosses, Seiebos wold enter into bis body and make 
bim brüst. 

(Arber, ut sup,, p. 251—2.) 

The Patagonian giants may thas be looked upon as the remote 
ancestors of our Caliban. Malone suggested that Shakespeare took 
the names of Alonso, Ferdinand, Sebastian, Antonio, Gonz<alo, and 
Francisco from Eden. This is probable, though these and other names 
of the dramatis personae in tho Tempest would be fiiirly common in 
countries like Italy and Spain. 



Magellan*s Circumnavigation of the Earth. 225 

The passages quoted above are taken from a chapter entitled: 
*A Briefe Declaration of the Vyage or Navigation made abowte the 
Worlde. Gathered owt of a large Booke wrytten hereof by Master 
Antonie Pygafetta Vincentine, Knyght of the Rhodes and one of the 
coompanye of that vyage in the which, Ferdinando Magalianes a 
Portugale (whom sum caule Magellanus) was generali Capitayne of 
the navie'. Shakespeare's knowledge of the story of the flrst circum- 
navigation of our globe by Fernäo de Magalhäes (Magellan), undoubt- 
edly the greatest of ancient and modern navigators, thus seems to 
be proven. 

In 'As You Like It', III, ii, 207, Rosalynd is made to say: — 
One inch of delay more, is a South-sea of discovery — 

which means: The least delay is to nie as tediously long, as the wide 
Pacific to the discoverer. Possibly Shakespeare had in view Magellan's 
voyage of discovery across this vast expanse of water, who was the 
first that ever bnrst into that silent sea. 

What the Patagonian word Setebos (which Pigafetta may have 
possibly misinterpreted) means, I have not been able to make out 
Perhaps some American linguist may help us here. * Meanwhile it 
is curious to note that Setebos (or Setibos) is the name of an ab- 
original Indian tribe on the heights of Peru.* Whether this coinci- 
dence is a matter of pure accident or not, I cannot teil. 

In conclusion, I add a short bibliographical note. Eden's ' Narra- 
tive of Magellan's voyage is based upon the account to be found in 
Ramusio's "Navigationi et Viaggi" (vol. 1. 1550). This Italian account 
had already appeared in print in 1536 in a quarto volume entitled 
'*I1 viaggio fatto da gli Spagnivoli atorno a'l mondo", the second part 
of which gives a mere translation of Jacques Fabre's abridged French 
Version, "Le Voyage et Navigation, faict par les Espaignolz es Isles 
de Mollucques", etc. (Paris, circa 1525), which is based upon an 
Italian MS. account by Pigafetta. A complete or an original Italian 
edition of Pigafetta was never published tili 1800. Pigafetta's füll 

^ See poat^ Addenda and Corrigenda. (A list of old Patagonian words 
prescrved by Pigafetta is to be found in the 52 nd vol. published by the Hakluyt 
Soc, p. 62.) 

> cf. La Grande Encyclopedie, XXVI, p. 440; Eucycl. Brit., XVIII, p. 677. 

' As to Eden's Life and Labours, see Arber, ut sup., p. XXXVII fF. The 
articie io the Dict. of N. Biogr. is inaccurate. 

Anders, Shakespeare*« books. 15 



226 Chapter 7. Shaktsptart* s Barth and Heaven. 

account has been printed in English in the 52 nd vol. pubüshed by Übe 
Hakluyt Society (1874).» 

The Setebos-myth, I may add, I have not- met with in any other 
historical or cosmographical work' (which makes mention of Ma- 
gellan's voyage) anterior to the appeai*ance of the Tempest, excepting 
only in Fran^ois de Belleforest's edition of Münster's Cosmography 
(Tome II, p. 2041,— Paris, 1575), Pigafetta being Belleforest's authority.' 

Arber, in "Transcr. of the Stat. Reg.", vol. V, p. 117 (no. 2667), 
notes ''an account of Fernando de Magalhaens' Voyage round the 
World, 1519—1522", London, 1580. This book I have not been able 
to meet with. 

CANNIBALS. 

South America was long the land of marvels and monsters, the 
land of lies, to use a modern coinage. Not only did the Empire of 
the Incas and the horrible feasts of the Cannibals excite the Imagi- 
nation and fancy of the European mind, but the wildest reports regard- 
ing giants of a prodigious height, of headless men, of Amazons, of 
devils visibly tormenting the natives, and last but not least, of £1 Dorado, 
the golden city, were spread, and as easily swallowed. Traces of 
these fahles and legends found their way even into some maps of the 
time, in the shape of miniature drawings and brief notes. 

In the mind of a sixteenth Century man the word Cannibal would 
be first and principally associated with South America, whence it was 

* The Yolume contains six contemporary accounts of Hagellan's Toyagfe, 
Peter Martyr's contemporary version (Decade V, cap. 7) having been omitted^ 
which seems also to have escaped the notice of Winsor (Hist. of America) and 
Harrisse (Bibl. Am. Vetust). 

' In Order not to overburden this essay unnecessarily with notes more or 
less foreign to the subject, I must refrain from quoting the titles of the many 
works I examined with regard to this point. 

' Malone (V'ar. Ed., XV, p. 58) says that ''Setebos is also mentioned in Hak- 
'*luyt's Voyages, 1598". This statement is incorrect. Perhaps Malone had in 
mind Purchas His Pilgrims (1625, Second Booke, p. 35) which he may have con- 
fused with Hakluyt^s Collection at the moment of writing the note. — I may 
here also correct another error, to be found in the Encycl. Brit., XVIII, p. 353, 
where it is asserted that Setiaboth is the original form of the word in Pigafetta. 
By what the writer allowed himself to be misled, it is difficult to say. Perhaps 
he was thinking of a passage in Fietcher's MS.account of Drake^s Voyage 
(printed in Hakl. Soc, no. 16, p. 48), where we find the above spelling of the word. 



CannibaU. 227 

derived. Other parts of the world might produce man-eaters, but 
none could beat this quarter of the world for its anthropophagi. 
In Othello (I. iii, 143), e. g., Shakespeare speaks of 

the Cannibah that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi,^ 

Compare Coriolanus, IV, v, 200; 

An he had been cannihalhj given, he 
might have broiied and eaten him too. 

(For other instances, see Bartlett's Concordance.) 

The Word Calil>an ("a savage and deformed Slave", Dram. Pers.) 
is apparently a variant of Cannibal. Caliban Is tormented by spirits, 
even as the Brazilian barbarians were said to be "wofully even in 
"this lifo tormented by the Devill", as De Lery writes, who continues: 
"For, I have sometiines seene them, even while they were talking 
"with US, immediately crying out like frantike men. Hei, hei, helpe 
"us, for Aygnan [the Devil] beateth us. Nay, they affirmed, that the 
*'wicked spirit was seene of them sometimes in the shape of a cruell 
^'Beast, sometimes of a Bird, and sometimes also in some monstrous 
"forme".' (Some editions of De Lery's work contain a pictorial re- 
presentation of the Devil in the act of maltreating the poor abori- 
gines.) Whether this coincidence is accidental, I know not. It is at 

1 The Ilse of both synonyms ^Cannibals' and * Anthropophagi' together is 
fairly frequent in the 16th Century writers. E. g., in Richard Eden's 'Treatyse 
of the newe India\ 1553, translated from M Unsterns Cosmographia^ we find a 
Paragraph: '*0f the people called Ganibales or Anthropophagi, which are acciistom- 
*^ed to eate mans fleshe" (Arber: The First Three English Books on America, 
p. 29). Compare, too, the New Engl. Dict., s v. Cannibal. 

• De Lery: "Histoire d'un voyage faict en la terre du'Bresil". 1 have given 
the above translation from '^Extracts out of the Historie of John Lerius a French- 
man who lived in Brasill with Mons. Villagagnon, Ann. 1557. and 58" contained 
in Purchas His Pilgrims (1625), IV, p. 1336. Thevet, in his "Singularites de la 
France Antarctique", translated into English by Hacket, 1568, has a similar 
passage: Hhese pore men .... are subicct to many fantastical illusions & perse- 
*cutions of wicked spirites .... these pore Americanes do oftentimes see a wicked 
^spirite, sometimes in one forme, & sometimes in an other, the which they name 
*in their language Äpnan, the which spirit persecuteth them day and night, not 
'onely their soule, but also their body, bcating them, and doing them much in- 
Hury, so that you shal hear them make a pitiful cry, saying in their language . . . 
^seest thou not Agnan yt beateth me . . . . Also the people of Qinney^ & of Canada 
'are likewise tormented . . . .' (The New found worlde, or Antarctike . . ., 1568, 
fol. 52.) Cp. Purchas His Pilgrims, vol. IV, 1267 and 1337. 

16* 



228 Chapter 7. Shakespeares Earth and Heaven, 

any rate worth mentioning that such reports were current in the 
sixteenth Century. , 

Shakespeare, in describing the ideal Commonwealth (The Tempest, 
II, I, 147 seq.) made use of a chapter in Montaignb's Essais (as 
stated above, s. v. Montaigne, p. 51), which is written ä la Tacitas 
in praise of the Cannibals of Brazil or France Antarctique, as the 
French were pleased to name the country. Montaigne's remarks relate 
to the native tribes located near Rio de Janeiro, where the French 
had attempted a settlement under Villegaignon in the year löoö. 

GUIANA AND THE ACEPHALI. 

Guiana with its dazzling phantom of El Dorado, we know, Inred 
more than one man to destruction. No less distinguished a man than 
Sir Walteb Kalegh, whom we honour not only as a great man of 
letters but as the father of American colonization and promoter of 
commerce and navigation, "the Shepherd of the Ocean", as Spenser 
picturesquely calls him, sacrificed his fortune and life to the disco- 
very of the rieh gold-mines of Guiana. It was in 1595 that he led 
his first expedition to this region, an expedition which was foliowed 
up by several more within a few years. Immediately on his retum, 
Ralegh published an account of his voyage: The Discoverie of the 
large, rieh and bewtiful ernpire of Guiana^ with a relatum of the 
Great and Golden City of Manoa (which the Spaniards call El Do- 
radoj .... Performed in the yeare 1595 . . . London^ 1596. There 
were two editions of this year, according to Arber: Transcr. of St. Reg., 
V, p. 185 no. 4232. This work, an elegant production, as Camden 
characterized it, attracted such attention that it was translated into 
the principal European languages. It was reprinted verbatim by 
Ilakluyt in his "Principal Navigations", etc., vol. III, pp. 627 etc. 
(1600). Ralegh's book was probably read by his contemporaries with 
as great avldity as we devoured Stanley's "In Darkest Africa". 
Lawrence Keymis, too, sent by Sir Walter Ralegh in 1596 to con- 
tinue his explorations in Guiana, wrote A Relation of the second voy- 
affe to Gruiana^ Lond, 1596^ which was likewise embodied in Hak- 
luyt's work, vol. III. 

To Guiana which roused so much interest and curiosity Shakespeare 
refers in "The Merry Wives of Windsor", Act I, sc. iii, 75, where 
FalstafiF says of Page's wife: 

she bears the purse too; she is a region in Guiana, all gold and bounty. 
I will be cheater to them both [i. e. Ford's and Pagets wives], and they 



Gutana and the Acephali. 229 

sball be excheqaers to me; they shall be mj East and West Indies, and 
I will trade to them both .... 

And V. 88: FahAaf [to Robin]:— 

Hold, sirrah, bear you these letters tightly; 
Sail like my pinnace io these golden shores. 

Ralegh^s book The Discovery of Guiana contains a marvellous ♦ 
report, which excited a great deal of curiosity in England as well as 
OD the Continent: the legend of Acephali in Guiana.' Ralegh, to 
quote bis own words, says: 

Next unto Arui tbere are two rivers Atoica and Caora, and on that 
branch which is calied Caora [a tributary of ttic Orinoco], are a nation 
of people, wfaose beads appeare not above their Shoulders; which thoueh 
it may be thonght a meere fable, yet for mine owne part 1 am resolved 
it is trae, beeaase every childe in the provinces ot Arromaia and Canuri 
affirme the same: they are calied Ewaipanoma: they are reported to have 
their eyes in their shoalders, and their mouthes in the middle of their 
breasts, and that a long traine of haire groweth back ward betweene their 
shoalders. 

(Hakl. Soc, 3, p. 85; Hakluyt's '^Voyages", 111,6'Ji?). Keymis repeated 
his fable in bis account of *the second voyage to Guiana' (see Hak- 
luyt's Princ. Nav.^ III, 677). It is extremely probable that Shake- 
speare alludes to these fabulous 'Ewaipanoma' in Othello, I, iii, 143: — 

And of the Cannibals that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi and men lohose heads 
Do grow beneaih their Shoulders — 

and in The Tempest, UI, ni, 43: 

When we wwe boys, 
Who would believe that there were mounlaineers 
Dew-lapp'd like buUs, whose throats had hanging at ^em 



' In Southern Venezuela of our times. As to the bounds and limits of 
Guiana, see Purchas's Pilgrimes, IV, 1270. 

Even as late as Ilumboldt's time these fabulous reports of headless men in 
South America were repeated in all seriousness (see Hakl. Soc, 5., Schomburgk's 
edition of Ralegh's Diso, of Guiana., p. 85). Accounts of Acephali had existed 
since the times of Ilerodotus and Pliny, and such a nation was written of by 
Manderille and Sigismundus ab Herberstein. (See Hakl. Soc, ut sup. p. 55, and 
cp. Arber: First Three English Books on America, p. 323, and Hakluyt's Voy- 
ages, ly 494.) 



230 Chapter 7. Shakespeares Earth and Heaven. 

Wallets of flesh?' or that there were such men 

Whose heads stood in their breastsJ Which kow we find 

Each putter-oui of five for one will bring us 

Good Warrant of. 

Each putter-out of five for one = each traveller, who, before 
setting out on a journey, invested his money at a rate of five for one. 

ENGLANDS FIRST COLONIES. 

Sir Walter Ralegh's colonial enterprizes having ended in failure, 
the efforts for the colonization of Virginia were renewed in King James's 
reign, who issued a charter in 1606, ander which England's first per- 
manent colony was established. To this settlement of Virginia 
Shakespeare probably refers in Henry VIII., Act V, sc. v, 51-53, where 
Cranmer is made to prophesy of James I: 

Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shinc, 
His hoDOur and the greatness of his name 
Sball be, and make new nations. 

The year 1609 proved memorable in the annals of Virginia. 
James having granted a new charter, a fleet of nine vessels set sail 
for the new colony at the dose of May with the hopes of all England 
on board. A violent storm, however, scattered the fleet and the 
admiral-ship, severed from the rest, was driven on the mach dreaded 
Bermuda' Islands, which, contrary to expectation, afforded a safe 
shelter to the shipwrecked persons. 

It is probable that Shakespeare had these adventares in his mind 
when writing his 'Tempest'. The mention of the stül-vex^d Bemioothes 
(Tempest, I, ii, 229) ought to be emphasized in this connexion. — Too 
mach, however, has perhaps been made of the coincidences. 

Shakespeare may have got Information aboat these events from 
contemporaiy tracts, of which the best known are (i) Silvester Jourdan's 

^ The goitre, foimd to exist in the Alps, in mountainous regions of South 
America, and elsewhere, is well known to be no traveller's tale. Respecting this 
disease the following passage to be found in Bacon's works (ed. Ellis and Sped- 
ding, vol. II, 472) is worth quoting: — "Snow-water is held unwbolesome; insomuch 
"as the people that dwell at the foot of the snow-mountains, or otherwise upon 
"the ascent, (especially wonien,) by drinking of snow-water, have great bags hang- 
*'*'ing under their throats^\ (Bacon's theory cannot bc discussed here.) 

' Ralegh, in his Discovery of Giüana, pr. 1596, says: "The rest of the 
"Indies for calmes, and diseases [are] very troublesome, and the Bermudas a 
"hellish sea for thimder, lightniug, and stormes." (Rakluyt Soc, 3, p. H^-) 
Compare also the note in the Clarendon Press ed. of The Tempest, p. 89. 



England Ji First Cohnies. Arctic Voyagea. 231 

^'"A discovery of Üie Barmudas^ otherwiae called ihe lle of DweW\ 
(ii) and ".4 tt^ue declaration .... pvhlished by . , . , the Councell of 
Virginia'^ both of which appeared in 1610. He must, of course, 
too, have been told the news, which created vast public excitement, 
by Word of mouth. ' 

It is not only to the Bermudas, however, that Shakespeare refers 
in The Tempest, bat the drama is replete with incidental allasions to 
ihe new lands and the topics brought up by colonies and colonisation. ' 

ARCTIC VOYAGES. 

About the middle of the sixteenth Century the English had 
attempted to discover a north-eastern passage to the East Indies, — an 
undertaking which ended in failure, but which led to an important 
trade with Russia in the White Sea. References to this country 
occur in several plays (Meais. f. Meas, Wint. Tale, Henry V., Macbeth) 
but especially in 'Love's Labour's Lost', which contains distinct allu- 
sions to a contemporary incident relating to Russian-English connexions. 
(Compare Mr. S. Lee's paper, "A New Study of Love's Labour's Lost", 
Gent. Mag., Oct., 1880.) 

The Dutch, the powerful rivals of the English in the trade with 
Russia in the White Sea since i578\ still persuaded that a north- 
east passage existed and only required to be discovered (which opinion 
was correct after all, as Nordenskiöld has proved), fitted out three 
expeditions in three successive years, the most memorable of which 
was the third (1596 — '97) in which Willem Barendsz was pilot. 
Barendsz and his companions were forced to spend a terrible winter 
in the frozen latitudes, the first arctic winter that was successfully 
faced by European navigators. To this voyage, it is natural to suppose 
with Mr. Coote*, Shakespeare refers in Twelfth Night, Act lU, sc. ii, 
27:- 

you are now sailed into the north of my lady's opinion; where you will 
hang like an icicle on a Dutchman^s beard. 

The antithetical idea being, of course, the equatorial region of the 
lady's opinion. With regard to Barendsz's voyage W. A. Wright says: 

^ For fuller information on all this, see Malone XV, 385; and my remarks 
in the Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, vol. 107, pp. 170 seq. 
» cf. Lloyd's "Essays", 1894. p. 2. 
' Hakl. Soc, 59, p.XCIII; New Sh. Sog. Trans., 1877— "79, p. 94. 



232 Ckapter 7. Shakespeare* s Earih and Heaven. 

. . . . 'A translation of Gerrit de Veer's account of this vojrage was 
'entered on the books of the Stationers' Company to John Wolfe on 
'the 13 th of June, 1598^ but the reprint of Phillip's translation for 
'the Hakluyt Society [No. 54J is taken from a copy of 1609, and 
'apparently an earlier edition is [not] known. Shakespeare, however, 
'may very well have heard of the voyage before 1602, the date of 
'Twelfth Night; (Clar. Press ed. of Twelfth Night, p. 138.) 

To Lapland there is a reference in Com. of Err. IV, in, 11, 

THE INDIES. 

In Order to know and remember what these words would mean 
to an Englishman living about 1600, it is desirable to recall to raind 
one or two prominent facts. First, it is necessary to bear in mind 
that the terms had then a wider meaning than they have to-day. 
Indies or 'India is now applied to all farre-distant countries, not in 
'the extreme limits of Asia alone, but even to w'hole America', so 
we read in Purchas 'his Pilgrimage' (London, 1613, p. 381). America 
was often called West Indies in contradistinction to the East Indies 
of Asia. Of both these Indies Spain was now no longer the unchal- 
lenged possessor. The Invincible Armada having found its Moscow 
in the British waters in 1588, the Indies weere looked upon by the 
Dutch and English as their proper spoil. Not only were the rieh 
treasure-ships from the Indies openly seized, but East India trading 
companies were formed both in England and in Holland. In 1591 
the iirst English voyage to the East Indies was undertAken, and on 
the 31 st of Deceraber, i6W, the charter of incorporation was granted 
by Queen Elizabeth to the 'governor and Company of the merchants 
'of London trading into the East Indies'. 

The Indies are frequently mentioned in Shakespeare's works. 
I cite the following examples: 

Com. of Err., III, ii, 136: 

Ani, S, Wbere America, the Indies? 

Dro, S. Oh, sir, upon her nose, all o'er embellished with rubies, car- 
buncles, sappbires, declining their rieh aspect to the bot brcath of 
Spain; who sent whole armadoes of caracks to be bailast at her nose. 

Compare Othello, I, ii, 50: 

Faith, he to-nitrht bath boarded a land carack: 
If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever. 



The Indita, Mexico, Aleppo, and the Tiger. 233 

Again, 
they shall be my East and West Indies. (See above, p. 229.) 

Again, 
from East to western Ind (As You Like It, 111, ii, 93.); 
savages and men of Ind. (Tempest, II, ii, 61.) 

The words Indies, India, Indian occur passtm. 

To the sun-worshippers either of East India or, as I think, more 
probably of the New World, we find references in Love's Labour's 
Lost, IV, III, 221: 

Wbo sees the heavenly Rosaline, 
That, like a rade and savage man of Inde, 
At the first opening of the gorgeous east, 
Bows not bis vassal head and strucken blind 
Kisses the base ground with obedient breast? — 

in "AU's Well", I, iii, 210: 

thus, Indian-like, 

Keligioas in mine error, I adore 

The sun, that looks upon bis worshipper, 

Bat knows of bim no more. — 

and in Love's Lab. Lost., V, ii, 202: 

Vouchsafe to show the snnshine of your face, 
That we, like savages, may worship it. 

MEXICO 

is mentioned in *The Merchant of Venice', I, iii, 19. 

ALEPPO, AND ''THE TIGER". 

Her hnsband's to Aleppo gone, master o' the Tiger. 

(Macbeth, I, in, 7.) 

... in Aleppo once, 

Where a malignant and a turban'd Turk 

Beat a Venetian and tradueed the state, 

I took by the throat the circumcised dog. 

And smote bim, thas. 

(Othello, V, II, 352.) 

Orsino, this is that Antonio 

That took the Phoenix and her fraught from Candy; 

And this is he that did the Tiger board, 

When your young nephew Titus lost bis leg. 

(Twelfth Night, V, i, 65.) 



234 Chapter 7. Shakespeare^s Barth and Heavtn. 

Aleppo, *'now chiefe Citie of Syria", as Parchas writes/ was an 
important emporium and a meeting-place of Asiatic Caravans. The 
English Government was represented there by an English consal. 
"The State and trade of [Aleppo]", wrote one Wrag about 1597 % 
"because it is so well knowen to most of our nation, I omitte to 
'Vrite of". 

It is wortby of remark that an English vessel (or possibly two 
or three different ships) bearing the name Tigei* actnally plied in the 
Levant, and is traceable in these waters in the years 1083, 1587, and 
1628. In Hakluyt's "Voyages", II (1599), we read: 

John Eldred's narrative. — I Departed out of London in the sbip called the 
Tiger \ in the Company of Master John Newbery, Master Ralph Fitch and 
six or seven other honest raerchants, on Shrove Monday [12 February] 
1583; and arrived at Tripolis of Syria, the Ist day of May next eosoing 

Wc passed forward with camcls until we came to Aleppo: 

where we arrived the 21 st of May. This is the greatest place of trafific, 
for a dry town [i. e., an Inland town, not on a great river] that there is 
in all these parts. 

(I am quoting from Arber's reprint, in "An English Garner", 3, pp. 159 
and 161.) Linschoten, referring to the same English expedition\ 
remarks: 

Tripolis, a town and haven lying on the sea-coast of Syria, where all the 
ships discharge their wares and merchandise, which from thenc« are carried 
by land to Aleppo, which is a nine-days' joumey. — In Aleppo, there are 
resident divers merchants and factors of all nations, as Italians, Frenchmen, 
Englishmen, Armenians, Turks, and Moors. 

(Arber, ut sup., p. 188.) 

We find 'the Tiger' again in the Levant in 1587 and 1628. 
Possibly it is the same vessel referred to above. But the name was 
rather common. There were at least three dififerent English vessels 
of different tonnages bearing this name in Shakespeare's days, not to 
speak of Spanish and Dutch Tigers' \ 

^ Purchas, His Pilgrimage, 1613, p. 74. 

^ Ilakluyt's Princ. Navig., etc., vol. II, part. 1, p. 309. cf. also pp. 172, 
276, etc. il)id. 

' "a ship of London, called the Ti^er" (Ärber, Engl. Garner, 3, p. 169). 

* For a third account of this voyage, written by Ralph Fitch, cp. Arber, 
ut sup , pp. 167 seq. 

^ I must content inyself with bare references here: Clarendon Press ed. of 
Macbeth, p. 82; Purchas Ilis Pilgrimes, 1625, Second Part, p. 1618; üaWuyt Soc, 



Aleppo, and ihe Tiger, The Nile, etc. 235 

THE NILE, WITH A NOTE ON ABIOGENESIS. 

In 'Antony and Cleopatra' (II, vii, 20 — '6) Antony is made to say : — 

Thus do they, sir: they take the flow o' the Nile 

By certain scales i' the pyramid; they know, 

By the beight, the lowness, or the mean, if dearth 

Or foison follow: the higher Nilas swells, 

The more it promises: as it ebbs, the seedsman 

Upon the slime and ooze scatters his grain, 

And shortly comes to harvest. 

Passages to illustrate the above verses have been quoted by ßeed 
and Malone from Pliny's 'Natural Ilistory', translated by Philemon 
Holland, 1601, Bk. V, eh. 9, and from Leo's History of Africa, trans- 
lated by John Pory, 1600, Bk. VIII. (See Var. Ed., XII, p. 263.) * 
A passage in Latin coming near to Leo^s wording is to be found 
in De Jode's Atlas' (Speculum Orbis Terrae, Antwerp, 1593, see 
'Africa'), which passage, it is curious to say, is immediately preceded 
by the following one, which throws light on Lepidus's remarks regard- 
ing the abiogenetic origin of serpents and crocodiles. Respecting 
the Nile we read: 

Hanc igitur portionem [quae utrinqae eius ripis adiacet] aestivo 
sydere exundans limo secum adducto irrigat ac foecundat, adeo efficacibas 
aqois ad generandum, alendumque, ut praeter id quod scatet piscibus, 
quod Hyppothamos [sie] Crocodilosque vastas beluas gignit: glebis etiam 
infundat animas, ex ipsaque humo vitalia effingit. Hoc eo manifestum est 
quod ubi sedavit diluvia, ac se sibi reddidit per humentes campos, quae- 
dam nondum perfecta animalia, sed tum primum accipientia spiritum, & 
ex parte iam formata, ex parte adhuc terrea versentur. Qua re adducti 
nonnulli in Aegypto, tum hominem, tum caetera animantia primo ex limo 
solaribus radiis formatum asseverate ausi sunt: de qua re lege Theodorum 
Siculum lib. 1. rerum antiquarum cap. 1. 

Compare Ant. and Cleop., ut sup., 27 — 31: 

Lep. You've stränge serpents there. 
Ant. Ay, Lepidus. 

Lep, Your serpent of Egypt is bred now of your mud by the Ope- 
ration of your sun: so is your crocodile — 

59, pp. LXXII and 157; Arber's Euglish Garner, vol. V, p. 88; Purchas, ut sup.y 
IV, p. 1144; De Jonge 'Opkomst', etc., I, 33; Hulsius's 23 rd. Voyage, p. 46; 
Lefroy, Memorials of the Bermudas, index. 

' Pory's Leo was extracted by Purchas, in 'Ilis Pilgrimes', 1626, vol. II. 
Äs to the Nilometer, see p. 838, and cp. p. 897. 

3 I do not say it was Shakespeare's source. 



236 Chapter 7. Shakespeare* 8 Earth and Heaven. 

and also Act I, in, 68:— 

Ant By the fire 

That qaickens Nilus^ slime. 

I may remark that the belief in equivocal generation seems to 
have been general in Shakespeare's days. Compare what Sir Francis 
Bacon says in his Natural History: 

*'The insecta are found to breed out of several matters: some breed of 
"mud or düng; as the earth- worms, eels, snakes, de". — "intending by 
"[insecta] creatures bred of putrefaction." (Bacon, ed. Ellis and Spedding, 
II, p. 557; cp., too, p. 638.) 

Perhaps there is a reference to this doctrine in Othello, IV, i, 
256—7: 

If that the earth could teem with woman's tears, 
Each drop she falls would prove a crocodiie. 

PRESTER JOHN, THE GREAT CHAM, AND THE PIGMIES. 

In Much Ado About Nothing, Act. II, i, 271 ff., Benedick is made 
to say: — 

Will your grace command me any service to the world's end? I will 
go on the slightest errand now to the Antipodes that you can devise to 
send me on; I will fetch you a toothpicker now from the furthest inch of 
Asia, bring you the length of Prester Johns foot, fetch you a hair off 
the great Chanis beard. do you any embassage to the Pigmies^ rather than 
hold three words' Conference with this harpy. 

Prester John, who had occupied so prominent a place in the 
mind of Europe, was originally supposed to be a potentate of enor- 
mous power and splendour in the far East, bat later he was assigned 
a locus in Abyssinia or Ethiopia. Robert Ilues, a distinguished 
contemporary of Shakespeare's, says in his Tractatua de globis (1638; 
the first edition, in Latin, appeared in 1093): — 

Next to thcse is the spacious territory of the King of the iEthiopians 
(who is called Pretegiani, and corruptly Prester John), which kingdome 
is famous for the long continuance of the Christian Religion in it, which 
hath bcen kept amongst thcm in a continuall succession ever since the 
Apostles time. These Christians are called Abyssines, but more rightly 

Habassines Their dominion was anciently extended very farre through 

Asia also.* 

> Hakluyt Soc, 79, p. 78. On Prester John see Encycl. Brit., XIX, p. 7U. 
For furthcr particulars cf. Zarncke, 'Der Priester Johann'; and Hakl. Soc, ser. 2, 
vol. 10, 1903. 



Prester Johriy etc, Aatronomieal and Astrological Lore. 237 

The Great Cham. This appellation was applied to the snpreme 
ruier of a region in the East and North -East of Äsia, calied Cathay, 
Tartary, or China, of which Shakespeare's contemporaries had a very 
hazy idea.' 

The Pigmies appear in Homer as a small folk in the far southern 
land by the streams of Oceanns, on whom the cranes made war. 
Aristotle held that the pigmies inhabited the marshes out of which 
he snpposed the Nile flowed. He was not far wrong. For Sir Henry 
M. Stanley fonnd them in Central Africa in the great forest. Other 
writers localized them in different parts of the world. Mercator, in 
his maps, placed them near the North Pole. For instance, in his 
Atlajs, 1602, we find this legend on an Island near the North Pole: — 

Pygm^i hie habitant 4 ad sammum pedes longi, quem admodum Uli 
quos in Gronlaodia Screlingers vocant. 

A FABULOUS REPORT. 

For Ariel's mimicry of Trlnculo (Temp. HI, ii) and the noises of 
the inchanted isle, Shakespeare is supposed to have made use of 
fabnlous' reports told by Marco Polo (and repeated by later writers) 
aboüt the desert near Lop in north-eastern Äsia, where devils counter- 
feited the voices of human beings, and noises of musical Instruments 
were heard in the air.' But this is uncertain. 

SECTION 2— ASTRONOMICAL AND 
ASTROLOGICAL LORE 

OR Stars amd Influence of Stars in Shakespeare's works. 

In Shakespeare's days the 

PTOLEMAIC SYSTEM 
was still the generally accepted and prevalent astronomical theory. 

1 About Cathay cf. Hakl. Soc, vol. 36—37. 

» Malone, Var. Ed., XV, p. 120. Comp. Arber, 'The First three Engl. Books 
on America', p. 27. 

For completeness' sake only, I subjoin what other names of modern non- 
European geography are found in Shakespeare's text: — Arabia, -n; Cataian^ in the 
sense of tbief, sharper; *frosty Caucasus^-y Hyrcania-, Persia^ -n, with the Sophy= 
Sbah; Tartar; *high Taurus snow'. — A/ric^ Africa^ -an; Argier (=Algiers); Barbary; 
Cancnrtf; Egypt, -tan; Ethiope^ Elhiopian; Morocco; Tripolis •«; Tunis — Hhis Tunis, 
'sir, was Garthage'. 



238 Chapter 7. Shakespeare*« Earth and Heaven. 

Though Copernicus had put forward a new explanation, the hello- 
ceatric theory, it was looked npon as nothing more than a carious 
and newfangied doctrine, at which scientists shrugged their Shoulders. 
And it was only aftcr Shakespeare's time that a change was bronght 
about by Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, notwithstanding whose demon- 
strations, however, the old System remained in vogne tili about the 
end of the seventeenth Century. 

In Order to give a succinct account of this System and an idea 
of the form in which it was popularly taught in schools and uni- 
versities all over Europe, tili it was superseded by that of Copernicus, 
I here transcribe the following passage, translated by Dr. Massen 
(ed. of Milton, 1874, vol. I, p. 90) from a Latin manual or Catechism 
of Astronomy by Michael Moestlinus, Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Heidelberg, and preceptor of Kepler, a younger contem- 
porary of our poet (Epitome Astronomiae, <fec., 1582, pp. 34, 35): — 
^^Quest. How many are the Orbs, or celestial Spheres, and what is 
"their order?" Ans. "There are various opinions concerning the number 
'^and Order of the celestial Spheres; but, following for the present, 
"for the sake of learners, the doctrine of the Alphonsines, we reckon ten, 
"in this Order: — The Ist is the Sphere of the Moon, which has the 
"lowest place in ^^ther; the 2nd that of Mercury; the 3rd that of 
"Venus; the 4th that of the Sun; the 5th that of Mars; the 6th 
"that of Jupiter; the 7th that of Saturn. And these are the Spheres 
"of the Seven Planets, or wandering stars, each of which has only 
"one Star, viz. its own planet, inserted in it. To these an 8th suc- 
"ceeds, which, from its order, is called Hhe Eighth Sphere' but also 
" 'the Firmament', on account of its containing, and as it were fortifying 
"or walling round, all the other Spheres — for it was believed by the 
"ancients to be the last and Supreme Sphere. It is also called the 
"Sphere of the Fixed Stars, because in it are all the rest of the stars, 
"whatever their number, after the planets are excepted. There is 
"moreover a 9th, and finally a 10 th Sphere; which last is the 
"Primum Mobile, or Last Heaven. These two Spheres are destitute 
"of Stars".* Blundevile,' who has a similar passage, adds an llth 
Sphere, which had been invented to satisfy theological demands, 

^ For further contemporary authority on the point, read ^^Batman uppon 
Bartholome, bis Bocke De Proprietatibus Rerum" (1582), extracts from which are 
printed in New. Sh. Soc. Trans., 1877— '79, pp. 436 seq. 

> llis Exercises, 4th ed., 1613, p. 281. 



AstroHomical and Astrological Lore. 239 

**The Imperial heaven, where God and his Angels are said to dwell". — 
These concentric hollow Spheres enclosed the stationary Earth, the 
centre of the Universe, at different distances, 'covering one another 
^like the scales of an Onion', as Blundevile has it. It is to be added 
that the Atmosphere or Air enveloping the Earth and Water was 
snpposed to be surrounded by a region of Fire, below the sphere of 
the Moon. ' This in general oatlines was the astronomical belief held 
by men of Sbakespeare's palmy days. At the same time, it is to be 
remembered, that in the infant time of science astronomy and 

ASTROLOGY 

went band in band. Shakespeare always uses the words 'astronomy', 
*astronomer', 'astronomical' in the sense of astrologj^, -er, -ical. 'In- 
'flaence' in his text every where=starry influence (excepting Sonn., 78,10, 
and Lov. Lab. L., V, ii, 869, where it means Inspiration). References 
and allnsions to stars as excercising influence on human and terrestrial 
affairs are very frequent in Shakespeare. Compare Schmidt's lexicon, 
*. t?. Mnfluence', 'star', 'aspect', etc. The foUowing quotations will 
serve as examples: 

D. Pedro . . . You were born in a merry hour. 

Beatr. No, sure, my lord, my mother cried; but then there was a star 

danced, and under that was I born. 



In my stars I am above theo. 
My stars shine darkly over me. 



(Mach Ado, II, i, 347.) 
(Twelfth Night, II, v, 155.) 
(Twelfth Night, II, i, 3.) 



By each particalar star in heaven and 

By all their inflaences. 

(Wint. Tale, I, ii, 425.) 

Besides the above instances, which might easily be multiplied, others 
are referred to below. 

Did Shakespeare believe in starry influence? We hope not. But 
when we see an enlightened man of science, like Bacon, unable to free 
himself completely from astrological notions,' we may suppose that the 
great dramatist would have given a reserved answer to any enquirer 
desirous of knowing his opinion on this point. However, he certainly 
regarded much of the old faith (if not all of it) to be mere skimble- 
skamble stuff, as a passage quoted below the text clearly shows.' 

' An explanation that had been given by Aristotle. 
» See Bacon, ed. by Ellis and Spedding, vol. IV, p. 349 ff. 
' **This is the excellent foppery of the world, that, when we are sick in 
fortane, — often the surfeit of our own behaviour,— we make guilty of onr disasters 



240 Chapter 7. Shakespeare* $ Earih and Heaven. 

To return to our subject, What Tracks of the above astronomical 
System do we find in Shakespeare's text? 

AN ILLUSTRATIVE PASSAGE FROM TROILÜS AND CRESSIDA. 

First, the following passage in 'Troilus and Cressida', I, in, 85 ff., 
deserves to be quoted at length: 

"The heavem^ themselves, the planeis and ihis centre^ 
"Observe degree, priority and place, 
"Insisture, conrse, proportion, season, form, 
"Office and custom, in all line of order; 
"And therefore is the glorions planet Sol 
"In noble eminence enthroned and sphered 
^'Ämidst the other;^ whose medicinable eye 
"Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil, 
"And posts, like the commandment of a king, 
"Sans check to good and bad: bat when the planeis 
"In evil mixture to disorder wander, 
"What plagues and what portents! what mutinyl 
"What raging of the sea! shaking of earthl 
"Commotion in the winds! f rights, changes, horrors, 
"Divert and crack, rend and deracinate 
"The nnity and married calm of states 
"Quito from their fixurel" 

For the nse of the word 

SPHERE OR ORB 

in its Ptolemaic sense frequent examples could be addnced. It will 
snffice to cite the following: 

the sun, the moon, and the stars: as if we were villains by necessity; fools by 
heavenly compulsion; knaves, thieves, and treachers, by spherical predominance; 
drunkards, liars, and adulterers, by an enforced obedience of planetary influence; 
and all that we are evil in, by a dlvine thrusting on: an admirable evasion of 
whoremaster man, to lay his goatish disposition to the Charge of a star! Hy 
father compounded with my mother under the dragon's tail; and my nativity 
was under Ursa major; so that it' follows, I am rough and lecherous. Tut, I 
should have been that I am, had the maidenliest star in the firmament twinkled 
on my bastardizing.^' (Lear, I, ii, 128fif.) 

* heavens=spheres. 

' this centressthe Earth. 

' Cp. Batman, New Sh. Soc, ut sup., p. 443: "which Sunne is placed among 

"the seaven great Starres, called the seaven Planets The Sunne is the fonrth 

"in place, as it were a King in the middest of his throne." For a similar thought 
compare Dubartas, translated by Sylvester, 1621, p. 84. 



Astronnmical and Astrological Lore (A Quotation; Spheres and their Harmony). 241 

'•I do wander everywhere, Swifter than the moon's sphere" 

(Mids. N. Dr., II, i, 7.) 

Certain stars shot madly from their spheres. 

(Mids., II, I, 153.) 

Ton Stars that move in your right spheres. 

(John, V, VII, 74.) 

Two stars keep not their motion in one sphere. 

(1. Henry IV., V, iv, 65.) 

nnsphere the stars. 

(Wint. Tale, I, ii, 48.) 
ily . . . . like a star disorhed. 

(Troil., II, II, 46.) 

Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their spheres. 

(Haml., I, V, 17.) 

My good stars have empty left their orbs. 

(Antony, III, xiii, 146.) 
etc. etc. 

THE HARMONY OF THE SPHERKS. 

According to an cid theory, first advanced by the Pythagorean 
school, the Spheres (the seven planets corresponding to the seven notes 
of the heptachord) moving within one another produced music, 'the 
harmony of the spheres', though not audible to mortal ears. This 
belief was taken over by Plato and remained familiär to the medieval 
mind.* It is illustrated by the following passages in Shakespeare's 
works: — 

There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st 

Bat in his motion like an angei sings,^ 

Still qoiring to the yonng-eyed cherubims; 

Such harmony is in immortal souls; 

But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 

Doth grossly clothe it in, we cannot hear it. 

(Merch. of Ven., V, i, 60 ff.) 

His voice was propertied As all the twned spheres. 

(Ant. & Cleop., V, ii, 84.) 
The music of the spheres. 

(Twelfth Night, III, i, 121, and Pericles V, i, 230.) 

Discord in the spheres. 
(As You Like It, II, vii, 6.) 

» Cp., too, Batman, New Sh. Soc, Trans., 1877— '79, pp. 438, 442, 449. 
' Compare Plato, De Republica (10 th book) where he speaks of the 
harmony of the Spheres, and represents a Siren sitting on each of the eight orbs, 
and singing to each in its proper tone. From all the eight notes thcre results 
a Single harmony. (See Fumess, VII, pp. 249 — 2.'jO, and Cp. FurnivalFs remarks 
in the New Sh. Soc, Trans., 1877 -'7 9, p. 450.) 

Anders, Shakespeare 'h books. IQ 



242 Chapter 7. Shake$peare*8 Barth and Htaven. 

THE EIGHT SPRERES. 
Each of the seven Planets is mentioned by Shakespeare: 
J. THE PLANET MOON: 

I am marble-constant; now tbe fleeting moon 

No planet is of mine. 

(Ant. & Cleop., V, tt, 240.) 

You would lift the moon oat of her sphere. 

(Temp., 11, r, 183.) 

Cp. also Älids. N. Dr., 11, i, 7, etc. 

The belief, that insanity is subject to the changes of the moon, 
is still shared by many people of cur days, — the oiily remnant, it 
appears, of the old astrological faith. Hence words like: lunatic, Innacy, 
lune — also used by Shakespeare. 

The moon was supposed to have influence on the growHi of plants. 

Compare: 

As true as stcel, as plantage to the moon. 

(Troll., Ill, II, 184.) 

I need scarcely add that the dependance of the tides upon the 
influence of the moon was known to Shakespeare: 

yoa may as well 
Forbid the sea for to obey the moon. 

(Wint. Tale, I, n, 42G.) 

. . . that ebb and flow by the moon. 

(Lear, V, iii, 19.) 
the moist star^ 

Upon whoso influence Neptiine's empire Stands. 

(Hamlet,!, r, 118.) 
Compare also: — 

watery moon 

(Mids., n, I, 1G2; and Rieh. IlL, Act II, rr, 69); 

the watery star 

(Wint. Tale, I, ii, 1). 
etc. 



^ 'watery' and *moist', with referenco to the influence on tides. Tbe moon 
is called *raoist' already in Lydgate\s 'Story of Thehes', Prologue. The foHowing 
passage frora Bacon (ed. Ellis and Spedding, vol. V, p. 550) might possibly V^^^^ 
to another Interpretation: *'[this theory of mine] denies that the moon is eitker a 
''^watery or a dense or a solid body; afürming that it is of a flamy nature." [Tli^ 
italics are in the original text.] 



Astronomical and Attrological Lore (The Plnnets). 243 

2. THE PLANET MERCl'RY. 

My father named me Autolycus; who beinp:, as I am, littcred under 
Mercory, was likewise a snapper-np of unconsidcred trifles. 

(Wint. Tale, IV, iii, 25.) 

3. TOE PLANET VENL'S. 

Yet you, the murderer, look as bright, as clear, 
As yonder Venus in her glimmering sphere. 

(Mids. N. Dr., III, ii, 60.) 

Compare, too, Mids. N. Dr., III, ii, 107; 2. Henry IV., Act II, ly, 
286; 1. Henry VI., I, ii, 144; Titas Andron., II, in, 30. 

4. THE PLANET SUN. 

The glorious planet SoL 

(Troilus, I, III. 89.) 

sun, Burn the great sphere thou movest in! 

(Ant. and Cleop., IV, xiii.) 

"The Sunne is the eye of the worlde", says Batnian, ut sup.^ 
p. 443. 'Oculus mundi' is the Latin for it. Compare Shakespeare's 
"Heaven's eye". (Com. of Err., II, i, 16; Titus Andr., II, i, 130; lY, 
II, 59; comp. Rieh. IL, Act III, ii, 37.) 

5. THE PLANET MARS, 

whose motions formed a puzzle to the astronomers, until they were 
correctly explained by Kepler. Nash, in ''Ilave with you to Saffron- 
walden", 1596, (Huth Libr. ed., Nash, vol. III, p. 2H) says, e. g., '*you 
"are as Ignorant in the true movings of my Muse as the Astronomors 
"are in the true movings of Mars, which to this day they could never 
"attaine too." 
Compare: 

Mars his true moving, even as in the hcavens 

So in the earlh, to this day is not known: 

Late did he shine upon the English side; 

Now we are Victors. (1. Henry VI., I, ii, 1.) 

Again, All's Well, I, i, 210, 

Helena, you [Parolle^ must needs be born under Mars. 

ParoL When he was predominant. 

IleL When he was retrograde, I think, rather. 

6. TUE PLANET Jl PITER. 

Jupiter: . . . our Jovial star reign'd at his birth 

(Cymb. V, iv, 105). 

16' 



244 Ckapter 7. Shakespeare*« Earth and ITeaven. 

Again— 

Yonr letter is with Jupiter 

(Titos, IV, in, 64.) 

Here Japiter maif refer to the planet. — 

7. THE PLANET SATURN. 

Falst Riss me. Doli. 

Prince. Saturn and Venus tbis year in conjunction! 

On this passage Johnson comments: This was, indeed, a prodig)\ 
The astrologers, says Ficinus, reniark, that Saturn and Venus are never 
conjoined. 

Saturn caused hate, nielancholy, and moroseness, compare the ' 
Word 'saturnine'. 

Madam, though Venus govern your desires, Saturn is dominator o?er 
mine, etc. 

so says Aaron, in Tit. Andr., TI, in, 31. 

Similarly, Conrade the follower of Don John, in Mach Ado Abt. 
Nothing, I, III, 12, is said to have been "born under Saturn". 

8. TOE EIGIITII SPHERE, 

called the Firmamenf^^ contained the Fixed Stars with their 
Constellations. 

Of TUE ZODIAC (in this Sphere), referred to twice— 

The sun . . . gallops tlie zodiac in his glistering coach 

(Titus, II, I, 7); 

nineteen zodiacs [=years] have gone round 

(Meas. f. Meas. I, n, 172)— 

several constellations are mentioned: — 

i) Aries=the Ram; 
ii) Taürus=the Bull. 

Compare Tit. Andr., IV, in, 64 -72, where the ^istract' Titus 
bids his companions shoot arrows towards heaven: 

Tit. Good boy, in Vtrgo's lap; give it Pallas.* 
Marc. My lord, I aim a mile beyond the moon; 
Your letter is with Jupiter by this. « 
Tit. Ha, ha! 



* "This brave o'erhanging firmanent, this majestical roof fretted with golden 
"fire", Uamlet, II, ii, 312. 

' Schmidt, in his lexicon, erroneously explains Pallas to be a planeL N. B. 
the planetoid Pallas was'only discovcred in 18021 



Astronomieal and Astrologieal Lore (The 8^ Sphere). 245 

Pablius, Pablius, what hast tbou done? 
See, see, thou hast shot off one of Taurus^ horns. 
Marc. This was the sport, my lord: when Pablius shot, 
The BiiUy being gali'd, gave Aries such a knock 
Tbat down feil both the Bornas horns in the court. 

Taurus is also mentioned in Twelfth Night, I, iii, 146: 

born under Taurus. 

iii) Cancer. 

Add more coals to Cancer when he bums 
With entertaining great Hyperion. 

(Troilus and Cress., II, iii, 206.) 

The reference is, of course, to the summer solstice. 

iv) ViBGO (Tit. Andr., ut sup., v. 64). 

For A8TB0L06ICAL FURPOSES the twelve zodiacal signs used to be 
divided into four Trigons, — a Trigon or Triplicity being a combination 
of three signs in the form of a triangle, each 120° apart. Thus Aries, 
Leo, and Sagittarius form the first triplicity; Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn 
the second, and so forth.* Each Trigon was denominated from the 
connatural element: so there are three fiery, three watery, three airy, 
and three earthly signs: 

Fiery: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius. 

Airy: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius. 

Watei^y: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces. 

Earthly: Taurus, Virgo, Capricornus. 

Shakespeare calls the red-nosed Bardolph a fiery Trigon, in 
2. Henry IV., II, iv, 285:- 

Fol. Kiss me. Doli. 

Prince. Saturn and Venus this year in conjunction! what says the almanac 

to thal? 

PotTis. And, look, whether the fiery Trigon, bis man, be not lisping to bis 

master^s old tables, bis notc-book. Ms counsel-keeper.^ 

Each of the zodiacal signs was supposed to goyern a gertain 
PART OF THE HUMAN BODY, or to put it in Chaucer's language: 

"everich of thise 12 Signes hath respecte to a certain parcelle of the 

* See Skeat's Introduction to Chaucer's Astrolabe (pp. lxvi— Lxvn, Chauc. 
Soc. XXLX), & Nares's Glossary. 

' "Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius are bot, drie, and bitter, Cholerike, and are 
"gOYemyng bot and drie thinges, and this is called the fierie triplicitie^ (Bullein's 
Dialogue, 1578, Early Engl. Text Soc, No. LH, p. 32.) 



246 Chapter 7. Shdketpeare* t Barth and Ileaven. 

^'body of a man and hath it in governance: as aries hath thin heved, 
^^& taurus thy nekke & thy throte, gemini thyn armholes d: thin 
"armes, et so forth"/ Let me also quote from Nash's Prognosti- 
cation: "Taurus, which governes the neck and throat".* 
Compare Twelfth Night, I, iii, 146fr.: 

Sir Tohy. were we not born under Taurns? 

Sir Andr, Taurus! that's sides and heart. 

Sir Toby. No, sir; it is legs and thighs. Let me see Ihce capcr, etc. 

Sir Toby's blunder: "it is legs and thighs" is, of course, intentional, 
as he wishes to make Sir Andrew believe he was born under a dancing 
Star; while Sir Andrew 's ignorance seems to be genuine. The mention 
of Taurus at all seems to be the product of mere caprice, unless, indeed, 
we suppose Sir Toby to have had in mind another thought, which, 
however, Sir Andrew failed to understand. For Taurus was imagined 
by astrologers to be the 'mansion' of Venus and was moreover a 
'feminine' sign. Compare Chaucer, Wif of Bath, Prol., v. 613:— 

Myn ascendent was T«nur. 

So much for the zodiac. 

Of the same sphaera stellurum ß^tai^m three prominent 

CONSTELLATIONS 

near the North Pole are referred to by the poet: Thb Great Bbab 
(or Charles's Wain), the Lesser Bear, and the Dbagon. 

Charles' Wain is over the new cbimney. 

(1. Henry IV., Act II. i, 2.) 

My nativity was under Ursa major, 

(Lear, I, ii, 141.) 

The wind-shaked surgc, with high and monstrous mane, 
Secras to cast water on the buming bear, 
And quench the guards of the ever fixed pole. 

(Othello, II, I, 13.) 

* Chaiiccr's Astrolabe, Part I, § 21.— Compare Plate VII, in Skeat's ed. 
(Chauc. Soc), where a human body with the constellations in the differcnt parts 
and Organs they govern is figured, Furness (New Var, Ed., XlII, p. 53) points out 
that some almanacs evcn of the present day have preserved figures of a similar 
kind. Compare with this interesting fact Priuce Henry's question "what says the 
"almanac to that", 2. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 287. See the whole passage quoted 
abovc. — An astrological Caloudar or "£/>/< iwenV/c«" is referred to by Nash (ut infra, 
p. 143). See also "The Kalender of Shepherdes'', reprinted by Oskar Sommer, 18.^2. 

*-* "A Wonderfull . . . Prognostication'\ 15iM.— lluth Libr. ed , vol. II, p. 155 



Astronomical and Astrological Lore {The 8^ Sphere; Substance 0/ Stars). 247 

The- barning bear probably=the Great Bear; pole=the polar star, 
the guards of which are the two stars known astronomically as Beta 
and Gamma in the constellation of the Lesser Bear ('od the Shoulder 
'and foreleg, as usually depicted, or sometimes on the ear and Shoulder'). 
Compare Blundevile, in His Exercises (4*^ ed., 1613), p. 716: 
'•'Of which seven starres in the little Beare, two starres called the 
*'^ffuards of the Noi^h starre, are to the Mariners most familiär." ^ 

The Dbägon: 

My fatber compounded with my motber under the dragon's tau; and 

my nativity was under Ursa major; so that it foUows, I am rougb and 

lecberoas. 

(Lear, 1, 11, 140.) 

"The seven stars",' mentioned in Lear, I, v. 38; 1. Henry IV., 
Act J, 11, 16; and in 2. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 201, are the Pleiads, 
or perhaps the Great Bear. 

Having noted the constellations, it remains to name two fixed 
STABS referred to by the poet: — 

i) Thb Pole-stab. 

I am constant as the nortbern star, 
Of wbose true-fix'd and resting quality 
Tbere is no fellow in tbe firmament. 

(Julius Caesar, 111, 1, 60.) 

tbe north star (Mucb Ado, V, i, 258); 
tbe lode-star (Mids. N. Dr., I, i, 183; Lucrece, 179); 
tbe pole [=the pole-star] (Hamlet, I, i, 36); 
tbe ever üxed pole (Othello, ut sup.), 

11) To the influence of the Dog-stab= Sirius (or Procyon) were 
attributed the 'dog-days': 

Twenty of tbe dog-days now reign in's nose. 

(Henry VIIL, Act V, iv, 43.) 

In Love. Lab. L.; Rieh. IL; and Henry VIIL, 'fixed stars' in general 
are referred to. 

As to the 

SUBSTANCE OF TUE STARS, 

compare what Bacon says:' "Another question is, are the stars tnie 
^'ßresf^ — "Aristo tle . . . had determined the stars to be real fires." 

' For fuller information, see Hlundevile, pp. 716 — 717. 

' Cp. New Shaksp. Soc. Transactions, 1877—79, p. 448 note. 

* Bacon, ed. Ellis and Spedding, yoI. V., pp. 538 — 9. 



248 Chapler 7. Shakespeare* s Earih and Heaven. 

Compare: — 

Doubt thou the stars are fire; 
Doubt thou the sun doth move; 
Doabt truth to be a liar; 
But nover doubt I love. 

(Hamlet, II, ii, 116.) 

SPHERE OF FIRE. 

■ 

Round the Atmosphere environing the Earth (and Sea) there was 
imagined to be a Region of Fire, as I have said above. "Fire", to 
quote from Blundevile, "being placed next the sphere of the Moon 
"under which it is turned about like a celestial Sphere."* 

Compare 'Hamlet', V, i, 305:— 

let them throw 
Millions of acres on us, tili oar ground, 
Singeing bis pate against the buming zone, 
Make Ossa like a wart! 

By the action of this Fire, in some manner or other, "fierie 
"impressions, as lightnings, fire drakes, blazing starres and such like" ' 
were thought to be bred in the highest region of the air. 

A METEOR 

was supposed to be a kind of vapour drawn up by the sun and acted 
upon by the hot influences in the upper air. Ilence, Exhalation«Meteor. 

It is somo meteor that the sun exhales. 

(Romeo, III, v, 13.) 
an exhaled meteor. 

(1. Henry IV., Act V, i, 19.) 
I shall fall 
Like a bright exhalatiou in the evening, 
And no man see me morc. 

(Henry VHI., Act III, ii, 226.) 



• Compare Sylvcster's Translation of Du Bartas, 1621, p. 25: 
"Hut, lest the Fire (which all the rest imbraces) 
"Being too neer, should burn the Earth to ashes; 
"As chosen Umpires, the great All-Creator 
"Between these Foes placed the Aire and Water." 
' Blundevile, ut s«/?., p. 377. As for comets, I think Tycho d© Brahe was 
the first, who demonstrated them to be located far beyond the orbit of the moon. 
Bacon distinguishes between sublunar and higher comets. But cp. Batman, ut 
sup., p. 446. 



Astron. and Astrol, Lore (Sphere of Fire; Meteors^ etc.), 249 

Meteors are called, too, by the name of shooting stars^ falling 
stars^ or ßre-^rakes. 

Compare: 

I see thy glory like a shooting star 

Fall to the base earth from the firmament.i 

(Rieh. II., Act II, IV, 20.) 

How a bright star shooteth from the sky. 

(Venus and Ad., 815.) 

These are stars indeed; 

And sometimes falling ones. 

(Henry VIII., Act IV, i, 55.) 

that fire-drake. 

(Henry VIII., Act V, iv, 45.) 

COMETS 
or blazing stars. 
Compare: 

Comets, importing change of times and states, 

Brandish your crystal tresses in the sky. 

(1. Henry VI., Act. I, i, 2.) 

but one every blazing star. 

(All's Well, I, III, 91.) 

Examples might be multiplied. 

Perhaps I ought to make mention, too, of 

ST. ELMO'S FIRE 

here, to which there is an apparent allusion in The Tempest, I, ii, 
196 seq. Whatever Shakespeare thought about its cause, it was 
explained to be '^an exhalation of moyst vapours, that are ingendred 
"by foule and tempestuous weather".* Linschoten says in his 'Dis- 
course of Voyages' (Hakluyt Soc, 7i, p. 238): — 

[Somewhere off the coast of Natal] wee lay driving for the space of 
two dayes and two nights together, with a continuali storme and fowle 
iveather with rayne. The same night we saw uppon the main yarde, and 

in many other places a certaine signe, [called] St. Eimo 

This constellation (aa Astronomers doe uorite) is ingendred of great moisture 
and vapors, and sheweth like a candle that burneth dimly, and skippeth 
from one place to another, never lying still. 



' Firmament may be equivalent to sky, heaven. It need not necessarily 
mean the eighth sphere. 

' Purchas his Pilgrimes; see Clarend. Press ed. of The Tempest, p. 86. 



250 Chapter 7. Shakespeare'» Earth and Heaven. 



SECTION 3.— SHAKESPEARE'S ENVIRONiMENTS 
REFLECTED IN HIS WORKS. 

Wer den Dichter will verstebn 
Muss in Dlcbtcrs I^nde sehn. 

Goethe. 

As for place-names mentioned in Shakespeare's text, it is signi- 
licant that no country scores higher than England, the home of tbe 
great national poet. Of English places-names (counting each once) 
we find about 210 in Shakespeare's plays. About half of these are 
London and Warwickshire names or names of places very near to 
either. Of these I wish to give a füll list,' as a knowledge of Shake- 
speare's immediate environments reflected in bis works will help us 
to get into closer touch with him. And we want to get as close to 
bim as possible. We want to know wbere hü feet walked and what 
his eyes saw. 

To 

LONDON, 

in which so many scenes of the historical plays are laid there will be 
found a snrprizingly large number of local allusions in Shakespeare's 
works. An entertaining work on "Shakespeare's London" has been 
written by Mr. T. F. Ordish, which book (though neither exhaustive 
nor above criticism) used with a constant reference to Ryther's map 
of London, 1604, (reproduced in Loftie's Histoiy of London) will serve 
as an excellent introduction to a concreto knowledge of Shakespeare's 
London. ^ 

THE CITY AND ITS IMMEDIATE VICINITY. 
N. B. The astensk denotes that Shakespeare did not find the name 
or a clear Suggestion for it in the known source or sources of the 
play where it occurs. 



Baynard's Castle (Rieh. III); to the ^bear-gardens of London there 
are allusions in Shakespeare's text, especially in Merry Wives, I, i, 
and 2. Henry VI., V, i, U4 seq.] *Bedlam (2. Henry VI., Lear); 
St, Bennet (Twelfth Night); Blackfriars (Henry VIII.); Blackheath 



% 



* The final aiithority on Shakespeare's London is John Stow's "Survey of 
London' which sadly needs cditing with index and illustrative plans, The student 
should also refer to Halliwell-Phillipps's Ilandbook-Index, p. 547. and to Whealley, 
London Past and Present. 



Shakespeares Environments (London). 251 

(IleDFj' V.); the Boar's-Head Tavern^ stated to be the scene of 
the merry pranks of the madcap Prince and Falstaff in 1. and 2. 
Henry IV. is nowhere mentioned in Shakespeare's original texi. 
^^'Kaftscheap*'* (1. and 2. Henry IV.), where this inn was, *'and Fish 
"street Hill abounded with taverns in Shakespeare's time". Ordish, 
ut sup.^ p. 35; *Bucklershury (Merry Wives, III, in, 79), a street of 
London, chiefly inhabited by druggists; ^Charing-cross (1. Henry IV., 

II, I, 27); Cheapside (2. Henry VI.); 'Hhe *Countei*gate (Merry Wives, 

III, 111, 85). — The reference is to one of the prisons called the Counter. 
There were two of that name in the City and one in Southwark. 
There may be an allusion, too, to the Counter in Errors, IV, ii, 39. 
Croiby Place (Rieh. III.); Ely Uouse (Rieh. II.)— the Bishop of Ely's 
palace in Ilolborn, the site of which is still marked by 'Ely Place'. 
In Rieh. III., Act III, iv, 33, Richard addressing 'my Lord of Ely' says: 
*when I was last in Ilolhotm^ I saw good strawberries in your garden 
'there' (see Clar. Press ed.); ^Finshury (1. Henry IV.); 'up Fish Streetl 
'down SaiTit Magnus' Corner' (2. Henry VI.); the Fleet (2. Henry IV.) 
a prison in London; ^'*the vrindmül in St. George' s Field^\ to the 
South of London (2. Henry IV.); GuiWuill (Rieh. III.); Shakespeare 
has several allusions to the Inns of Court (the four sets of buildings 
in London, the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Liiicoln's Inn, and 
Gray's Inn): "He is at Oxford still, is he not? .... A' must, then, 
"to the *inns o' court shortly. I was once of ^Clemenfs Inn.^^ 
(2. Henry IV., III, ii, 11—15). * Clement' s Inn (mentioned several 
times, (2. Henry IV.), an inn of Chancery, was subordinate to the 
Inner Temple. "All the *inns o' court'' (2. Henry IV., III, ii, 25); 
''the inns of courf (2. Henry VI., IV, vii, 2); "We sent unto *the 
Temple^ unto his Chamber" (2. Henry VI., II, v, 19); "in the ^teinplc' 
hair^ (1. Henry IV., III, iii, 223); "Within the "Temple-hall we were 
"too loud; The ^garden here is more convenient'' (1. Henry VI., II, iv, 
3—4); "in the * Temple-garden'' (1. Henry VI., II, iv, 125); "behind 
*Gray'8 Inn'' (2. Henry IV., III, ii, 36).—*Limehou8e (Henry VIII.). 
London is, of course, frequently mentioned. London bridge (1. and 
2. Henry VI.; Rieh. III., III, ii, 72); ^'London gates" (at either end 

^ As to the IJoar's-Head Tavern cp. C'larend. Press ed. of 1. Henry IV., 
p. 129, Ordish, Shakespeare's London, p. 35, Halliwell-Phillipps, Oiitliues of the 
Life of Shakespeare (index). 

» Keinember tliat in the Gothic *IIair of the iMiddle Temple, biiilt in 1572, 
Shakespeare's Twelfth Night was acted on Febr. 2., IGOI— 2. In the hall of Gray\s 
Inn the Comedy of Errors was played on Decemb. 28., 1594. 



252 Chapter 7. Shakespeare^ s Barth and Heaven, 

of the bridge) in 1. Henry VI; ''^London roacC^ (1. Henry IV;), ^Lan-- 
don streets (Rieh. H., 2. Henry VI.); London-stone (2. Henry VI.); 
Liid^a toton, ancient name of London (Cymb.); ^Lumbert street ^Ff. 
Lombard.-2. Henry IV., H, i, 31); ''A * MarshaUea'' (Henry VHI.), 
'The Marshalsea formerly stood near St. George's Chnrch, Southwark'. 
*It now no longer exists', dar. Pr. ed. of Henry VIII. ^Mile-end 
(Green) (AU's Well, 2. Henry IV.). 'The usual exercise ground of 
'the London trainbands'; ^Moorfields (Henry VI IL), 'a place of resort 
'where the trainbands of the city used to be exercised'; ^Moor-ditch 
(1. Henry IV.) in Moorfields; *Newgate (1. Henry IV.) name of a 
prison in London; *"fAw wooden 0" (Henry V.) = the Globe Theatre; 
*Parü'garden (Henry VIII.); St. Paul's Cathedrar=*PattZ'* (1. Henry 
IV., H, IV, 576; 2. Henry IV., I, ii, 58; Henry VIIL, V, iv, 16), PauTs 
(Rieh. III., I, II, 30; III, vi, 3); "Pie-comer (2. Henry IV., II, i, 28); 
*Pickt'hatch (Merry Wives, II, ii, 19); The Rose, inthin the parisk 
Saint Lawrence Poultney (Henry VIIL, I, ii, 152); The Savoy (2. 
Henry VI.); Smühfield (2. Henry VI., II, iii, 7); ^Smithfield (2. Henry 
IV., I, II, 56 & 59; 2. Henry VI., IV, v, 10 and vi, 14); "in the *south 
'^suburbs, at the Elephant, Is best to lodge" — sounds like some local 
allusion (Twelfth Night, III, iii, 39); Southwark (2. Henry VI.); •Ster- 
chamber (Merry Wives), at Westminster; *the Strand (Henry VIII.); 
the Thames (2. Henry VL, IV, viii, 3), *Tham£s (Merry Wives; 
Henry V., IV, i, 120). The Tower is very frequently mentioned (it 
is called "Julius Caesar's ill-ereeted tower", in Rieh. IL, V, i, 2); 
*Tower'hill (Henry VIIL); *Tumbull street (2. Henry IV.)— now, and 
indeed originally, Turnmillstreet, near Clerkenwell (it was the whores' 
quarter). — "Thou makest the triumviry, the eorner-cap of Society, The 
"shape of Love's *Tybuiii thathangsup simplieity". (Love's Lab. L., 
IV, iii, 53); Westminster (Rieh. IL; 2. Henry IV.; 2. Henry VI.; Rieh. 
IIL; Henry VIIL); *the cathedral church of Westminster (2. Henry VI., 
I, II, 37); at Westminster Hall Riehard H. is deposed (Rieh. U., 
Act IV.); l^Uvestward'ho^^ (Twelfth Night, III, i, 146)— an exelamation 
often heard on the Thames]; "You must no more call it York^placey 

"that's past 'Tis now the king's, and call'd Whitehair (Henry 

VIIL, IV, I, 95); White-Friars (Rieh. IIL); the White Hart in South- 
wark'' (2. Henry VI., IV, viii, 25). 

* Shakespeare saw this immense church without its original steeple, which 
had been consumed by lightning in löCl. 



Shakespeare* s Environments (London; Wartciekshire). 253 

PLACES WITHIN 25 MTLES FROM THE CITY:— 
St Alban'8 (2. and 3. Henry VI.; Rieh. III.), *St AlbarCa (1. Henry 
IV.)j "^ common as the way between *Saint Alban's and London" 
(i. e. the Watling Street) (2. Henry IV., II, ii, 185); Asher Bouse 
(Henry VIII.) — Asher was the old form of Esher, near Hampton Court, 
(Clar. Pr. Ed.); Bamet (3. Henry VI.); *Brent/ord (Merry Wives)— the 
Elizabethans speit Brainford or Braynford; Chertsey (Rieh. HL); 
Eltham (1. Henry VI.); *Colebrook (v. postj] Gadshill (between Graves- 
end and Rochester) (Henry IV.); Greenwich (Henry VIII.); Haffield (?), 
William of (2. Henry VI.); Langley^ Edmund of (2. Henry VI.). In 
the 'Merry Wives', the scene of which is ^WindsoVy' we have the 
following names (not adopted from any known source): the Thames^ 
the DatcheUlaney Datchet-mead, Frogmof*e, the Castle, the Park with 
Hemers oak^ Eton just aeross the Thames. Colebrook [=Colnbrook] 
Afaiden/iead and Reading are on the way from London to Oxford 
round Windsor. — Windsor is mentioned, too, in (1. Henry IV.; 1. and 
2. Henry VI.). At Windsor Castle the 3rd, and probably the 6th, 
scene of Act 5 in 'Rieh. II.' is laid. In Henry the Fourth, First Part, I, 
III, the scene is by the editors supposed to be London, the palace. 
This is certainly an error. The scene is Windsor, cp. Holinshed, and 
Act I, I, 104.—* Windsor (2. Henry IV.). In Twelfth Night "the bed 
"of •HWö" is mentioned. This huge bed still existing is figured in 
Knight's edition of Shakespeare and in Chambers's Book of Days. In 
conclusion, I ought to add that the shire-names of Buckingham, Essex, 
Kent, and Surrey oecur in Sliakespeare's text. [Perhaps I ought to 
mention, too, as a locality which Shakespeare seems to have known 
from autopsy: Dover with its castle, the "chalky cliffs" (2. Henry VI., 
III, II, 101; Errors, 111, ii, 129), and the cliflF, now called Shakespeare's 
Cliff, "whose high and bending head Looks fearfully in the confined 
"deep" (Lear).] 

WARWICKSHIRE NAMES. 

*Barson (2. Henry IV., V, iii, 94) prob.=Barston; ^Burton-heath 
(The Shrew, Induction) supposed to be Barton-on-the-Heath; Coventiy 
(Rieh, n., 2. Henry IV., 3. Henry VI.); *Coventry (1. Henry IV., IV, 
II, 1 & 42); ^Dunsmore and *Southam (3. Henry VI.) are not in Holins- 
hed nor in Hall; Killingworth (=Kenilworth) (2. Henry VI.); *Sutton 
Co'fiV (1. Henry IV.)=Sutton-Coldfield (see Qar. Pr. ed. of 1. Henry IV.); 
Tamuorth (Rieh. III.); Warimck^ Earl of, (2. Henry IV., 2. and 3. 
Henry VI., Rieh. III.); Warwickshire (2. and 3. Henry VI.), *War^ 



254 Chapter 7. Shakespeare* s Barth and ITeaven. 

ictcMire (1. Henry TV.); * Wincot (The Shrew) &* Woncot (2. Henry IV.) 
are usiial corruptions of Wilmcote (cp. Knight's edition, vol. I, p. 282). 

Near the borders of Warwickshire are the following place-names: 
^Banbury (Merry Wives) through which Shcakespeare must have passed 
on bis shortest read to London from Stratford; Bosworth Field (RichÄll,); 
*Cotswold or *Cotsall (Rieh. H., 2. Henry IV., Merry Wives); ^Daventry 
(1. Henry \\.)=DairUry (3. Henry VI.); *Hinckley (2. Henry IV.), 
partly in Warwickshire. 

Of the rest of the names from English Geography I have made 
a list for myself. But it is unnecessary to publish it. I count 112 
[ — 122] niimes oxclusive of those given in the above list, which latter 
amount to 98 [—102]. So that the sura total is 210 [—224]. 

Of Wales I counted 7 names. 

Of Scoflandy 12 (but more, if we add all the names of the 
noblemen like Angus, Caithness, etc.). 

Ireland: 2 names. 

SECTION 4— THE CONTINENT OF EUROPE. 

In Elizabethan days 

TRAVEL 

was the fashion. It was the time when young men went 

Some to the wars, to try their fortune there; 
Some to discover Islands far away. 

(The Two Gentlemen, I, iii, 8—9.) 

And 

To soe the wonders of the world abroad. 

(jü mp.^ I, I, fi.) 

The Elizabethans evidently concurred with Antonio, that onc 

cannot bc a perfect man 
Not being tried and tutor'd in the world. 

(u/ suji.^ I, iiT, 20.) 

On the other band the poet ridicules the craze for foreign travels 
(cp. As You Like It, IV, i, 22 — 40) and the mannerisms of a traveller, 
'the picked [=a(rected] man of countries', who had made the grand 
tour and could talk 

. . . . of the Alps and Apennines, 
The Pyrcnean and Ihe river Po. 

(John, L I, 189 seq,) cf., too, AlPs Well, IL v, 30.) 



The European Continent. 255 

Oi course, Shakespeare must have made some tours in England. 
Reminiscences of these will be found in his Sonnets. It has been 
supposed, too, that he visited Scotland, France, Holland, Denmark, 
Germany. Bat this is all conjecture. Another question, which has 
been seriously debated especially by German Shakespearccan scholars, 
is whether the poet was in Italy, To my mind the positive con- 
clnsions arrived at by some are not borne out by the existing pre- 
mises. The strengest reasons, it is said, for supposing Shakespeare 
to have travelled to Italy are to be found in 'The Merchant of Venice' 
and 'Othello'. Now, the former play is generally admitted to be founded 
on an old drama, and 'Othello' I strongly presume is likewise recast from 
an earlier play. The strongest arguments would therefore turn out 
to be baseless fabrics. I myself have no doubts that Shakespeare 
never was in Italy. On the whole, it may be fairly said that the 
Italy of Shakespeare's plays is Italy reflected in Elizabethan London. 

There are two famous discrepancies in Shakespeare's Italian 
Geography. that require to be noticed: the tide at Verona, whence the 
characters go to Milan bi/ shipl in 'The Two Gent, of Verona', and the 
sea-voyage from Sicily to the ahores of Bohemial in 'The Wint. 
Tale'. In the former case Shakespeare had no serious thought of 
locality, London being the real background of the play. In the 
latter case Shakespeare simply adopted a harmless, it may be con- 
sciously made, error from Greene's 'Pandosto', the source of 

'Winter's Tale'. 

ITALY. 
As the Italian Geography in Shakespeare's plays makes considerable 
Claims on our attention and interest, I have given in füll all the 
Italian names of places of modern Geography: — Apennines (John); 
Berffamo (The Shrew); Calahei% Duke of (2. Henry VI.)=Calabria, 
(Holinshed has Calabre)\ Etna (Merry Wives); Ferrara (Henry VIH.); 
Flarence^ Florenthie (The Shrew, All's Well, Othello); Gewoa (Merchant, 
The Shrew); Italy ^ Italian^ etc. (passim)-^ "fruitful Lombardy, The 
"pleasant garden of great Italy" (The Shrew, I, i, 3); Mantua (Two 
Gentlemen, The Shrew, Romeo, Love's Lab. L.); Messina (Much Ado), 
in Sicily; Milan (Tempest, Two Gentlemen, Much Ado, John); Naplcs, 
Neapolitan (Tempest, etc.); Padua (Much Ado, Merchant, The Shrew) 
"Padua, nursery of arts" (The Shrew, I, i, 2); Firn (The Shrew); Po 
(John); Rorm, Roman (passim)\ Senoys (AlVs^\GlY)=S^enn€8e; Steil, 
Sicilia^ Sicily (2. Henry IV., Wint. Tale, etc.); VenicCy Venetian (Much 
Ado, Love's Lab. L., etc.), ilie Rialto in Venice— the markot-place, 



256 Chapter 7. Shakespeare's Earth and Ueaven. 

not the bridge — (Merchant); Vef*ona, Veronessa (Two GentlemeD, The 
Shrew, Romeo, Othello). 

On the opposite side of the Adriatic is Illyria (Twelfth Night). 
Messaline mentioned in Twelfth Night is a name of place unknown 
in Geography. ' 

IN CONCLÜSION. 

In the dramas dealing with English History the scene is of conrse 
on English or French soil. The Geography is therefore the same as 
in the Chronicles. Tn Macbeth the scene is Scotland and England. 
In King Lear we are in old Britain, which, too, is partly the locale 
of Cymbeline. The dramas based on Plutarch, as well as Titas 
Andronicus, Com. of Errors, Troilus, and Pericles take us to classic 
ground. In seven of the rest of the dramas pronouncedly romantic 
the scene is Italy, in two (Love's Lab. L., As You Like It) France, in 
Twelfth Night Illyria, in Hamlet Denmark, in Meas- for Measure the 
German Empire, in The Merry Wives England. The Prospero-Island 
of the Tempest is some undefined isle in the Mediterranean. The 
Winter's Tale takes us both to Sicily and Bohemia; Cymbeline to 
Britain and Italy; Othello to Italy and Cyprus; All's Well to France 
and Italy. 

^ Of the rest of tbe countries of Europc I offer only the arithmetical tot&ls 
of geographica! names here; — Islands of the Mediterranean: 5 names; — Franc*: 
circa 50; — German Empire; 13; — The Netherlands: 8; — Denmark, Norway, Iceland: 
4; — Spnin, Portugal: 5; — Turkey^ Greece: 7: — Switzerland^ Hungary^ Polandj Russioy 
Lapland: 8. So far I have treated modern Geography. Of Antique Geography 
(both European and non-European) I count 1 17 names. 

For Information on Europe in Shakespeare's time, see Fynes Moryson's 
**Itinerary", 1617. Extracts from the Fourth Part (never printed before) of this 
Itinerary wcre published by Mr. Hughes, ander the title of "Shakespeare's 
Europe". 1903. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 7. 

1~A NOTE ON MAPS AND GLOBES. 

"The New Map." 

Twelfth Night (Act III, sc. ii, 84—86) contains a distinct allusion to 
a certaSn contemporary map: — 

Malvolio, we are told, "rfoc« &mile his face into more lines than is in 
^Hhe new map idth the augmentaiion of the Indie8^\ 

To begin witb, what is meant by 'more lines', 'augmentation', and Hbe 
Indies'? 

The many lines undoubtedly point to a map crossed witb loxodromes 
or rhumb-lines, characteristic of so many early maps, especially of Charts. 
The map, therefore, must have been on the cylindrical projection [i. e., a map 
on Mercator's projection, or a map on the 'equidistant cylindrical pro- 
jection', or a compass map, which would belong to this class too], which 
alone admits of the straight rhumbs. 

The words ^augmentaiion^ and Hhe Indies" are best explained by the 
following part of a title of a treatise by Thomas Blundevile: "A piaine and 
füll description of Petrus Plancias his universall Map, serving both for 
Sea and Land, and by bim lately put forth in the yeare of our Lord. 
1592. In which Majrpe are sei doirne many more places, asirell of both 
the Indies as of Afrique, .... then are to be found eyther in Mercator his 
Mappe, or in any other moderne Mappe whatsoever" . . . M. Blundevill . . . 
1594 . . . London. » 



' Plancius's map, designed to superscde Mercator's famous map of 1569, is 
unhappily lost. From Bhmdevile's description and from a notice in the Dutch 
State papers (see De Jonge, *Opkomst', I, 167) we know that the map had on it 
rhumbs. Though it was nine years old in 1601, I at one time thougbt that it 
was Shakespeare's map. But I am diffident about this now. — As a pendant to 
the above title, I quote another passaj^e from Bhmdcvile (Exercises, 4th ed., 
p. 514): "the Mappe which covereth M. Molineux his Terrestrial Globe, diffcreth 
"^reatly from Mercator his terrestial (sie) Globe, by reason that there are found 
"out divers new places aswell towards the Northpole, as in the East and West 
^^Indies^ which were unknowne to Mercator". 

Anders, Shakespeare ':« books. 17 



258 Chapter 7. Shakespeares Earth and Heaven. 

'Indies^ I thus take to mean hoth ihe Indies, that is to say America 
geuerally and the large portion of SotUh-Eastem Asia. Now, both of these 
parts of the world had made their appearance in the maps of the world 
long before the end of the sixteenth Century. ^Augmentation' cannot therefore 
mean additiofiy as the New English Dictionary and Schmidt's Shakespeare 
Lexicon would make out, bnt mnst be equivalent to enlargemeni, increate, 

Varions attempts have been made to identify the Shakespeareao map. 

First, in point of time, comes George Steevens, who supposed that 
Shakespeare alluded to a map of the Eastern Islands, which was contained 
in Linschoten^s Yoyages, an English translation of which appeared in 1598. 
Steevens's explanation is wholly unsatisfactory. By far more plausible is 
a theory advanced by James Lenox in 1860, and vigorously defended by 
G. H. Coote in a paper read before the New Shakspere Society, 1878 
(Trans. 1877—9, Pt. I, p. 88), and again in the Introduction to the 59 th 
volume published by the Hakluyt Society. Lenox and Coote identify the 
'new map' with the map ("a true hydrographical description of so much 
of the World as hath beene hetherto discovered'') contained in sereral 
copies of the second edition of Hakluyt's 'Thncipal Navigations'\ 1598- 
1600 (vol. III, 1600), and presumably also published separately.^ There 
is reason to suppose that Molyneux, Wright, and Hakluyt were the Joint 
constructors of this important map. 

The map is multilineal in the extreme and new. New, not only be- 
cause made about 1599 and giving geographical Information np to the 
knowledge of the time, but because it is laid down upon an improved 
Mcrcator-projection, as Mr. Coote points out It remains to show whether 
it has the required ^augmentation of the Indies\ As Mr. Coote's arguments 
bearing on this question have been repealedly referred to and cited as 
authoritative, it will be worth while quoting them hero again litcrally. 
After having stated that he exchides the West Indies from bis conside- 
rations and having given, what appe^rt» to me, a somewhat forced Inter- 
pretation of the Word 'augmentation', he proceeds thus:' 

'^Now what was the state of things to be seen upon the eastern 
"portion of our 'new map' at the close of the 16th Century, as compared 
"with all the best general maps of the world that preceded it? A marked 
"development in the geography of India proper, then known as the land 
"of the Mogores or Mogol, the island of Ceylon, and the two peninsalas 
"of Cochin China, and the Corea. For the first time the distant island of 
"Japan began to assume its modern shape (this last, by the way, is not 

* A reproduction of this map accompanies the 59 th volume published by 
the Hakluyt Society, and is also contained in A. E. Kordenskiold's Facsimile Atlas, 
Tab. L. In the New Shakspere Soc, ut sup,, p. 88, the East Indian Archipe- 
lago is unfortunately excluded from the section (chiefly Asia) there priuted. 

' New Shakspere See. ut sup,^ p. 95. 



i( 



(i 



Appendix (Ä Note on Mups and Globes). 259 

"to be seen on the map in Linschoten).- Tarning to the S. E. portion of 
*Hhe "new map" (unfortunately not shown in the section before you), 
'there were to be seen traces of the first appearance of the Dntch nnder 
^^Houtman at Bantam (W. end of Java), synchronizing almost within a 
^^ear with that of their feliow-coantrymen in Noyya Zembla; and which 
'^within 10 years led to their unconscious discovery or rather rediscovery, 
^'of Aastralia. 

"On all the old maps, inclading the one of Ortelias's inserted in onr 
"old friend Linschoten, was to be seen the buge Terra Australis of the 
^'old geography. This, as Ilaliam remarked, had been left ont upon onr 
^new map^ and in its place was partly to be traced New Holland 
^[=Aastralia]. This of course would be suggestive of nothing to the mind 
of Shakspere; but what is so remarkable is, that upon our 'new map^ 
"there shonld have appeared to rise, like a little cloud out of the sea, 
^'like a man's band, tbe then nnknown continent of Australia. 

'^It is this appreciation of the marked improvement and development 
^to be observed in the geography of tiie eastern portion of onr map, to 
^^hich I believe Shakspere desired to give expression in bis judicious 
^'and happy use of the term 'augmentation\" 

These remarks are open to the following criticism. If, as Coote sup- 
poses, 4ndies' refer only to the East Indies, he should certainly have 
taken into consideration not merely maps of the world but also maps of 
Asia alone. "A marked development in the geography of India proper^' 
and ''Ceylon" is non-existent. As early as 1561 Gastaldi had drawn a 
fairly gooi map of India in bis map of Asia. Compare also the advanced 
delineations of India in Mercator's Mappemonde (1569), in De Jode's 
''Asia Partium Orbis Maxima" 1593, and the map of India in Linschoten's 
Itinerario. Cootes statem'^nt, by the way, "India proper, then known as 
"the land of the Mogores or MogoF' requires to be corrected, as only the 
northem part of the pcninsula was subject to the Mogul. (Compare the 
Atlases of Meteil ns, Jansen, and Blaeu). The great improvement in the 
geography of Corea, Cochin China, and Japan on Coote's map is not very 
noticeable or piain, when we compare maps like Plancius's "Orbis Terra- 
rum Typus" (1594) or (setting aside Corea) De Jode's above mentioned 
map of Asia, and the map of South-Eastern Asia (with the Islands) in 
Linschoten's Itinerario, 1595 — 6, (contained also in the Latin Translation).» 

The same remark applies to the delineation of the Malay Archipelago. 
With regard to Coote's Suggestion as to Australia, I think the tract of 
land, drawn below Java, is nothing more tban a remnant of the old 



' The Portugiiese possesscd excellcnt manuscript maps of the Malay Archi- 
pelago at a mach earlier date, as appears from Diogo Ilomen's map in Rugc's 
Zeitalter der Entdeckangen, p. 535. The maps, howevcr, were kept secret and 
remained unpublished. 

17* 



260 Chapter 7. Shakespeares Earth and Heaven. 

"Terra Australis". What Coote means by tbe "traces of the first appear- 
'^ance of the Datch under Houtman at Bantam^^ is difficalt to say. Ban- 
tarn had appeared on maps long before 1600. We have to hear inmiDd, 
too, tbat Coote's map is what it professes to be: a hydrographical map, 
that is, a chart, on which only coast-names are noted. Coote's map has, 
indeed^ comparatively few names. In the Eastern Archipelago, e. g., (in- 
cluding the Philippines) we find but three and twenty place-names. Oq 
Mercator's map of the world (1569) there were twenty-seven on Simaira 
alone, — Even Plancius's Orbis Terrarum Typus has twenty-fonr. — Bat 
sapienti sat, Whatever may be thought of the map in Hakluyf s werk, 
Mr. Coote's arguments for it require revision. None the less, I would 
assert that of the extant maps the Hakluyt-map has the best Claims to 
be considered as Shakespeare's "new map^\ Still, the possibility remains, 
that the poet may have meant another map now lost. Grau ist aüe 
Theorie^ says Goethe. The above map, however, extremely instructive in 
many respects, is worthy the attention of every friend of Shakespearean 
geography.* 

To 

Maps in General 

Shakespeare repeatedly refers in bis text, e. g., "Peering in maps for ports 
"and piers and roads" (Merchant of Ven., I, i, 19), "AU the quarters that 
"they know T the shipman's card'\ (Mach., I, in, 17); '-he is the card 
"or calendar of gentry, for you shall find in him the continent of what 
"part a gentleman would see". (Hit., V, ii, 117). Lucrece, 1712; and so 
forth. In Henry V., Act IV, sc. vii, 25, '^maps of the 'orld" are mentioned. 
In two plays maps are brought on the stage. In 1. Henry IV., Act HI, 
sc. 1, a 

Map of England 

is produced by Glendower ("Come, here's the map") for the purpose of 
pointing out the threefold division of the realm. Hotspur objects to the 
winding course of the river Trent: 

"Methinks my moiety, north from Burton here, 

"In quantity equals not one of yours: 

"See how this river comes me cranking in'', etc. 



^ A well known bibliographer, Henry Stevens, evidently not satisfied 
with the existing theories proposed a third in his Catahgue, 1881, p. 200, where he 
says: "The writer is half [!] inclined to think that the map 'with the Augmentation 
"of the Indies', may bc the curious little round face-shaped map of the World 
"in Wytfleit's [sie] "Ptoleraa'um Augitientum" [I suppose, he means 'Descriptionis 
"Ptolemaicae Augmentum'] first published in 1597, and reissued in Latin and 
"French in 1598, 1603, 1607, and 1611, it [what does U refer to?] being simply 
"Ptolemy's World Augwenied by the addition of the East and West Indies. The 



Appendix {A Note on Maps and Glohes). 261 

Again, in Lear (Act I, sc. i) 

A Map of Britain 

is produced on the stage for auother tripartite division of the kingdom. 
Shakespeare may have seen, and made use of, any one of a number of 

Maps of England and 6'rbat Britain. 

The foUowing list which I put forward tentatively, will give some idea 
of the maps existent between 1564 and 1610: 

(1) Angliae . . . Nova Descriptio ... 1573, contained in Ortelius's 
Atlas; (2) Typus Angliae. J. Hondius fecit, 1590; (3) Britanniae Insula, 
Romae 1589; (4) Britanniae Insula Typus ex conatibus A. Ortelii, 1595; 
(5) Angliae Scotiae et Hiberniae Descriptio in Ortelius's Atlas; (6) Great 
Britain and Ireland is also in De Jode's Atlas; (7) 1574 — 79 Christopher 
Saxton published maps of the Counties of England and Wales, fol.; (8) 
Mercator, too, published a good collection of maps of the British Isles 
prefaced by a dedication to Queen Elizabeth in bis Atlas of 1595; (9) An 
Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland by Camden, London, 1607; (10) John 
Speed is also to be mentioned as a distinguished cartographer. A collection 
of bis maps appeared in 1611, the "Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain". 

Globes. 

Shakespeare was familiär with globes of bis time, as we learn from 
i) The Comedy of Errors, Act III, sc. ii, 116: 

Dro, S. "... she is sphericallike a globe; I could find out count- 

ries in her." 

Ant, S. "In what part of her body Stands Ireland?", etc. 
ii) 2. Henry IV., Act II, iv, 309: 

"thou globe of sinful continents". 
ni) Lucrece, 407: 

"Her breasts, like ivory globes circled with blue, 

"A pair of maiden worlds uncouquered." 
The question what globes were known to the poet, shall not dctain us 
long, üp to the dato of 1592 Mercator's globes (1541 & later) were in 
common use in England. In this year, 1592, appeared Molyneux's globes 
said to be the first constructed in England. These were made both on 
a larger and a smaller scale. Continental globes by van Langeren (men- 
tioned as a globe-maker as early as 1580) or by bis later rival, Jodocus 



"Indies at that time meaning the West as well as the East Indies."— This 
Suggestion is not to be taken seriously. In the editions I saw I did not find a 
"face-shaped map of the World". If the map Stevens refers to was round, it 
could not at least have had rhumbs upon it. 



262 Chapter 7. Shakespeare'» Earth and Heaven, 

Hondias ^ or by Blaeu would be sold in England, too. Copies of globcs 
by every one of the abovo globe-makers are still extant 



11— A NOTE ON THE OLD TUEORY OF EARTHQÜAKES. 

Gabriel Harvey, setting forth the views then widely prevalent as to 
the cause of earthquakes, says': — 

Mithin the Earth a disturbance Is brought about by reason of bad 
humours encountering the good. ^^Which conflict indurcth so long, and is 
"fostred with aboundaunce of corrupt putrified Humors, and ylfavoured 
"grosse infected matter, that it must needes, (as well, or rather as ill, 
"as in mens and womens bodyes) brüst out in the ende into one pcrilloiis 
"disease or other." — "The Materiall Cause of Earthquakes, (as is superficially 
"touched in the beginning of our speache, and is sufficiently prooved by 
"Aristotle in y second Booke of his Meteors) is no doubt great abonndance 
"of wynde, or stoare of grocse and drye vapours, and spirites, fast shut 
"up, (& as a man would saye, emprysoned in the Caves, and Dungeons of 
"the Earth: which winde, or vapors, seeking to be set at libertie, and to 
"get them home to their Natural lodgings, in a great fume, violently rash 
"out, and as it were breake prison, which forcible Eruption, and strong 
"breath, causeth an Earthquake. As is excellently, and very lively expressed 
"of Ovid, as 1 remember, thus: 

Vis fera ventorum caecis inclusa cavernis'' ....'. 

Compare Shakespeare's 1. Henry IV., Act III, i, 25 — 35: 

Ilotspur: "0, then the earth shook to sce the heavens on fire, 
"And not in fear of your nativity. 
"Diseased nature oftentimes breaks foith 
"In Strange eruptions; oft the tecming earth 
"Is with a kind of colic piuch'd and vex'd 
"By the imprisoning of unruly wind 
"Within her womb; which, for enlargement striring, 
"Shakes the old bcldam earth and topples down 



1 In de Jonge's "Opkomst", /, 78, it is stated that Jod. Uondius "in Engt- 
^^land diverscbe globen over omtrent 10 jaren ende daemaer gesneden hadde". 
[I judge this to have been said in 1597.] Uondius had aliso manufactured Molyneux's 
globes. 

2 "A Pleasant and Pitthy Familiär discourse, of the Earthquake in April 
last." pr. 1580.— Iluth Libr. edition, Harvey, I, pp. 45 and 52. 

' For parallel passages relating to the cause of earthquakes, see Parker 
Society "Liturgical Services", p. 670: *A Godly adniomtion', 1580, Clareud. Pr. 
Ed. of 1. Henry IV., p. 145; Malone, XVI, p. 305. 



Appendix (Note). 263 

"Steeples and moss-grown towers. At your birth 
^'Our grandam earth, having tbis distemperatare, 
'^In passion shook." 

Ana 'Venus and Adonis', 1046^*48: 

^^As when the wind, imprisonM in the groand, 
'^Strnggling for passage, earth's foundations shakes, 
'^Which with cold terror doth men's minds confonnd.'* 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

1 — ADDENDA ET CORßIGENDA. 

Page Vlll. Regarding the booksellcrs' shops, see Ordish, Shakespeare*s 
London, p. 233. 

Page 5. A bibliographical account of the books and papers on Shake- 
speare is issued annually by the German Shakespeare Society in their Jahr- 
buch, to which Dr. Dibelius also contributes a 'Zeitschriftenschau', which 
will be found useful. The 'Shakespeare-Bibliographie' for 1900 and 1901 
records the publication of more than 1280 books, articles, etc. relating to 
Shakespeare, and editions of bis works. Ilorresco re/erens. Of course, in 
most cases the writers merely repeat old facta and ideas.^ 

Page 5 note i, 'Macbeth' has now appeared in Liddell's edition, which 
he names the "Elizabethan Shakspere". Only 240 copies are published. 
Being cxpensive and somewhat unwieldy, it is not destined to displace 
the Globe Edition. We need a 'Shakespeare in Old Spelling', which, while 
absolutely reliable, must be cheap, handy, and practical for purposes of 
quotation and reference. The Globe edition excellent though it be, is by no 
mcans a textual authority, nor is its modernization always consistent. I givc 
a few instances which occur to me at the present moment. In 1. Henry IV., 
Act I, III, the scene is laid at * London, the palace'. This is not correct (see 
above, p. 253). In 'Romeo', II, iv, 151, Mercutio is made to sing "lady, 
lady, lady". This is mere conjecture and probably erroneous (cf. p. 166). 
Again, "the humour of forty fancies" is printed with quotation marks. These 
should be deleted (cf. p. 195). Why does the Globe edition read ^Eina m 
Titus Androuicus (III, i, 242) but Etna in Merry Wives (III, v, 129); Pauls 
passim but Powles in Henry VIII. (Act V, iv, 16);' Cotsicold in 2. Henry IV., 

^ All the English and German books and dissertations, etc., connected with 
English Literature and Philology ought to be indexed every year. A 'Poole's 
index' of the German learned Journals is a sore want. Who will bring harmony 
into chaos? Of course, the best works should be marked with an asterisk. 

' We find both spellings in Elizabethan books. Comp., e. g., the title page 
of the Quarto of the Merry Wives, 1602. But only PauVs should be admitted 
into a modemized text. 



Additional Notes, i — Addenda et Corrigenda. 265 

Act III, II, 23, but CoUall in Merry Wives, I, i, 92; Gloster in 1. Henry VI., 
Act 111, 1, 49, but Gloucester elsewhere? Why is the reading Bouciqaall 
(Henry V., Act III, v, 45) of the Folio replaced by Bouciqualt (as in Holins- 
bed), but Lestrale not replaced by Holinsbed's Lesirake?^ On what principle 
are some passages and words in 2. and 3. Ilenry VI. adopted from the 
corrcsponding Qaartos while others are rejected? Surely, the name Hume in 
2. Henry VI. should be modernized into Ifum^; surely, lanthorn (Mids. N. Dr.) 
sboald be speit lantem; and for 0/ it own kind (Tempest, II, i, 163) we 
shoold read Of its own kind. (My Globe edition is dated 1895.) A close 
scrutiny of the Globe Edition would no doubt reveal many more littlc errata, 
such as I have pointed out. 

Page 5 note 1. Regarding Fleay's Ilist. of the Stage, cf. p. 119, note. 

Page 10 note 5, for ,one read 'one 

Page 1 5 line 17, for * Vocavito read ' Vocativo 

line 10 (from end), /or he! read he!^ 

note i, for George Lyly's read John Lyly's 
for where of read whereof 
Page 16 Une 12, for *De read De 
Page 22 note i, for ,Aureola read 'Aureola 
Page 24 line 21, for noteworty read noteworthy 
Page 26 line 13, for 'Never to Laie' read 'Never too Latc' 

line 14 for 'Song read Song 

note 1, compare Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe, Jan. 18 

1825. 
Page 28 note 1. But compare post, p. 113 n 4. 
Page 29 note 1 (last line), for ut read (ut 
Page 33 note i. 'Jack the Juggler' is founded on Amphitruo. 
Page 36 line 7, for Bloud read 'Bloud 

line 9, for say read 'say 

line 13, for the Seneca read Seneca 

Page 37 lines 3 seq, Mr. Hart, in bis edition of Othello, 1903 (Arden 

Shakespeare), p. 161, quotes a later passage in Pliny (IV, 13): "out 

"of Pontus the sea alwaies floweth and never ebbeth againe". (Cf. also Hart, 
p. XXI.} Mr. P. A. Daniel called my attention to this. 

Page 43 line <9, Mr. Fleay, in his Chronicle of the English Drama, II, 36, 
mys that Dr. Leg^e wrote The Destruction of Jerusalem, and that this was 
acted at Coventry in 1577. I state this on Fleay's authority only. 

Page 44 line 6. Mr. Churton Collins, in The Fortnightly Review, May, 
1903, p. 848, disputes the priority of the discovery. He points out that 

1 Compare Boswell-Stone's "Shakspere's Holinshed", pp. 195 — '6. 
3 Comp. Bosw.-Stone, p. 253 note 1. 



266 Additional Notes, 

"Dr. Wellesley in bis Anthologia Polyglotta (1849), p. 93, printed sonnet CLI V., 
"without any remark, underneath the Greek original, as one of the veraions." 
Bat Uertzberg made bis discovery independently. 

Page 44 note 1 Uns 7, Jor ,Authour' read *Antbour' 
Paqk 47 line 2 from end, /or Comp, read Comp., 

note 1, /or of the Bodleian read in the Bodleian 
Page 48 line 11 from end, for they either o read tbey either of 
Page 49 line 10, Jor II, 753, read II, 19, 753, 

Pagk 51, I forgot to refer to Miss Hooker's articie on Montaigne and 
Shakespeare, in the Publications of the Modern Language Association of 
America, Baltimore, 1902, pp. 312— 3C6. She points out many 'parallelisms', 
many of which are doubtful. Mr. W. C. Ilazlitt, too, gives us bis ppiDion 
on the same subject, in bis 'Shakespear' («c), 1902, pp. 155 f. 

Page 57 5), Perbaps Rabelais's influence is only indireci We find 
similar fustian talk in Ben Jonson's Every Man (mt of bis Ilamour, 1599, 
.Act III, I. 

Page 60 noie 4, for wat read wbat 

Page 63 //. 1 — 3, Professor Gollancz made this Suggestion, in bis Temple 
Shakespeare, Cymbeline (Preface). Bat cf. note 3. 

P. 65. Dr. Garnett teils me that recent discoveries among Egyptlan papyri 
place the dato of Chariton^s work not later than the tbird Century of our era. 

Page 66 note i. It was Steevens wbo made this remark regarding 
Tltus and Painter. Ile can scarcely be supposed to have made a wilfal 
error. Steevens wrote: ''Painter, in bis Palace of Pleasure, tom. ii. speaks 
"of the story of Titus as well known, and particularly mentions the cnielly 
"of Tamora". (Malone, Var. Ed., XXI, p. 258.) Perbaps bis mistake is due 
to confusion between Timon (referred to by Painter, vol. II) and Titus. In 
the Preface to the Reader ibid, Painter refers to "two Romayne Queenes" 
who "point (as it wer) with their fyngers, the natures of Ambitiö and Cruelty, 
"and the gredy last (hidden in that feeble sexe) of soverainty". May ve 
suppose that Steevens bad made a burried note regarding this, and that at 
a later dato he rasbly jumped to the conclusion that Tamora was referred 
to by Painter? Perbaps the name Tanaqail belped to add to the confusion. 
Not only truth but even error should be traced to its origin, if possible. 

Page 71 line llf. "Plautus", says Keller (Shakespeare Jahrbuch, XXXIV, 
p. 277), "hat, wie den Bramarbas so auch den Pedanten der neueren 
"Komödie zugeführt. Aus dem Ludus seiner Bacchides gehn alle Pädagogen 
"des italienischen Lustspiels hervor.^' Keller thinks that a Latin University 



1 — Addenda et Corrigendcu 267 

play called Taedantins' (circa 1580?) was known to Shakespeare, which I 
Ycry much doubt. Hermann Graf wrote a dissertation, Dor Miles gloriosus 
im englischen Drama bis zur Zeit des Bürgerkrieges, 1891, Rostock-Schwerin. 
I haye not seen this. 

Page 75 line ii, for Tiek read Tieck 

Page 77 U. 8 — 11. The quotation is, of course, from Tennyson's Dream 
of Fair Women, 

Page 78 title, for Dramatik read Dramatic 

Page 81 end. Dr. Aldis Wright points out the following in Ä World 
of Wonders by Henry Stephen translated by R. C, 1607, p. 292: "the 

ancient Latinists had no good dexteritie in giving Etymologies of Ancient 

Latin words; witness the notation of Midier^ quasi mollis aer'\ A writer in 
Notes and Queries (Febr. 1857) quotes Isidore of Seville as giving this 
grotesqne etymology. (I am quoting from Dowden's edition of Cymbeline, 
in the Arden Shakespeare, 1903, p. 209.) 

Page 101 note 2 line 1, for Shakespeare read Shakespeare, 

Page 104 line 14, for cayeth read 'cayeth 

Page 108 note 3. Breakespeare (= Adrian IV), like Shakespeare and 

Winspeare, must be rcgardcd as being imperatives (or perhaps infinitives) 

in form, which explanation is supported by namcs such as Makepcace, Do-well, 

Thndichnm, Bleibtreu, Hauschild, etc., and words like forget-me-not, rendez- 

voas, portalettere (Ita!.), etc. 

Page 113 line 3 from end. Mr. P. A. Daniel doubted whether we should 
call Puck a fairy. But we know it from Puck's own mouth that he is one. 
Mids. N. Dr., V, i, 390: "we fairies", etc. 

Page 1 1 5 note 3 line 5, for cru-/shcd read crush-/ed 

Page 127 note 2, Dr. Lessiak, in a work soon to be published, will 
pro VC that Dekker was the author of Lusfs Dominion. 

Page 128 note 3. Prof. Schick also edited The Spanish Tragedy with 
an introdnction in The Teinple Dramatists, 1898. 

Page 134, s. v. Mother Bombte, I now prefer to regard tho expression 
"I cry you mercy, I took you for a joint-stool" as a proverbial saying 
expressing a clumsy apology. 

line 4 from end, for Shrew read Shrew, 

Page 143 note 4, dele by the Meiningen Company. Kahle acted Timon 
in the Schauspielhaus (where now, alas, the chief roles are playcd by Mat- 
kowsky, who appeals to the lower instin cts of the audience). 



268 AddUional Notes. 

Page 149 1) and note 2. Dr. Wamer, Mr. W. W. Greg, and myself 
examined HoDslowe's DIary most carefally with regard to the ne\ on 
Sept. 8, 1903. If anybody's opinion is of weight, Dr. Warner's is. Mr. Greg, 
who is engaged upon a new edition of Henslowe^s Diary, to be pablished next 
year by A. H. Ballen, is most familiär with the MS. Yolume. We used magnifying 
glasses and had good natural light. There can be no mistake whatever tbat the 
ne's are antbentic. Dr. Eichhoff 's allegation that they were all forged by 
Collier is untrae, and he only discovered a mare^s nest. Of the ne's we 
examined, the only one which looked somewhat suspicioas was that before 
Hitus and ondronicus', Jan. 23, 1593 — 4. Bat Dr. Warner was rather incliaed 
to regard it as genuine. 

Page 150 note 2, /or it read the bailad 

Page 154 note 3. I may here note one or two more errata in Schmidts 
Lexicon: '•'•OIiver'\ he says, is "a famous knight of Charleraagne's Bound 
^^Tahy\ So far as I know, no Round Table is attribnted to Charles. 

^^Claw used blunderingly : but age hath clawed me in bis clutch, 

"Hml. V, I, 80. (Ff caught)". But clawed is in Totters Miscellany. Baüle 
(Merry Wives, I, iv, 92) is not in the list of French words. Comp, also aboTe, 
p. 168 and p. 257, p. 13 f., p. 244 note 2; etc. 

Page 155—195. I have already inserted some notes, with which the 
Rev. J. W. Ebsworth kindly favoured me, in the fifth chapter. I have mach 
pleasnre in subjoining the rest, which were crowded out above by the printer. 

Page 156 note 1 line 2, J. W. E. conjectures that for tie "the true word 
"used was ijce = entice. But we have no authority'\ — Bat tie gives very 
good sense. 

Page 158 Hne 3 from end, Dr. R. Sievers is publishing a dissertation on 
Thomas Deloney, to appear in the 36 th volume of the Palaestra, Berlin, 1903. 

Page 164. J. W. E. refers me to bis Robin Hood ballads, Roxburghe 
Ballads, vol. VllI (part xxiv), p. 529 f, pablished in 1896. Child's third 
volume appeared in 1888/9. 

Page 169 last lines. A contributor to the New Skakspere Soc. Trans., 
1887 — 92, Part I, p. 142, says the words calino casturame=C3Li\lu ög as 
stnaire mc=a girl young and fair am I. 

Page 170 and j^ossim. J. W. E. teils me that I should not have quoted 
from, or referrcd to, Mr. Wooldridge's "garbled and emasculated" edition. The 
original edition of 1855 is "the only valuable edition'*. I admit Wooldridge's 
edition is inferior, but the older edition is out of print and Mr. Wooldridge 
gives some new Information, though he earns the just condemnation of every 



i- — Addenda et Corrigenda, 269 

Scholar for the exclnsion of most valaable matter. Nor would every scholar 
applaud his re-arrangement of the materials. As the original has a good 
index, which Mr. Wooldridge's edition has not, the reader will not be incon- 
Tenienced by my references to the latter. Of coarse, I used and studied 
both editions. 

Page 173 lines 4 and 5, ^^Both ballads of Dr. Fanstns and Titus An- 
"dronicns are reprinted in the Ballad Society, Roxbnrghe Ballads, vols VI, 
^'703, and II, 544". J. W. E. 

Pagb 173 lines 16—24. William Birch's ballad is in the Britwell Library. 
I applied to the trustees of the same for permission to copy this ballad. 
Mr. Graves replied: ''I regret to have to inform yon that it is not possible 
'Ho comply with yonr reqaest becaase the publication of the ballad in question 
^'woold detract from the interest of a volume of early ballads and broadsides 
"in the same collection which may ere long be printed". (March 3 Ist. 1903.) 

Page 174 Green Sleeves. Chappell (orig. ed., p. 230) reprints, in part, 
the words given in 'A HandefuU of pleasant delites'. I expressed niy doubts 
to the Rev. J. W. Ebsworth whether these were the original words, as ihe 
Stat Registers mention a newe norlhern Dittye of the Ladye Greene Sleves 
(3 Sept. 1580). In 1581 (13 th Febr.) Elderton's ballad "A Reprehension 
againste Greene Sleves" was booked. J. W. E. sees "no reason to doubt 
that we have substantially the true ballad" as printed in ^'A Handefall of 
pleasant delites". 

Page 181 line 3, 'Antidote against Melancholy' was reprinted by J. W. E. 
in 1876 in 'Choyce DroUery', etc. 

Page 185. "Come away, come away, death" seemed to me to lack the 
ring of a truly populär song. It did not seem snfficiently ^silly^ to me, nor 
to dally with the innocence of love. Hence I believed it was an Interpolation. 
Bat the Rev. J. W. Ebsworth, whose opinion is better than mine, writes 
indignantly: ^'No, no, no! I disagree in toto with this gaess and am confident 
'Hhat it is Shakespeare's own intended song. I would stake my judgment 
"(not to say my reputation) on it. I maintain that it exactly fulfils the 
"premises, — precisely the pathetic song the spinsters and knitters would 
"sing at their work — and sung it." 

Page 186. J. W. E. thinks my theory is 'doubtful'. — Some theory 
mu8t be ventured to explain the very curious correspondence and resemblance 
between Ophelia's fragment, The Gentle Ilerdsman, and Deloney's ballad, 
which commences thus: 



270 AdJiiional Notes. 

As yoa came from the holy-land 

Of Walsingham, 
Met you not with my true love 

By the way as you came? 

How should I know yoar trae love, 
That have met many a one, etc.^ 

Theo follows the description of the lady and the pilgrim's reply.— Bisbop 
Percy must have instinctively feit the connexion, which subsists betwcen 
the above productioiis, when he ponned his 'Friar of Orders Gray'. 

Either the original or some other Walsingham song is parodied in ^Hans 
Beer-Pot\ 1618: 

As I went to Walsingham, 

To that holy Land, 
Met I with an olde baldc Mare, 
By the way as I came. 

For further Information on Walsingham, see Ghappell, orig. ed., 
pp. 121 — '3. The original song is probably pre-Elizabethan. 

Page 187 lines 9/. The Rev. J. W. Ebsworth had in mind "a ballett 
intituled iakeri nappynge as Mosse toke hü meare'\ which we find entered 
on the Stationers' Registers in 1569/70 (Arber, 1,417). 

Page 187 line 29. *This is not certain', I said. But there can be no 
reasonable doubt about this any more, as the Rev. J. W. E. points out to me. 
For there is a better version than the one printcd by Child from the Percy 
MS. in the Choyce DroUery^ 1656, republished by J. W. Ebsworth in 1876 
(Boston, Lincolnshire). The ballad (pp. 78—80) is entitled 'üpon the Scots 
being beaten at Muscieborough field', and begins thas: 

On the twel/th* day of December, 

In the fourth year of King Edwards reign[,] 

Two mighty Hosts (as I remember) 

At Muscieborough did pitch on a Piain. 

For a down, down, derry derry down, Hey down a. 

Down, down, down a down derry. 

Page 189 line 7 from md. 'But I suspect Collier is swindling'. To 
this J. W. E. remarks. ^'This to me is vile and gratuitous insult against the 
"dead man, whom I love and honour, and knew for years." 

* Percy See, XXX, Garland of Ooodwill, p. 111. (The G. of G. is rcferred 
to by Nash, in Have with you, 1596, lluth Libr. ed., p. 123. As to Walsingham 
cf. ibid, p. 98.) 

' My italics. 



i — Addenda et Corrigenda, 271 

Page 191 line 9. Shakspcre. ^^Never yonrself tolerate this inaccurate 
"spelling: brought in cnlpably by Chas. Knight in his Pict. Shaksp., and 
**imitated by others." J. W. E. 

Page 193 line 5, for "The Merry Wives" read "The Merry Wives of 
Windsor". 

Page 200 line 3, for bollie read bellie 

Page 201. In The Athenaeum, April 28, '83, p. 542, Mr. Ginsbarg points 
ont that the foUowing passage in Love's Labour's Lost, IV, iii, 364-'ö: 

"For charity itself fulfils the law, 

"And who can sever love from charity?" 

comes nearest to the translation of Romans, XIII, 10, in the Bishops' Bible: 
'Therefore the fnlfyllyng of the lawe is charitie\ which the other bibles 
render: 'Therefore is love the fulfilling of the law.' 

Page 217. Metrical Psalms are still sang in Scotland. 

Page 225 line iß, Hhe first that ever burst into that silent sea' is, of 
coarse, from Coleridge's Ancient Mariner (Part II, st. 5). 

Page 225 line 19. On Setehos Mr. H, Ilesketh Prichard (at Southsea) 
the aathor of Through the Heart of Patagonia^ London, 1902, very courte- 
oasly wrote the following lines to me: "I will answer your letter in füll in 
a few days. I am writing to a friend, who has lived among the Tehaelche 
his cbildhood, for an opinion to see if it corroboratcs yonrs.'' Again, on 
Aug. 17. 1903: "I have never heard the Tehuelche Indians of Patagonia 
"mention Setehos, As far as I could gather, their religious beliefs oiily 
"recognise a good spirlt which is nameless and an evil one — the Gualicho. 
"This is endorsed by my correspondent whom I mentioned in my last letter." 

Page 239 line 10. Some remarks on Shakespeare's astrology will be 
found in MacMillan's Magazine, 51, p. 462. 

last lines. But compare Sonnet XV, 3 and 4. 

Pages 250 — 3. To the London names add the following: The Jewel 
Hause of the Tower (mentioned in Henry VlIL, Act IV, i, 111, and V, i, 34); 
*Long Lane (? The Shrew, IV, iii, 187); *the pismng conduit (2. Henry VI., 
Act IV, VI, 3); *The Tiliyard (2. Henry IV., Act 111, ii, 347). 



2 — MORE BORROWED IDE AS. 

Nibil DO vom est sub sole; ni- 
hilque dictam. qnod non sit dictom 
prins. 

I now offer a few jottings on further Shakespearean borrowings. I say 
jottings, for I am reluctantly compelled by circamstances (not by space this 
timc) to give up my intention of writing a separate chaptcr on this subject 
Fragmentary though this section be, there is pcrhaps some gain in at least 
stating what bas still remained undone. The chapter was to include:— 
1. More classical elements in Shakespearc's works. This I have partly 
worked oat. 2. Ideas of which parallels can be adduced from contemporary 
or earlier literature. 3. Proverbs and sayings. 4. Folk-lore in Shakespeare; 
and Populär £rrors regarding animals, plants, etc. 5. Inquiry into Shakespeare's 
knowledge of law, music, mcdicine, etc. 

There is no saying where we should stop our investigation. For is not 
the very language which Shakespeare spoke the work of generations moulded 
and refined by many varied minds? 

1 — More Classical Elements in Shakespeare's Works with mant 

OTHER Parallels. 

Tn this section, which is suppleraentary to chapter 1, I shall mention, 
by way of example, some ideas and expressions which can be traced back 
to the old classics. It is not always possible to say exactly whether the in- 
fluencc is of a direct or indirect kind. But in many cases we feel certain 
that it is of the latter. For the whole Renaissance atmosphere was sar- 
charged with classicism, and one who had enjoyed a very fair classical 
schooling himself and who moved among the best of bis age would continuallv 
add to the störe of bis knowledge. 

The question of Shakespcare^s relation to the classics has lost nothing 
of its fascination. A suggestive paper on Shakespeare's Predecessors was 
read by Professor Brandl before the German Shakespeare Society at Weimar 
in 1899 (Jahrbuch, xxxv). He shows that, though Shakespeare cannot be 
supposed to have studied the Greeks, there is a piain chain of connexion 
strctching across the centuries from the Elizabethan to the Attic stage. The 



2- — More Borrowed Ideas. 273 

ForlDightly Review, as I have already stated, brings a series of articles to 
prove that Shakespeare had read the Greek dramas in Latin versions. Mr. 
Churton Collins, the author of these articles, was no doubt inflnenced by 
Mr. Edwin Reed's chapter on classic elements in Shakespeare's plays, in his 
''Francis Bacon our Sbake-speare" (London, 1902), a work which cannot 
stand the test of serioas criticism. It is only bis parallelisms between 
Shakespeare and the classics which we are concerned with here. A detaiied 
discassion of his and Mr. Collins's remarks is, of course, out of qaestion. 
I can only select more notewortby points, which I shall refer to en passant, 
Mr. CoUins's position I may remark, is not new. He had been anticipated 
by James Russell Lowell.i 

I confess, I have much sympathy with those, who, impressed with the 
complexity of the gigantic mind of Shakespeare, like to think that he could 
have been little satisfied with second-hand knowledge. For bim only the best 
was good. It is, indeed, difficult to draw a hard and fast line between direct 
and indirect inilnences. No doubt, Shakespeare was a hard-working man. 
Supposing he spent an hour every morning before breakfast in reading belle- 
tristic literature, why should he not have opened the Latin writings now 
and then? If so, why not the Greek authors in the Latin (or French) 
translations? But there is a limit to everything, — except to scientific enquiry. 

I have already said in Chapter 1 that Shakespeare did know the Latin 
classics in the original. But, thongh they supplied him with a sound train- 
ing, their infiuence should not be exaggerated. The very fact that he opened 
his Golding should be a sufficieut warning. It is of course possible that 
Shakespeare had looked into the Greek classics in the Latin translations. 
There are many things about which ignoramus et ignorabimua, 

What has Mr. Collins shown? He has displayed much learning and 
research and proved that he himself has carefuUy studled the Greek dramas; 
but he has conspicaously failed to show Shakespeare^s obligations to them, 
30 much so, that his articles may be cited as providing strong evidence to 
the contrary. Even supposing that, by some chance, English translations of 
the Greek dramas should' be discovered (which is extremely unlikely), I 
should continue to remain sceptical as to whether Shakespeare studied them, 
basing my doubts on the inconclusiveness of Mr. CoUins's articles. His paper 
is fall of honest destructive self-criticism, which — it is not offensive to say 
so — shows that Mr. Collins has failed to convince himself. The difference 
between Shakespeare's drama and the Attic tragedy is essential and radical. 
Shakespeare's mind travelled in another direction altogether, and the connexion, 
sach as it is, is indirect through the Elizabethan contemporary drama and 
literature at large. For a fair judgment on this question a constant com- 



^ Compare Mr. Lee's Life of Shakespeare, p. 13«. "I believe", says Mr. Lee, 
"Lowell's parallelisms to be no more than curious accidents— proofs of consangui- 
*'nity of spirit, not of any indebtedness on Shakespeare's part." 
Anders, Shakespeare's books. 18 



274 Additional Notes. 

parisoQ with the Elizabethan literatare is imperative, — a comparison which 
Mr. CoUins has evaded entirely. The subject, if investigated again, must be 
approached from a standpoint offering a broader and wider view.^ 

Need we repeat, what is a tniism, that the language of Natare is the 
same in London as in Athens; that the Attic Muse had been resoscitated 
by the Renaissance; and that the basis of Shakespeare^s drama is national 
not exotic? 

I hegin by pointing out some thoughts and expressions, which can be 
traced back to the old Philosophy, and which must have been familiär to 
the poet through the Renaissance writings. 

1) I do now remember a saying, ^The fool doth think he is wise, but the 

wise man knows himself to he a fooV. 

(As You Like It, V, i, 33.) 

This is a Socratic idea. 

2) Look, who comes herel a grave unto a soul; 
Holding the eternal spirit^ against her will, 
In the vile prison of a/flicted breath. 

(King John, III, iv, 17—19.) 

Now my souVs palace is become a prison, etc, 

(3. Henry VI, Act II, i, 74— '6.) 

this hollow prison of my flesh, ^^.^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ 

Compare what Piato says, e. g., in bis 'Cratylus', 400: 'For some say that 
*the body is the grave (o7)|xa) of the soul which may be thought to he bnried 
'in our present life; or again the index of the soul, because the soul gives 
'indications to (arijxafva) the body; probably the Orphic poets were the in- 
'ventors of the name, and they were under the Impression that the soul is 
'suffering the punishment of sin, and that the body is an enclosure or pri- 
'son in which the soul is incarcerated, kept safe (awixo, acüCr^tai), as the name 
'acBfia implies, until the penalty is paid'.' The thought had no doubt become 
a commonplace. 

3) To bcy or not to be 

To die: to sleep; 
No more; and by a sleep to say we end 
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks 
That flesh is heir to, His a consummatiön 
Devouily to be wish'd, To die, to sleep; 



* Two somewhat puzzling allusions in Titas Andronicus are noted below, 
p, 285. 

2 Plato, translated by Prof. Jowett, 1892. 



2 — More Borrowed Ideas. 275 

To sleep: percJtance to dream: ay, there's the ruh; 
For in that sleep of death what dreains may come^ etc. 

(Hamlet, III, i, 56 f.) 

'Let ns reflect*, says Socrates in Plato's Apology (40), in another way, 
'and we sfaall see that there is great reason to hope that death is a good; 
'for one of two tbings — either death is a state of nothingness and utter un- 
^conscioDsness, or, as men say, there is a change and migration of the soul 
^from this world to another. Now if you suppose that there is no conscious- 
^ness, hut a sleep like the sleep of him who is undisturbed even by dreains, 

'death will be an unspeakable gain Now if death be of such a nature, 

'1 say that to die is gain; for eternity is then only a Single night.* But if 
'death is the joumey (dno87]fAfj3at) to another place, and there, as men say, 
'all the dead abide, what good, my friends and jodges, can be greater 
'than this?' 

The passage, from which these sentences are taken, was very famous in 
antiquity. It ^s translated by Cicero (Tusc. Disp. I, 97 — 99), and quoted by 
Stobaeus and Ensebius: Piutarch also gives a paraphrase of the reasoning in 
bis Consolatio ad Apollonium, 107 D foll. (cf. Holland's transl. of the "Morals'\ 
1603, p. 516). Compare also Xen. Cyrop. VIII. 7. 19 foll., where the dying 
Cyras talks mach as Socrates does here.' Montaigne repeats Socrates's thoughts 
(cf. p. 54), of which we also find an echo in Ph. de Mornay's Discourse of 
Life and Death, translated by Mary, Countess of Pembroke, 1592 (2nd ed* 
1600). With the above passage we should also compare Measure for Mea- 
sure, 111, 1, 17: 

"Thy best of rest is sleep, 
"And that thou oft provokest; yet grossly fear'st 
"Thy death, which is no more." etc. 

or The Tempest, IV, i, 156—8: 

'^We are such sluff 
"As dreams are made on, and our little life 
"Is rounded with a sleep." 

4) The beast 

With many heads butts me away. 

(Coriol., IV, I, 1.) 

The blunt monster xoith uncounted heads, 
The still-discordant wavering multitude, 

(2. Henry IV., Ind. 18.) 



> Huxley's tombstone has the foUowing inscription : It is well even if the 
sleep be endless. 

3 Adam's edition of the Apology, 1887, p. 115. 

18* 



276 Addüional Notes, 

In the Republic (IX, 588) the human soul is compared to a maltitudinons 
many-headed monster. The Stoic Ariston of Ghios calis the people a ico>.*>- 
x^^ov &T)pfov • Hence Horace's bdua muüorum capUum (Epist., I, i, 76). 
Stephen Qosson, in his Plays C6r\ftUed^ (1582) writes: Hhe aancient Philo- 
^sophers . . . called them [the people] a monster of many heades\ Compare, 
also, DanieFs Complaint of Rosamond (v. 279): ^many headed beasV. Again, 
Hakluyfs Voyages. 1599, vol. II, part 2, p. 142: ^shall the blind opinion of 
Hhis monster, a beast of many heads, (for so hath the generalitie of old bene 
Hermed) cause me to neglect the profession?' etc.— I refrain from qooting 
other instances. 

5) Come hither. If thou be'st valianty — o«, they say, hase men being m 
love have then a nobility in their natures more than » native to them, — 

(Othello, II, I, 216-.'8.) 

Compare Plato's Symposium, 179: 'The verlest coward would become 
^an inspired hero, equal to the bravest . . . Love would insplre him\ etc.* 

6) Viriue is beauty 

(Twelfth Night, III, iv, 403.) 

The germ of this is, I believe, to be found in Plato. Compare, e. g., 
^Symposium\ 201, Socr. TdyaBd ou xal xotXd Soxe? aoi elvat Äg. "EjAOtjE. Bishop 
Wordsworth, in his work on Shakespeare's Knowledge and Ose of the Bible, 
1880, p. 218, considers this idea to be derived from the stoical phüosophy. 
Be this as it may, the thought was familiär to the Elizabethans. Sidney, in 
his 5th Sonnet of 'Astrophel and Stella' says: "True— that true beauty Virtue 
"is indeed." Or compare Spenser's 'Hymn in Honour of Beauty', where we 
read: "For all that fair is, is by nature good" (1. 139).» 

7) In Troilus and Cressida, III, in, 95 seq, we have the foUowing passage: 

Achil. Wkat are you reading^ 

Uiyss. Ä Strange fellow here 



1 Hazlitt, The Roxb. Libr., Engl. Drama and Stage, 1869, p. 184. 
' Platonic ideas in Shakespeare's sonnets are pointed out by H. Isaac, in 
Archiv, 61, p. 193 f. 

' Compare with Spenser's poem the entire passage in Twelfth Night, III, iv, 
399—404. Also The Tempest, I, ii, 457: 

There's nothing ill can dwell in such a temple: 
If the ill spirit have so fair a house, 
Good thlngs will strive to dwell with't. 
In Arthur Brooke's Romeus and Juliet (1. 406} we read: — 

in no wise can it be, 
That where such perfect shape, with pleasant beauty rests, 
There crooked craft and treason black should be appointed guests. 



2- — More Borrowed Ideaa, 277 

Writes me: 'That wa«, how dearly ever parted, 
'How much in having, or ivithout or in, 
'Cannot make boast to have that which he hath, 
'Nor feds not what he owes, bui by reßection; 
*As xßhen his virtues shining upon oihera 
'Heat ihem and they retort that heat again 
^To the first giver,' 

AcUill. This is not stränge, Ulysses. 

The beavty that is bome here in the face 
The bearer hnows not, but l=unless^] commends itsejf 
To oihera eyes; nor doth the eye itself, 
That most pure spirit of sense, behold itself, 
Not going from itself; bnt eye to eye opposed 
Salutes each other ivith each other^s form; 
For speculation [-visionj tums not to itself, 
Till it hath travelVd and is mirror*d there 
Where it may see itself. This is not stränge at all. 

Ulyss. 7 do not strain at the position [=assertionJ, — 
It is famüiar, — but at the author^s drift; 
Who, in his circumstance [^deduction], expressly proves 
That no man is the lord of any thing, 
Though in and of him there be much consisting,^ 
Till he communicate his parts to others, 
Nor doth he of himself know ihem for aught 
Tül he behold them form'd in the applause 
Where they^re extended: who, Uke an arch, reverberates 
The voice again^ or^ Uke a gate of steel 
Fronting the sun^ receives and renders back 
His figure and his heat. 

I qnote this passage entirely, because Mr. Churton Collins, ia his article 
"Had Shakespeare read the Greek tragedies?", in the so-called Fortnightly 
Review, April, 1903, p. 632, finds here "conclusive proof ' of Shakespeare's 
acqnaintance with the Greek classics in Latin versioos. He compares the 
pseudo-Platonic dialogue Alcibiades I, p. 132, 133, where we find the foUowing 
carious argoment: 

As the eye sees itself by looking at the most perfect part, i. e. the pnpil, 
of the eye of another, so the soul which would know herseif must look at 
the most perfect part of herseif, that is to say, at that part which has to 
do with wisdom and knowledge: 

Socr. Did you ever observe that the face of the person looking into 
the eye of another is reflected as in a mirror; and in the Visual organ 

1 =sthough much may depend on his Cooperation and power. 



278 Addüional Notes. 

which is over against him, and which is called the pupil, there is a sort 
of Image of the person looking?^ 

Ale, That 18 quite true. 

Soc. Then the eye, looking at another eye, and at that in the eye 
which is most perfect, and which is the instrument of vision, will there 
See itself? 

Ale. That is evident. 

Soc. Bat looking at anything eise either in man or in the world,' 
and not to what resemhies this, it will not see itself? etc. 

It will be observed that the dri/t of the "author" whom Ulysses is 
reading is quite different. What the passage in the play means is this. Man 
has what he has and knows what he has by reflection. Just as beaaty 
knows not itself without commending itself to others, and as the eye is 
mirrorcd in another eye, so a man's gifts must be imparted and be coly 
becomes conscious of them by the applause of those to whom they are directed. 

It is piain that Mr. Churton Collins (cf. ante, p. 44) has exaggerated 
the dcgree of resemblance. So far from concurring with him in the assertion 
that here we find a ^'conclusive proof ' of Shakespeare's familiarity with the 
Greek classics, I am rather incliued to put the question whether the resemblance 
is not altogether accidental. 

8) For govermnent, though high and low ami loicer. 

Put into partSf doth keep in one consent, 

Congreeing in a füll and natural dose, 

Like music. 

(Henry V., Act I, ii, 180.) 

A remarkable parallel ism to this was pointed out by Theobald from 
Cicero's RepuhliCy of which we possess only fragments. The passage, which 
was known to the Elizabethans only from St. Augustiners De Civitate Dei, 
II, 21, is this: 

Tum autem Scipio in secundi libri fine dixisset, ut in fidibus ac tibiis 
'atque cantu ipso ac vocibus concentus est quidam tenendus ex distinctis 
^sonis, quem immutatum aut discrepantem aures eruditae ferro non possnnt, 
4sque concentus ex dissimillimarum vocum modcratione Concors tarnen efficitar 
'et congruens; sie ex summis et infimis et medüs interjectis ordinibus, tUsonii, 
'moderata ratione civitatem consensu dissimillimorum concinere; et qaae 
'harmonia a musicis dicitur in cantu, eam esse in civitate concordiam; arc- 
Hissimum atque optimum omni in republica vinculum incolumitatis, eamqae 
*sine justitia nullo pacto esse posse.' 

1 ('omp. Jul. Caesar, 1, ii, 52 f. 
' Excepting a mirror! 



2 — Afore Borrowed Ideas, 279 

Cicero seeras to have been indebted to Plato's Republic (IV, 432) for 
this idea. Dr. Aldis Wright thinks tbat Shakespeare borrowed it from no one. 

9) To the theory of the transmigration of the souls held by the Pythagoreans, 
we find allusions in Twelfth Night, IV, ii, 54 f., in As You Like It, III, ii, 
187— '8, and Merchant of Ven., IV, i, 131 f. 

Besides mentioning the names of Pythagoras, Aristotle, Epicurus, and 
Socrates, Shakespeare also alludes to Heraclitns, though without mentioning 
bis name, in The Merchant of Venice, I, ii, 52 f.: 

''I fear he xmll prove the weeping philosopher. ^ 

10) The philosopher Anaxarchus is said to have bitten off his tongue and spit 
it into the face of the tyrant who tortured him. Sir Thomas Elyot, in his 
work 'Of that knowlage, whiche maketh a wise man\ 1534, Dialogue 5, 
attribates this to Zeno Eleates. This anecdote was known to Shakespeare. 
Compare Richard IL, Act I, i, 190 — '5. 

We now proceed to point oat some thoughts and cxpressions in Shake- 
speare, for which we can find instances and parailels in miscellaneoos writings 
of the antiqae literature. 

11) All the worlcCs a stage, etc. 

(As You Like It, II, vii, 139; cf., too Merch. of Ven., I, i, 77—^8.) 

See Fumess's note in his Variorum Edition, VIII, 121; and Schelling, 
Elizabethan Lyrics, p. 263.* The sentiment was very common in Shakespeare's 
time. Totus mundtis agit histrionem was the motto to the Globe Theatre. 

12) Man's Life was divided into seven ages (see As You Like It, ut siip.^ 
143 f.) already by Hippocrates, Proclus, and others. See Furness, VIII, 122 f., 
and Notes and Queries, 9 th S., IX, 46, etc. Ralegh's History of the World, 
printed in 1614, contains the same subdivision. (Compare Ward, Hist. of 
Engl. Drama, II, 131 — '2; Arber's Engl. Garner, I, 139; Staunton's Shake- 
speare^ vol. II, 466.) 

13) For to he wise and love 

Exceeds man^s might; that direlh icith gods above, 

(Troilus and Cress., III, ii, 163.) 

Compare *amare et sapere vix deo conceditur', a sentence ascribed to Publius 
Syrus. This was translated thus by Spenser in his Shepherd's Calendar, March: 

To bo wise and eke to lovo 

Is graünted scarce to gods above. 



» Comp. New Shaksp. See. Trans. 1880—6, p. 9* and lO*. 



280 Ädditional Notes. 

A similar passage is also in Marston^s Dutch Courtezan. 

14) Sleep that knüs up the raveWd sleave qf care. 

The death 0/ each datfs l\fe, sore lahovr^s hatk, 

Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course, 

. Chief nourisher in life'a feast 

(Macbeth, II, 11, 37.) 

Compare Ovid, Met. XI, 623: 

Somne, qaies rerum, placidissime Somne Deoram, 
Fax animi, quem cura fugit; qai corda diarnis 
Fessa ministeriis malces, reparasque labori.^ 

Also il[fe/.,VIII, 8If.: 

Talia dicenti, cararam maxima natrix 
Nox intervenit; tenebrisqae audacia crevit. 
Prima qaies aderat; qaa curis fessa diurnis 
Pectora somnus habet — 

and Virgil, Äen.W,b21: 

somno positae sub nocte silenti 
Lenibant curas, et corda oblita labornm.i 

The following passage in Sidney's Astrophel and Stella (Poem xxxix) 
was, of course, known to Shakespeare: 

Come, Sleepe! Sleepe, the certaine knot of peace, 
The bathing^ place of wits, the bcdme of woe, 
The poor man's wealth, the prisoner's release, etc. 
Th' indifferent iadge betweene the high and low. 

Compare also Capell's note in Fumess's Var. Ed. 

15) We came crying hither: 

Thou knoxo'sty the first time that we smell the air, 

We wawl and cry. 

(Lear, IV, vi, 182— '4.) 

I have already pointed out a curious coincidence with Hollandes Pliny 
(cf. ante, p. 37). The thought may also be found in Lodge's and Sidney's 
works (cf. Notes and Queries, 9th S., vol. IX, pp. 197 and 298). Compare 
also Tim. Kendall, Trifles appended to his 'Flowers of Epigrammes', 1577 
(Spenser Soc. ed., p. 10): 



' Compare also Seneca, Hercules Furens, 1065 ff. 

2 'baiting-place' is the reading of the edition of 1598. 



. 2 — More Borrowed Idecu, 281 

Of the misery of man. 
We weping come into the world: and weping hence we goe, 
And all our life is notbyng eise, but grief, payne, toyle, and wo. 

16) Look like the irmocent flower, 

But he the serpent under H, 

(Mach., I, V, 66.) 

We find tbe snake under the flower again in Richard II., Act III, i, 
19—22; in 2. Henry VI., Act III, I, 228— '80; compare, too, Romeo, III, ii, 73. 
The idea is in Virgils Eclogue, III, 92: ^Qai legitis flores . . . fugite hinc, 
4atet anguis in herba.* Arthur Brooke in bis Romeus and Jnliet (1. 386) 
speaks of 'the snake that Inrks in tbe grass\ Again, in Byrd's Tsalms 
SoDnets and Songs\ 1588, we read: 'a poison'd serpent cover'd all with 
Üowers'j Gascoigne, too, knows that 4n sweetest flowres tbe snbtyll Snakes 
'may lurko'.- Compare also Chaucer, Squire's Tale, w 504 ff. The idea was, 
of course, seized upon by the emblematists and moralists (cf. H. Green, 
Shakespeare and the Emblem Writers, p. 340). 

17) Nor marble, nor the gilded monuments 

Of princesy shall ouüive this power/yl rhyme. 

(Sonnet 55.) 

This tbought which recurs in many of Shakespeare's sonnets, is, of course, 
deiived from Horace's famous ode Exe^i monutnentum aere perermim (Ode, 
III, 30) or from Ovid: Jamque opus exegi, quod nee Jovis ira nee ignes Nee 
poterit ferrum, nee edax aholere vetustas (Met., XV, 871 — '9). But it had 
become tbe brag of nnmberless poets and rhymesters. Compare Sidney Lee, 
Life of Shakespeare, pp. 114 and 116. 

18) Were she as rough 

As are the swelling Adriatic seas. 

(The Shrew, I, ii, 73.) 

Compare Horace's Improho iracundior Adria (Ode, III, ix, 22) or bis fretis 
acrior Adriae (Ode, I, xxxiv, 15). 

19) The ''fine frenzy' 

of the poet (Mids. N. Dr., V, i, 12) has been connected with Horace's amabilis 
insania (Ode, III, iv, 5). When we have to deal with a mind like Shake- 
speare's, as wealthy in imagery and iiivention as assimilative in facnlty, it 
becomes at times difficult lo decide to any degree of confidence the Claims 
which may be put forward on the side either of accidental coincidence or 
of influence. 

* A. H. Bullen, Lyrics from Elizabethan Song-books, p. 24. 
' Gascoigne's Poems ed. by Haziitt, 1870, vol. 11, p. 110. 



282 Additional Notes. 

20) The undiscover^d country from whose boum 

No traveller retums. 

(Hamlet, III, i, 79.) 

Sleevens quoted from Catnllus (Carm., III, 11): 

Qai nunc it per iter tenebricosum 
Illac, unde negant redire quenquam. 

But wo meet with this idea also in Anacreon, who writes: ^^Becaase 
^^the dungeon of Acheron is dismal and there is no return for anyone who 
"has descended into it". Theocrilus (12, 19) also says dv^ov eic^Ax^por»; 
and Philetas: 'Axpotirov tk 'AÄeoi f^vuaa, t))v oöttüi tu ivavxfov fjXdev oSirrj; (= Iter 
ad inferos feci, per quod nullus retrorsum viator venit). But Marlowe's Ed- 
ward IL, Act V, VI, 64: 

Mort. Farewell, feir queen; weep not for Mortimer, 
That scorns the world, and, as a traveller, 
Goes to discover countries yet unknown. 

was known to Shakespeare. A careful search tbrough the Elizabethan 
writings would probably reveal many more parallelisms in this as in other 
cases. 'The sam« idea is found in Sandford's version (1569) of Cornelias 
Agrippa'. 

21) Men's evtl manners live in brass; their virtues 

We write in water. 

(Henry VIII., Act IV, ii, 45.) 

CatuUus (Carm. lxx) says: 

Dicit: sed mulier cupido quod dicit amanti, 
In vento, et rapida scribere oportet aqua, 

This was translated thus by Sidney 

These bo her w^ords; but a woman's words to a love that is eager, 
In wind or waters streame do require to be writ.^ 

Again, in Thilaster^ by Beaumont and Fletcher (who is the probable 
coUaborateur of Henry VIII.) we read: 

All your better deeds 
Shall be in water tvrit^ but this in marble. 

22) Thou art an elm, my husbandy I a vine, etc. 

(Com. of Err., II, ii, 176). 

Sleep thou, and 1 will wind ihee in my arms. 



Compare Grosart's edition of Sidney, vol. II, pp. 43 — 44, 



2'—Afore Borrowed Ideas. 283 

Fairies, be gone, and he all ways away. 
So doth ihe woodbine the sweet honeysuckle 
Genäff entwitt; the /emale ivy so 
Enrings the barky fingers 0/ the elm. 

(Mids. N. Dr., IV, i, 43 f.) 
Catnllas (lxii, 54) says of the vine. 

nlmo conjancta marito; 

and in Ovid (Met., IV, 365) Salmacis embraces Hermaphroditus, 

ntve solent hederae longos intexere trancos. 

It is easy to give parallel passages from Elizabethan autbors. Daniel, 
in bis Complaint of Rosamond, says: 

And as the Vine married unto tbe Elme 

With strict embraces, so dotb be infold it [tbe body].» 

In Kyd's Spauisb Tragedy, Act IL 11, we read: 

Bell. My twining arms shall yoke and make tbee yicld. 
Hör, Kay tben my arms are large and streng witbal: 
Thus elms by vines are compass'd tili tbey fall. 

Again, in Sidney's Arcadia we find tbe foUowing verses: 

Tbe honest Bridegroome and the bashfull Bride, 

Whose loves may ever bide 

Like to the elme and vine 

With matuall embracements them to twyne.- 

Lastly, in Chaucer's Troilus and Cress., III, I. 1230 we read:— 

And as aboute a tree with many a twiste, 
Bitrent [= wind] and wry(h the swote tcode-binde, 
Gan eche of hem in armes other winde. 

Compare also Green, Shakespeare and the Emblem Writers, p. 308. 

23) The earih thafs natures mother is her tomb; 

What is her burying grave that is her womb. 

(Romeo, II, 111, 9—10.) 

Steevens cites Lucretius, De Ber, Nat.^ V, 260: 

Omniparens eadem rerum commune sepulcrum. 

But Shakespeare need not have gone to Lucretius; thougb, of course, 
it is no beresy to suppose he did. 



* Grosart's edition, p. 110. 

' Sidney, Poems ed. by Grosart, III, 15. 



284 Additional Note». 

24) Lay her { the earth: 

And from her fair and unpolluted flesh 

May violeU spring, 

(Hamlet, V, i, 261.) 

Compare Persias (Sat I, 38): 

Nunc non e manibas illis, 
Nanc non e tumulo fortunaque favilla 
Nascentor violae? 

25) The two bears will not hite one another when they meet. 

(Mach Ado, III, ii, 80.) 

One bear will not bite another. 

(Troilus & Cress, V, vii, 19.) 

Compare JavenaPs saevis inter se convenit urais (Sat XV, 164). Perhaps 
it had become proverbial. 

26) Will all great Neptune^e ocean wash this blood 

Clean from my handl 

(Macbeth, II, ii, 60.) 

Parallels have been quoted from Seneca^, Catuliaa, Sophocles, from HalFs 
Satires, etc. Pilate also washed the blood off bis cooscience, 

27) He seenCd in running to devour the way. 

(2. Henry IV., Act I, i, 47.) 

Compare Catullus, xxxv, 7: 

Quare, si sapiet, viam vorabiL 

The expression 'devoar the way' is also ased by Ben Jenson, Sejanas, 
Act V. sc. X. Compare also the French devoter Fespace, or le temps, 

28) To make a virtue of necessity, 

(Gent, of Ver., IV, i, 62.) 

'Fac de necessitate virtatem', says Hieronymus.* 'To maken vertne of 
necesitee', is in Chaacer's Knight^s Tale, A. 3042. Bat we are already in 
the sphere of proverbs. 

29) a sea of troublea, 

(Hamlet, III, i, 59.) 

a sea of care, 

(Lucr. 1100.) 

Compare the Greek xa%u>v OdXaasa, xoxdjv n^Xa^o;. Marlowe uses a similar 
expression 'a sea of tears' (2. Tamburl., III, ii, 47). In the 'Mirror for 

' Furtber parallelisms between Shakespeare and Seneca are given by Can- 
liffe, in bis worked quoted above, p. 34 n 1. 
* Comp. Büchraann, Geflügelte Worte. 



2 — Mor€ Borrowtd IdtoM. 285 

;', io The Tragedy of Queen Cordilla we read : ^to teil my seas of 
giltlesse smart\ (Gompare the Variorum Editions.) 

30) Devouring iime, 

(Sonn. XIX, 1.) 

Tooth of iime 

(Meas. f. M., V, i, 12.) 

Simonides of Ceos (d, 468 6. C.) spoke of ^'sharp-toothed time^'. Com- 
pare also Ovid, Metam., XV, 234: 

Tempus edeue rernm, toque, invidiosa vetustas, 
Omnia destraitis: vitiataqae denHlms aevi 
Panlatim lenta consamitis omnia morte. 

We now take note of two rather pnzzling passages in Titas Andronicus. 

31) The self'Same gods that amCd the Queen of Troy 
With opportuniiy oj sharp revenge 

üpon the Thracian tyrant in hie tent, 
May JaoovT Tamara, the Queen of Goths. 

(Act I, I, 136—9.) 

Theobald proposed the reading "in her tent", — 4. e. in the tent where she 
^and the other Trojan captive women were kept: for thither Hecuba by a 
'wile had decoyed Polymestor, in order to perpetrate her revenge. This we 
'may learn from Euripides^s Hecuba; the only author, that I can at present 
^remember, from whom onr writer must have gleaned this circam8tance\ 
(Malone, Var. Ed., xxi, 269.) Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, xiii, recounts 
how Hecaba wreaked vengeance on Polymestor, the king of Tbracia, bat he 
says nothing aboat her tent. 

The second passage is in the same scene of the same play (11. 379 — 381). 

32) The Chreeks upon advice did bury Ajax 
That alew himseJf; and wise Laertes^ son 
Did graciously plead for his fanerals.^ 

Steevens observed: 'we have here a piain allusion to the Ajax of So- 
'phocles,- of which no translation was extant in the time of Shakespeare. In 
'that piece, Agamemnon consents at last to allow Ajax the rites of sepaltare, 
^nd Ulysses ['Laertes' son'] is the pleader, whose arguments prevail in favoar 
'of his remains'. (Malone Var. Ed. XXI, p. 280.) 

What explanation shall we offer for these two allasions? Shall we accept 
Theobald's and Steevens's explanation; and shall we say that here we have 

1 Gompare also 2. Henry VI., Act V, i, 26: 

And now, like Ajax Telamonius, 

On sheep or oxen could I spend my fury. 



286 Additionai NoUb. 

sigDS of another academic band in Titus Andronicas? Or shall we sappose 
that Shakespeare was made thoroughly familiär with the Trojan story by his 
Stratford teacher, who wonld have told him more about Ajax and Hecoba 
when reading the thirteenth book of the Metamorphoses? Or did Shake- 
speare gain his knowledge in another way? from plays on Troy and Ajax? 

33) The striking rescmblance of the closing scene of The Winters Tale, 
where Hermione reappears as a statue, to the last of Euripides's Alcestis has 
often been noticed. I have no doubt but that the storv of Admetas and 
Alcestis was known to Shakespeare. 



Mr. Edwin Reed opens his book on Bacon and Shakespeare, 1902, by 
producing what he considers "nearly absolute proof that the authorof Henry V. 
(of course Bacon) had studied Cardan's translation of Hippocrates's Pro- 
fftiostica, or Galen^s commentary apon it. I have carefuUy investigated the 
matter and consider his arguments baseless. 

Mr. Collins, in The Fortnightly Review, April, 1903, p. 635, says that 
Shakespeare's *'^r\fted Jove's stout oak'' accorately (sie) recalls Ovid's '^suä 
convulsaque robora terra'', —which needs no comment The other coincidences 
also regarding Tempest, V, i, 33 f., which he points out on the same page 
seem to me altogether unimportant 

*The Nation' (New York, 1875, 11 March)» asks whether the following 
touch in 1. Henry IV., H, in, 90, 

In faith, I'U break thy Httle finger, Harry, 
An if thou wilt not teil me all things trae — 

is not taken from Polydore Vergil. I have wasted about three hoars in trying 
to discover the passage in qaestion, bot can find no trace of it. The reference 
in the 'Nation' is as irritating as it is useless. Dr. W. Aldis Wright, in his 
Clarendon Press edition, p. 128 says: "/'// break thy Httle finger. A reference 
"to an old custom not yet forgotten". 

IL — Passages with Parallels fbom Modern Literatüre. 

1) Come on, come on; you are pictures out of doors, 

Beils in your parlours, wild-cats in your kitchenSj 
Saints in your injuries, devils being offended^ 
Players in your houseirifery, and houseivives in your beds. 

(OtheUo, 11,1, 110 f.) 

In Middleton's 'Blurt, Master Constable', printed 1602, we find asimilar 
passage (Act III., in) : 

1 Compare New Shaksp. See. Trans., 1875/76, p. 124; and p. 462, line 10. 
Perhaps we are fooled by a forger. 



2 — Mor€ Borrowed Ideaa. 287 

aeeording to that rmse saying of you, be sainis in tbe church, angels 
in the street, devils in the kitchen, and apes in your bed. 

A very close parallel to tbis occurs in Puttenbam's, Arte of Poesie (p. 299, 
Arber's ed.). 

Compare, too, Florio, Second Frutes, 1591, p. 175: 
Women are in cborches, Saints: abroad, Angels: at home, devills: at 
windowes Syrens: at doores, pyes: and in gardens, Goates. 

2) Down from the waist they are Centaurs, 

Though women all above: 

But to the girdle do the gods inherit, 

Beneath is all the fiends*; 

There'8 hell, etc. ,_ ... ,^„. 

(Lear, IV, vi, 123.) 

St. Augiistine in bis De Haeresihus, lxxxv, says: Paterniani inferiores 
partes bamani corporis non a Deo, sed a diabolo factas opinantur, et omniom 
ex Ulis partibns flagitiomm licentiam tribuentes imparissime vivnnt. Hos 
etiaoi Yennstianos quidam vocant. — Compare Furness's note, in bis Var. Edition. 

3) hob Go to your bosom; 

Knock ihere, and ask your heart what it doth know 

Thafs like my brother's fault. 

(Meas. f. Meas., II, ii, 136.) 

Latber is said to bave made an Observation to , tbe following effect. 
If at any time you are not conscious of tbe sins of tbe flesb, pnt your band 
into yoar bosom (greift in euren Busen^). 

4) Tbe dying FalstafF, tbe Hostess in Henry V., Act II, in, 19f., teils us, 
cried out ^God^ God, GodT three or four times. Note 7, to comfort him, 
bid him a' should not think of God; I hoped there xcas no need to trouble 
himself with any such thoughts yet. 

Malone qnotes a story from Wits, Fits, and Fancies, etc., 1595, wbich 
Shakespeare may bave beard: ^A gentlewoman fearing to be drowned, said, 
^now Jesu receive our sonles! Soft, mistresse, answered tbe waterman; I trow, 
'we are not come to that passe yet\ (dar. Press ed.) 

5) But earthlier happy is the rose distilVd, 

Than that which withering on the virgin thom 
GrowSi lives, and dies in Single blessedness, 

(Mids. N. Dr., I, i, 76.) 



' Word sused by Bismarck on a memorable oecasion. 



288 Addüional NaU$. 

Compare Sonnet, V, 9—14. In Florio's Second Frutes", 1591, p. 183, 
we have a passage vhich throws ligbt on this: '^beaaty .... is also as yoa 
^^say, a flower sweet, on the stalk, but sweeter in tbe still.'' 

6) Here's a /armer, that hanged hirnseif on the expectation of plenty. 

(Macbetb, II, m, 5.) 
Rabelais (Bk. III, cb. iii) says: 
^Witness tbe Usurers of Landerousse, who not long since banged them- 
^selves wben tbey saw tbe Price of Corn and Wine falling and Good Times 
^retarning\ 
Joseph Hall probably bad tbis in mind wben be wrote in bis Satires, 
1598, Bk. IV, sat. vi, 23: 

£cb muck-worme will be rieb witb lawlesse gaine, 
Altbo be smother up mowes of seven yeares graine, 
And bang'd bimself wben com grows cbeap again. 

7) What is honouri a word, What is in that word honottrf whcU is in 

that honouri air, A trim reckomng, Who hath itf he that died o' Wednes- 

day, etc. 

(1. Henry IV., Act V, i, 135.) 

Compare Marlowe's Hero and Leander, I, 269 f: 

This idol, which you term virginity, 
Is neitber essence subject to the eye, 
No, nor to any one exterior sense, etc. 

or Daniel, Complaint of Rosaraond, 264 f: 

Fame (wbereof the world seemes to make such choice) 

Is bat an Eccho, and an idie voice .... 

. . . Breath of the vulgär ... 

Honor, a tbing witbout us, not our owne, etc. 

8) She is a woman, there/ore may be woo'd; 

She is a woman^ there/ore may be won; 
She is Lavinia, there/ore must be loved. 

(Titas Andr., II, i, 82.) 

She's beautiful, and there/ore to be woo^d; 
She is a woman, there/ore to be won. 

(1. Henry VI., Act V, m, 78.) 

Gentle thou art and there/ore to be won, 
Beauteous thou art, there/ore to be assailed. 

(Sonn., xLi, 5.) 



1 In this werk we also find the pun of *Stoic' and 'stock' (p. 171) which is 
used by Lyly and by Shakespeare. 



2 — More Borrowed Ideas, 289 

This kind of reasoning is ased by Greene: 
^Tasylla was a woman, and therefore to be wonne." (Planetomachia, 
1585, Grosart's ed., V, 56; comp., too, VII, 68, and VIII, 88.) 

9) Whip me, ye devils, 

From the possession of this heaverüy sight! 

Blow me about in windsl roast me in sulphurf 

Wash me in steep-down gulfs qf liquid frei 

(Othello, V, II, 277.) 

ihe ddighted spirit 

To bathe in fiery floods, ar to reside 

In thrilling region of thick'ribbed ice; 

To be imprison^d in the viewless winds^ 

And blotcn icith restless violeiice round about 

The pendefit world; or to be worse than worst 

0/ those that lawless and incertain thought 

Imagine howling, 

(Meas. f. Meas., III, i, 121 f.) 

Compare Hamlet, 1, iv, 1 1 — 22. The reader will, of course, be reminded 
of Dante, who probably echoes populär beliefs. In Chaacer's Parlement of 
Foules, 78, we read: 

Bnt brekers of the lawe, soth to seyne. 
And lecherous folk, after tbat they be dede, 
Shul alwey whirle aboate therthe in peyne, 
Til many a world be passed, out of drede, etc. 

Compare Skeat's note to this in bis edition of Chaucer. 

10) Let the brow 6*erwhelm it [the eye] 
As fearfvlly as doih a galled rock 

0' erhäng and jutty his confounded base, 
SwilVd with the ivild and waste/ul ocean, 

(Henry V, Act III, i, 11.) 

Compare Nash Christas Tears^ 1593, (Grosart's ed., p. 103): 'Like an 
*o?er-hanging Rocke eaten on with the tyde, .... so did theyr prependant 
^breastbones imminent-overcanopy theyr bellies'. 

11) Glendower. / can call spirits from the vasty deep. 
Hotspur. Why, so can /, or so can any man; 

But will they come when you do call for theml 

(1. Henry IV., Act III, i, 53.) 

Mr. P. A. Daniel* illustrates this by quoting from Luigi Groto's La 
Calisto (1580), III, iii, where Febo speaking of a great magician, says of 
bim that he can 

» New Shaksp. Soc. Trans. 1887/92 Part H, p. 246. 
Anders, ShAkespeare's books. 19 



290 Addiiional Notes. 

'Da gli antichi sepolchri chiamar le anime' — 
to which another character replies: 

. Ben, il chiamarle sarä cosa facile. 
II caso sia, che vogliono rispondere. 
The coincidence is no doubt due to intellectual kinship between poets. 
which must necessarily be the caase of curioas parallelisms sometimes. 

12) Mr. Reed poiiits out a carious resemblance between Hamlet, II, ii, 100 f. 

Pol, . . . and now remains 
That we find out the cause of this effect^ 
Or raiher my, the cause of this defect, 
For this effect defective comes hy cause — 
and St. Augustine, De Civ. Vei, xii, 7: 

Nemo igitur quaerat efflcientem causam malae voluntatis: non enim 
est efüciens, scd deficiens; quia nee illa effectio est, sed defectio. 
This to me is mere accident. Puns were the rage in the Elizabethan age. 

III — Provbbbs and Satings. 

I bope a list of proverbs used or alluded to by the great poet will be 
drawn up in the forthcoming edition of "Shakespeare's Library", the proverbs 
themselves being given on the left band side of the page in alphabetial 
Order, while the Shakespearean passages together with a very few other 
illustrations (wherever necessary) from other authors appear on the right band 
side. A tentative list of proverbs has been given by Malone (Var. Ed., XXI) 
and by Halliwell (Handbook Index). M. C. Wahl wrote 'Programmes' (Erfurt 
and Leipzig, 1884, '5, '6) on Das parömiologische Sprachgut bei Sh. This 
work was reprinted in abbreviated form in Shakespeare Jahrbuch, XXII, 
XXIII.* Compare, too, Lippincott's Magazine, No. 58, p. 567, Cid Saws of 
Shakespeare; and Dyer, Folk-lore.' Heywood's and Ray's Proverbs should be 
searchcd through, also the list in Camden's Beinains^ and in 'Book of Merry 
Riddles\ 

IV FOLK-LOBB AND POPULAR EeROES. 

T. F. T. Dyer has written a work on Shakespeare's Folk-lore (1884). 
T. Keightley- is the author of 'Fairy Mythology'; and W. C. Hazlitt of 'Shake- 
speare's Mythology, Fairy Tales', etc. (1875). The following books I have 
not seen: H. N. Ellacombe, Plant Lore and Garden Graft of Shakespeare 
1878; J. E. Harting, Ornithology öf Shakespeare (1871). A short paper might 
be written on populär error s in Shakespeare. Sir Thomas Browne's work 
against these idola should be compared. Shakespeare was, we cannot be 

* Wahl forgot to State what bis abbreviations signify. Who would guess 
that y=:Volksmuiid? This we ascertain from the Programme. 
^ cf. also Notes and Queries. 



2' — More Borrowed Ideas. 291 

sarprised at it, the cbild of his age, and as such held some crude notions. 
Nor vas Bacon in advance of his time. He preached experimentation but 
he did not practise it. And, we may remark parenthetically, he brooght 
aboat no revolatioo in science. 

Shakespeare, e. g., believed that a toad was poisonous, and that it 
contaiDed a precioas stone in its head; that a pelican fed her yonng with 
her blood; that a snake coald sting with its tongue; that toothache was caused 
by a worm, etc. 

V — Inquiry iNTO Shakespeare's Knowledge of Law, Music, 

Medicine, etc. 
'William Blades mentions some works treating of Shakespeare as a mu- 
sician, as a lawyer, as a chemist, etc., etc., in his 'Shakespeare and Typo- 
graphy', 1872. Lord Campbell and W. L. Rushton wrote books on Shake- 
speare's legal acquirements. ^Shakespeare and Masic^ is the work of Mr. Naylor; 
and CbappelFs Topnlar Mnsic' is the best book on early English mnsic. 
Many articles have been written on Shakespeare as a physician. But what 
has he to do with medicine? An interesting paper (not a large boök) might 
be written, in which some sayings of Shakespeare were viewed through the 
specfacles of the old physicians. Galen, Paracelsus, Hippocrates (all men- 
tioned by Shakespeare) were the medical authorities then.^ 



1 Perhaps T. Lund, Gesundheit und Krankheit in der Anschauung alter 
Zeiten, 1901, might be found useful. 

I need hardly say, in conclusion, that the absence on the preceding pages 
of names such as W. Hazlitt, Gervinus, Moulton, White, Brandes, Engel, Franz, 
Kreyssig, Wetz, etc., etc., familiär to the students of Shakespeare, is simply due 
to the fact that their sphere of work lies in another direction. 



19^ 



INDEX/ 



A! Robyn, Joly Robyn, 170. 
ABC-book with the Catechi8m, 2; a first 
reading book, 9; Sh. and, 12; a note 
on, 48; s. v. Graces, 220. 
Abel, legends about, 194. 
Abyssinia, 236. 

Academy, The, reg. Cain's jawbone, 194. 
Account of the Reyels, 43 and n. 
Account of Magalhaens' Voyage, An, 226. 
^Adam BelP, etc, Putteuham refers to, 

156; a note on, 164. 
Admiral's Men, 142—3. 
Adrian IV.,=Breakespeare, 108 n 3, 267. 
iEsop, 2, bis fables read at schools, 10, 
11 n; the poef s knowledge of, 17 «67. 
Africa, 237 and n. 
^Agan]emnon\ 42 and n 2. 
'Aged LoYcr renounceth Love, The', 168. 
Akeroyde, 175. 
'Alcibiades', 277. 
Aldus, ed. of Ovid, 21 n, 23 n. 
Alen^on, Duke, allusion in Love^s L. L. 

to, 118n. 
Aleppo, 233, 234. 

Alexander, Sir Wm., 2; a possible echo 
from his *Darius' in The Tempest, 139; 
bis * Julius Caesar', 140, 148. 
Alleyn papers, a forgery in, 81 n 2. 
Allnutt, W. H., s. V. ABC-book, 48, 49. 
Airs Well that Ends Well, its source 
Boccaccio, 2, 65; ^Esop, 19; s. v. 
Ovid, 30; allusion to Troilus story, 
79; s. V. Brooke, 83; Hero and Lean- 
der, 96; anolderplay? 146 n 3; s.v. 
King Cophetua, 166; 'Your marriage 
comes by destiny', 184; 'Was this 
fair face', 188; s. v. Geneva Bible, 
199; 8. V. Uist. of Susanna, 202; 
*Defiles the pitchy night', 203; s.v. 
Indies, 233; the planet Mars, 243; 
*blazing star', 249; reg. travels, 254. 



Alps, the goitre in the, 230 n 1. 

Amazons, 226. 

America, 226 f.; cf. 232; cf. Brazil, In- 
dies, Mexico. 

Amyot, bis Kreuch transln. of Heliodo- 
rus, 44 n 1 ; cf. 40 n. 

Anacreon, 44; s. v. Ronsard, 58, 59 and 
nl; cf. 282. 

Anaxarchus. 279. 

Ancient Ballads and Broadsides, Lilly, 
166 n 4, 171 n 2, 187, 190 n 1, 191. 

Anglia, 29, 77 n, 85 n, 91 n, 170, 190 
n 2. 

Anne, Queen, stormy voyage in 1589, 
114 f.; patron of masks, 153. 

Anne Baleyn, Queen, 178. 

Antidote agaiust Melancholy, 181 and n; 
187; 269. 

Antony and Cleopatra, its source Plu- 
tarch, 1, 40; s. V. Ovid, 29, 30, s. 
V. Pliny, 37; Sh. not indebted to 
Daniel's or Garnier's plays, 89; cf. 
147 — 8; s. V. Mysteries and Moralities, 
152; Psalms, 211; The Nile, with a 
note on abiogenesis, 235; Sphere, 
241; harmony of spheres, 16.; the 
planet moon, 242; the planet sun, 243. 

Apocrypha, 2, 197, 201. 

Arber, Edward, Transcript of the Statio- 
uers' Registers , 5, 8 n 3, 36, 47, 
48, 49, 66, 74, 81, 82 n 1, 117 n 1, 
150, 166, 1G9, 170, 173, 176, 178, 
179, 181, 188, 191, ii'IG, 228, 270 
(cf. also Registers of the Stationers); 
bis Reprints (Sidney's Apology) 44 
nl; (Putteuham) 58 n "2, 80, 156, 
176: 287; (Watsons Ilekatompathia) 
102 n 1; (Lyly's Euphues) 104, 105, 
106; (Güsson's Abuse) 144 n 1: (Tottel's 
Miscellany) 168; A llandefull of plea- 
santdelites (in Engl. Scholar 's Library) 



* The abbreviation Sh. means Shakespeare; n = note, reg. = re gardin j?; 
g. V. = sub verbo; etc. I have not indexed the geographical names on pp. 250 — 256 
(cf. p. 271) and 237 n 2 and the plays where ihey occur. A propos of W^incot 
(p. 254), cf. S. Lee, Life of Shakespeare, p. 165. 



294 



Index, 



166 n4, 169, 174, 181, 190 nl; The 
iirst Tbree English books on America, 
223, 225 n 3, 227 n 1, 229 n, 237 
n 2; An £ng1ish Garaer, 234 and n 3, 
4; 235 «; 279; Anthologies, 172, 177, 
186. 

Archiv für das Studium der neueren 
Sprachen, 51, 112 n, 118 n, 151 n 1, 
154, 231 n 1. 

Arctic Voyages, 231. 

Arden Shakespeare edition, The, s. v. 
Cinthio, 66 n 2; Cymbeline 73 n 2; 
267; Caesar, 151 n 3; Othello, 265. 
cf. Hart, Dowden, etc. 

Aries, the Ram, 244. 

Ariosto, s. V. Bandello, 65, 66 ; and The 
Shrew, 170, cf. 70; A. and Sh., 72. 

Ariston of Chios, 276. 

Aristotle, and *moral' philosophy, 108; 
on Pigmies, 237; on sphere of fire, 
239 n 1 ; substance of stars, 247 ; on 
earthquakes, 262 ; name mentioned by 
Sh., 279. 

Arthur, Romances of, 2; read by school- 
boy, 8 n 1; referred to by Sh., 158 f. 

*As 1 walk'd forth one May morning', 189. 

'As I went to Walsingham', 270. 

'As you came from the holy-land', 186, 
270. 

As You Like It, the plot drawn from 
Lodge's Rosalynde, 2, 107; counters, 
10 n 1; Ovid, 25; s. v. Ovid, 29, 30; 
Pliny, 36; Rabelais, 56; names of 
source altered, 64; s. v. Chaucer, 79; 
. allusion to Troilus story, 79; allusion 
to Mario we, 90, 118 n; Hero and Le- 
ander, 93; s. V. Euphues, 104 n; 
llymen, apparently later addition, 
xvi; books for good manners and on 
duelling, 116, 117; s. v. Campaspe; 
134; Furness hypothetizes an earlier 
play, 150; Robin Hood ballads, 163; 
'0 Sweet Oliver', 179; 'hey nonny, 
nonny, 190; s. v. Beast Fables, 195; 
s. v. Geneva Bible, 200; s.v.Catechism, 
206; Marriago Service, 208, 209; 
Psalms, 212, 215; 'a South-sea of dis- 
covery' 225; the Indies, 233; harmouy 
of spheres, 241; on travels, 254; a 
Socratic idea, 274; metempsychosis, 
279; the world a stage, ib.; the seven 
ages, ib. 

Ashby-de-la-Zouche, school at, 11. 

Ashley, Robert, the books he read as 
a boy, 8 n 1. 

Asia, cf. 232. 

Astronomy and Astrology, 237 seq. 

Athenaeum, The, 8, 271. 



Augustine, St., 278, 287, 290. 
Ayrer, Jacob, Schoene Phaenicia, 65; 
Schoene Sidea, 150. 



'Bacchus' Bountie', 174. 

'Bacon, Famous History of Friar% 181. 

Bacon, Sir Francis, the term 'comedy 
of errors', 32 n; Sh. and B., 108; s. 
v. Books on Duels, 116; on the goitre, 
230 n 1; believes in abiogenesis, 236; 
believes in astrology, 239; substance 
of Stars, 247; comets 248 n 2; not in 
advance of bis time in natural science, 
291. 

Bagford Ballads, see Ballad Society. 

Bährholtz, s. v. Bandello, 65 n. 

Bailey, Sir Wm., pamphlet on Sh..and 
Montaigne, 54 n. 

Ballads, 2; 155 ff.; Folk-Ballads, 163: 
Art-Ballads, 165. 

Ballad Society, Roxburgke Balladt: 5; 
(Mad Tom) 25; 93 «; (Cophetua) 
165 n 1; (Susanna) 166 and n 2): 
(Jephthah) 167; (Calino) 170; (I 
cannot come every day to woo) 
176; (My heart is füll of woe) 180 
(Willow, Willow) 182 and n; (reg. 
Mosse and the mare) 187, 270; (Rob. 
Ilood Bds.) 268; (Faustus, and Titas) 
269. s. V. Bagford Ballads: (Fortune 
my Foe) 173; (dildo) 190. 

Ballet, William, his Lute Book, 178. 

Ballmann, on Sh. and Chaucer, 77 n. 

Bandello, source of Much Ado, 2, 65; 
influence on Sh. of, 65—66; GPIn- 
gannati and Twelfth Night 67 f., 70; 
and the Romeo story, 84, 85; and 
Titus Andronicus, 146 n 1. 

Barendsz, Willem, s. v. Arctic Voyages, 
231. 

Barnes, Barnabe, Sonnets, 102. 

Bartlett, Concordance, 227. 

Batmann, uppon Bartholome De Proprie- 
tatibus Rerum, 238 n 1, 240 n 3, 241 
n 1, 243, 248 n 2. 

Baynes, T. S., What Sh. learnt at school, 
7, 8 n; 10 stq.\ on Titania, 2^2\ dis- 
cussed 'Venus and Adonis' and *Lu- 
crece', 29 n 1, 31; reg. Talaeus, 38 
and n. 

Bear, the Great, — and the Leiser, 
246-7. 

Beaumont, and Sh., 138 f., 154 n; his 
Masque (1613) 154 and n 2; ballad 
of Arthur, 159; *write in water\ 282. 

Bedlam, New Mad Tom of, see Mad Tom. 



Index. 



295 



Beethoven, xx. 

Beggar and a King, A Song of a, 165. 
*BelJ my Wife', 169. 
Belieferest, retellsSaxo's storyof Hamlet, 
36; s. V. Bandello, 65; s. v. Gl'In- 
gannati, etc., 68, 70; s. v. Pre-Hamlet, 
128; bis edition of Münster's Cosmo- 
graphy, 226. 
Bermuda Islands, 230. 
Berners, Lord, 162. 
Besaut, Anne, s. v. Daemonologica, 115 

n 3. 
Bestrafte Brudermord, Der, 128 »2. 
Beverley, s. v. Bandello, 65. 
Bevis of Hamptoun, 2; read by a school- 
boy, 8 n 1 ; alluded to by Piittenham, 
156; allusion by Sh. to, 160. 
Bible, The, one of the poet's chief 
sources, xx, 2, 11 ; s.v. Daemonologica, 
116 n; S.V.Alexander, 139; Eliza- 
bethan Bibles, 196 «eg.; the Geneva, 
the Bishops', the Great, the Authorised, 
the Geneva-Tomson, IdQi. passim; the 
French, 203; the Latin, 204; a note 
reg. the Bishops', 271; (cf. p. 19). 
Bibliograph y, note on, xiv. 
Birch, William, a bailad by, 173, 269. 
Biron, allusion to, in Love's L. L , 118 n. 
Bismarck, 287 n. 
Blackstone, Sir Wm., 172. 
Blades, William, Sh. and Typography, 

291. 
Blaeu, his Atlas, 259; globes by, 262. 
Blakeway, 194. 
Blind, Karl, his uncritical review of 

Feis, 54 n. 
Blundevüe, his Exercises, 238, 239, 247 

and n 1, 248 and n 2, 257 and n. 
Boaistuau, Romeo story, 84, 85. 
Boas, F. S., ed. of Kyd, 91 n 2, 127 f.; 

reg. Sh.'s predecessors, 119. 
Boccaccio, read by Ashley, 8 n 1; in- 

fluence on Sh., 60 f., cf. pp. 1, 2. 
Bodleian Library, xni; Aldus's ed. of 
Ovid, 21 ; Lily's Grammar, 47 n; ABC 
with catechism in, 48; reg. Allnutfs 
reprint of an early ABC, 49 n; s. v. 
Corrigenda, 266. 
Bolle, Dr. Thomas Morley', etc., 172 n 1. 
Bond, R. W., ed. of Lyly, 73 n 2, 135; 
essay on Lyly, 103 n 2; Sh. and 'Eu- 
phues', 104, 107. 
*Bonny Sweet Robin', 178. 
Boodle, Mr. R.W. on the 'Rare Triumphs', 

etc., 151. 
Borghini, RaflFaello, author of La Donna 

Constante, 83 n. 
Borrowed Ideas, 44 n 3, 54, 272 f. 



Boswell, variorum editor, reg. Romeo, 

85; reg. Rowley, 138. 
Boswell-Stone, ^Sh.'s Uolinshed', 64, 117; 

s. V. Lodge, 107 n I; s. v. King lohn, 

142 and n 1 ; s. v. Arthurian Legends, 
1 58 and n 1 ; reg. When Adam delved', 
184; Nor» nobis, 216; cf. 265. 

'Boy and the Mantle, The', 159. 

Bradshaw, H., on the ABC-book, 49. 

Brahe, Tycho de, 248 n 2. 

Brandes, G., 291 n. 

Brandt, Prof., xiii, xv; on influence of 
Seneca, 34, 35; s. v. Montaigne, 53 n; 
s. V. Boccaccio, 60 n 3; s. v. Mendoza's 
Lazarillo de Tormes, 75; on English 
drama, 119; on Sh. and Mario we 120n; 
his work on 'Shakspere', 132 n ; dis- 
cusses the rclation between Sh. and 
an oldTiraonplay, 143; on Richardlll., 

143 «1; his reprint of *The Longer 
thou livest', 171 n 1 ; ed. of 'Misogonus', 
190 n 1; on Sh.'s predecessors, 272. 

Brandon, Samuel,,' Virtuous Octavia', 148. 

Brazil, 227—229. 

Breakespeare, see Adrian. 

Brinsley, school-books, 10 n 4: translates 
'Sententiae Pueriles', 47. 

British Museum, the, xiii; Lily's Grammar 
in, 13 f., 47 n ; editions of iEsop printed 
in England, 20; Googe's Proverbes, 
in, 29 n; reg. Allnutt's work, 49 n; 
'Volpone' with Jonson's autograph, 
55 n; Florio, i6; copy of Frederyke of 
Jennen, 63 and n 2; copy of Robert 
Jones's Book of Songs, 171 «3; copy 
of Jack the Giant Killer, 193 n 2; 
copies of Bibles, 198. 

Britwell Library, The, 269. 

Brome, The Jovial Crew, 181. 

Brooke, Arthur, his poem on Romeus 
and Juliet familiär to Sh., 2, 82 seg,; 
cf. 31 n, 105 n 2; reg. an older play, 
147; bcauty and virtue, 276 n 3; the 
flower and the serpent, 281. 

Browne, Sir Thomas, 298. 

Brownists, referred to by Sh., 118n. 

Hnmet, Bibliography, 66 n 2, 75. 

Bruno, Giordano, no traces in Sh. of, 
72 n 2. 

Bullein, his Dialogue, 245 n. 

Bullen, A. U., edition of 3Iarlowe, 37 n, 
120 71, 127 n 1; More Lyrics from 
Elizabethan Song-books, 172; *01d 
Plays', 173 n 1; will publish Ilcns- 
lowe's Diary, 268; Lyrics from Eliz. 
song-books, 281 n \. 

Burdens, 189. 

Burns, Robert, s. v. Peg-a Ramsey, 179. 



296 



Index. 



Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, 33 n, 

175. 
Byrd, ^Psalms, Sonnets, and Songs', 281. 



C, R., 267. 

Caesar, De Bello Oallico, 2, 20; read 
at Ipswich scbool (1528), 11 n. 

'Caesar, Julius', plot drawn from Plu- 
tarch, 1, 40, cf. 41; counters, 10 n 1; 
Spenser, 90; ghostin, 113; olderplays 
on Caesar, 147 f.; and *A Waming 
for Fair Women', 151; the pole-star, 
247 ; s. V. Borrowed Ideas, 278 n 1. 

'Caesar and Pompey', 147—8. 

Cain, legends about, 194. 

Calahorra, Diego Ortunez de, and "Phoe- 
bus, be, tbat wandering knigbt so 
fair", 75. 

Talen o Custure me', 169; what the 
words mean, 268. 

Calvin, 203. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Communications, 
8. V. ABC book, 49. 

Camden, and the apologue of the Belly 
and the Members, 108; and Cordelia's 
answer, 141; s. v. Guiana, 228; his 
maps, 261; reg. Proverbs, 290. 

Campbell, Lord, on Sh.'s legal acquire- 
ments, 291. 

Canada, 227 n 2. 

Caraerarius, J., his edition of jEsop, 17 n. 

Cancer, 245. 

Cannibals, 226. 

'Canst thou not hit it', 170. 

Capell, 4, 280. 

Cardanus, 286. 

'Careful Lover complaineth, The', 170. 

Carter, Shakespeare Puritan and Recu- 
sant', 200 n. 

Cathay, 237. 

Cato, his Maxims used at school, 10; 
curious Statement of Peele, 48. 

Catullus, *'no traveller returns", 282; 
to write in water, 282; ulmo conjuucta 
marito, 283; the ocean washing off 
the guilt, 284; viam vorabit, 284. 

'Cauld is thee'enin blast' by R.Burns, 179. 

Caxlon, William, supplied materials for 
'Troilus and Cressida', 2, 81; reg. 
moUis aerj ib., his Chronicle, 142 and 
n 2; Reynard the Fox, 195. 

Centlivre, Mrs., comedy of the Piatonic 
Lady, 189. 

Century of Praisc, 108 n 1. 

Cham, the Great, 163, 236. 

Chamberlain's Servauts, The Lord, pro- 
duce 4Hstorie of Ferrar', 33 n; very 



propably played Hamlet at Newington 
Butts, 127 n3; 140; and very probably 
»ilShrew'in 1594, 143: play Richard 11/ 
in 1601, 150; act 'AWaming for Fair 
Women', 151 (cf. King's Players). 

Chambers, E. E., The Mediaeval Stage, 
154. 

Chambers, R., 253. 

Chapman, George, his translation of 
Homer, 42; continues Marlowe's Hero 
and Leander, 92; a parallel, 101. 

Chappell, William, Old Populär Music, 
24, 157, 159, etc., /wMim; 269, 270, 
291. 

Chapuys, French translation of Cinthio, 
66 n2. 

Chariton, 65, 266. 

Charlemagne Romances, 22 n; 162. 

Charles IL, 9. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, the plot of Troil. and 
Cress. drawn from, 2; Pyramus and 
Thisbe, 28; Lucrece, 29; his influencc 
on Sh. 77 f.; Chanticleer and Pertelot, 
195; astrological notions, 245—6; the 
flower and the serpent, 281 ; the wood- 
bine entwists the tree, 283: make 
virtue of necessity, 284; Dantesque 
idea, 289. 

Chettle, Henry, (see Dekker), 79 n 2, 
148: Greene's invective caused Sh.'s 
displeasure, 107; *01d Grissil', 190. 

Child, Populär Ballads, 163 and n 3, 
164 and n 2, 168, 187, 190 n, 268. 

Child, C. G., on Euphuism, 103 f. 

Child Rowland, 193. 

China, xvii, 237. 

Choyce Drollery, 269, 270. 

Churchill, Dr., 'Richard IIL up to Sh.\ 

135 n 1, 143 n 1. 

Churchyard, Thomas translation of part 
of Ovid's De TristibuSf 22; s. v. 
Daniel, 85. 

Cicero, read in schools, 11 and n; ailusion 
to De OJficiis and De Oratore, 21; 
reg. *geld the Commonwealth', 38: 
Socrates on death, 275: government 
likened to music, 278. 

Cinthio, Giraldi, source of Othello, xiv, 
2, 66: s. v. Bandello, 65; translated 
into French, 66 n 2: s. v. Kyd, Soliman 
and Perseda, 131; s. v. Whetstone, 
136: s. v. Pre-Othello, 146. 

Clarendon Press edition of Sh , remarks 
on Josephus, 43; Wright and Cala- 
horra, 75; s.v.Harsnett, 111; (Greene's 
plays will be issued by the Clar. Press, 

136 n 3) ; reg. 'Caesar and Pompey', 
148 n 1; reg. 'Calen o Custure me'. 



Index, 



297 



169; 8. V. *Heigh ho! for a husband', 
175: The man shall have bis mare 
again', 187 ; reg. 'hey nonny, nonny', 
1!)0; s. Y. Bist, of Susanna, 202 n; 
Bermudas, 230 n2; reg. Barendsz^s 
voyage, 231; 'the Tiger', 234 n 5; reg. 
St. Elmo's fire, 249 n 2 ; reg. Boar's- 
Head Tavem, 251 n; reg. the Mar- 
shalsea, 252; reg. Asher, 253; s. v. 
Earthquakes, 262 n 3; reg. Govern- 
ment and music, 279; reg. *ril break 
thy little finger, 286; reg. Henry V. 
(II,ni, 19 f.), 287. 

Classics, Sh. and the, 6 seq.; 272 seq.; 
cf. 2. 

Clenard, bis Greek Grammar, 11. 

Clitia, 84, 85. 

Clouston, Populär Tales, etc., 193. 

Cobn, Albert, Sh. in Germany, 43 n 65, 
82 n 3, 136 n 1. 

Coleridge, a quotation from, 271. 

Colet, Dean, 8 n 3; 13. 

Collier, J. P., ed of *Sh.'s Library' and 
of Dodsley's Cid Plays, 3; a forgery 
by, 81 «2; an incorrect statement 
by, 142 n 4; bis ed. of Henslowe, 
148, cf. 268; 'Twenty-five Old Ballads', 
166 n 4; swindling? 189, 270; hisBi- 
bliography, 193. 

Collins, J. Churton, Had Sh. read the 
Greek tragedies? 11 », 44 »3; on 
school-books, 11 n; will edit Greene's 
plays, 136 n 3; disputes the priority 
of Hertzberg's discovery, 265; bis 
above article quoted and discusscd, 
273, 274, 277, 278, 286. 

Colonies, England's First, 230. 

Colton, Sh. and the Bible, 196. 

'Come live with me', 179. 

*Come o'er the Bourne, Bessy', 170. 

Comets, 249. 

Common Prayer, Book of, Sh. familiär 
with, 2, 11, 204 ff.; its catechism iden- 
tical with that in the ABO bock, 48 
cf. n; referred to passim, 197fF. 

'Complaine, my lute', 180. 

Complaynte of a synner, The, 173. 

Complete Collection of . . . Songs, A, 175. 

Constable, Henry, Sheepheard's Song of 
Venus and Adonis, 26; his Sonnets, 
102. 

Contention, The First Part of the, and 2. 
Henry VI., 122, 148; a parallel with 
'Edward If.', 125; s. v. Bevis, 161 and 
n2. 

Cooper, Thomas, his Thesaums, 29 n 2. 

Coote, C. H., s. v. Arctic Voyages, 231 ; 
on *the new map', 258 f. 



Cope, Anth., translation of Livy, 36. 

Copemicus, 238. 

Copbetua and the Beggar-Maid, King, 
165, cf. 2. 

Copland, Robt., his poem on Gillian of 
Brainford, 192. 

Copy-books, 9. 

Corderius, his CoUoquies used in schools, 
10. 

Coriolanus, its plot taken from Plu- 
tarcb, 1, 41; s. v. Ovid, 30; s. v. Sen- 
tentiae Pueriles, 47 ; s. v. Brooke, 83 ; 
Lyly's Euphues, 106 ; the apologue of 
the Belly and the Members, 108; s. v. 
Graces, 220; s. v. Cannibals, 227; *Hhe 
beast with many heads", 275. 

Cornelius Agrippa, 282. 

Comwallis, Sir William, saw Florio's 
MSS, 55. 

*Corydon's Farewell to Phülis', 171. 

Cotgrave, reg. *dildo', 190. 

'Country-raan's Delight, The', 176. 

* Courtier scorns the country clowns, 
The', 190. 

Coverdale, reg. 'hey nonny, nonny, 190. 

Cowley, the name in Sh.'s Folio, 118 n. 

Cox, Captain, Story books, 8 n; see Lane- 
ham. 

Craig, W. J., xv. 

Crawford, reg. Titus Andronicus, 149. 

Creizenach, Schauspiele der englischen 
Komoedianten, 69, 82 n 3, 136 ». 

*Crowe sits upon the Wall, The', 171. 

Crowne- Garland of Goulden Roses, A, 
165. 

Culman, Leonhard, of Krailsheim, author 
of Sententiae Pueriles, 47. 

Cunliffe, Dr., Influence of Seneca on 
Elizabcthan Tragedy, 34, 284 n 1. 

Cuthbert's College, St., an ABC at, 48. 

Cymbeline, xiv, probably not wholly 
Sh.'s, XVI ; founded on Boccaccio, 1, 60; 
the historical framework taken from 
Holinshed, 1, 64; counters 10 n; ^sop, 
19; s. V. Ovid, 27, 29, 30; Plutarch 
41; s. V. Sententiae Pueriles, 47, 48; 
reg. a Pre-Cymbeline, 64, 146; 'mollis 
aer', 81, 267; s. v. Hero and Leander, 
94, 101 n 2; s. V. Lyly's Euphues, 
106; s. V. Daemonologica, 113; a prob- 
able echo of Lyly's Campaspe, 133; 
and Beaumont and Fletcher, 139; reg. 
a Pre-Cymbeline, 139, 145, 146; and 
'The Rare Triumphs of Love and For- 
tune, 151; s.v. Schneewittchen, 195; 
s. V. Paternoster, 206 ; s. v. Burial Ser- 
vice, 210; the planet Jupiter, 243; ed. 
by Gollancz, 266; ed. by Dowden, 267. 



298 



Index, 



!>., E., 'Brief and Necessary Instruction*, 
56 n, 191. 

Daemonologica, Further, 112 f. 

Dancing Master, The, 187. 

Daniel, Mr. P. A., xiii, xiv ; on source of 
'Romeo and Juliet', 82, 85; Borghini's 
Romeo-play, 83 n; his edition of The 
Famous Victories of Henry V., 142 
n 3; 8. V. Pre- Romeo, 147; reg. Pliny, 
265; reg. Puck, 267; comparesL.Groto, 
La Ca/w/o, 289. 

Daniel, Samuel, 2; friend of Florio, 55 n; 
his acquaintance with Ronsard, 58; 
influence on Sh. by, 85 seq.; his Tra- 
gedy of Cleopatra not Sh.'s source, 89, 
148; 8. V. Hero and Leander, 98 n 2; 
Sonnets, 102; the many-headed beast, 
276: the vine and the elm, 283; Fal- 
staff on honour, compared, 288. 

Daniel, Mr., of Worcester College, Ox- 
ford, 48. 

Dante, 289. 

Dark lady, the, of the Sonnets, 1 18 n. 

Darwin, 196. 

Davey, History of English Music, 171 n 3. 

Davis, 222. 

Dekker, Thomas, Joint author with Chettle 
of a drama on Troilus and Cressida, 
79 n 2, 148; on Saviolo, 116 n 2; 
allusion to Eglamour, 161 n3; men- 
tions Tyber(t), 195; s.v. Beast Fahles, 
1 95 n 2 ; as the author of Lust's Do- 
minion, 267. 

Delius, N., able editor, 4 ; on Sh.'s my- 
thology, 29 n 2; s. v. Lodge, 107 n 1; 
s. V. ureene, 107 n 2; s. v. Pre-Romeo, 
147; on older plays of 2. and 3. 
Henry VI.; cf. 189, n 3. 

Dcloney, Thomas, 156; his Garland of 
Good-will, 158, 186, 269; cf. 268. 

Derby, Lord, 140; cf. 151. 

Desportes, his sonnets, 102. 

Dibelius, Dr. W., his Zeitschriftenschau, 
264. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 8 n, 
48, 58 «2; 72n3:73n 1;91 n2; 117 
«3; 120 n; 191; 225 n 3. 

Dictionary, The New English, on 41iren', 
136 n 1; on 'chouse', 144 n 2; a lap- 
sus, 168; on *hunt's up', 176; on *bal- 
lad', 184; Mildo' 190; 'cannibaP, 227 
n 1 : reg. *augmentation', 258. 

Dier, E., see Dyer, 177. 

Dixon, Henry, 158. 

Dodgson, E. S., xiii. 

Dodslev, Robert, 'Old Plays', 3, 137, 166 
n 4, 177, 189 n 1. 

Dole, Guillaumc de 63 n 4. 



*Dolefull adewe, A', 178. 

'Dolphin, my Boy', 186. 

Donatus, 11 n. 

Dorado, El, 226, 228 f. 

Dorer, Edmund, 75. 

Donce, Francis, 4, 75, 112, 188, 194. 

Dowden, Professor, xv, his Primer, 4: 
on the braggart soldier and the pe- 
dant, 71 ; a Suggestion, in his edition 
of Cymbeline, as to Tasse, 73 n 2: on 
Greene, 136; reg. Thomdike, 139: 
cf. 267. 

Dowland, 118 n. 

Dragon, The constellation called the, 
246-7. 

Drake, Sir Francis, 222, 226 n 3. 

Drama, Sh. and the, 119 aeq. 

Drayton, Michael, acquaintance with Ron- 
sard, 58; his sonnets, 102; 'Caesar's 
Fair, 148. 

Du Bartas, 240 n 3: 248 n 1. 

Dunlop, J. C, 44 n 1, 65, 67 n 1, 102—3. 

Dumont, xvii. 

Dürnhofer, on 'Venus and Adonis', 29 
n 1. 

Dyce, Alexander, 33 n, 65, 75, 118 », 178, 
179, 192, 195. 

Dyer, Sir Edward, 'My Mind to me a 
Kingdom is', 177. 

Dyer, T. F. T., Folk-Lore of Sh., 101 
n 2, 154, 290. 



Early English Text Society, 116, 160, 

162 ?i2, 245 n2. 
Ebner, Th., Index to Klein, 71. 
Ebsworth, J. W., editor for the Bailad 

Society, xiii, 93, 157, 160 n, 173, 177 «, 

181 n 2, 185 n, 187, 190, 268—271. 
Eckermann, Conversations with Goethe, 

XVII f., 265. 
Eckhardt, Ed., Die Lustige Person im 

alten Drama, 152 n. 
Eden, Richard, 2, 223, 225, 227 n 1. 
Edes, Richard, wrote a Latin play od 

Caesar's death, 147. 
'Edward IIP, 96 n 2. 
Edwardes, Richard, dramatized The 

Knight's Tale, 78; author of 'Whore 

griping griefs', 180. 
Eglamour, Sir, 161. 
Eichhoff, Th., 149 n 2, 268. 
Eidam, Sage von K. Lear, 141 n 3. 
Elderton, William, 156, 166, 173. 
Eldred, John, 234. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 33 w, 58, 78, 115 n 3, 

118 n, 152. 



Index, 



299 



Ellacombe, H. N., 290. 

EUis, George, Early English Metrical 

Romane es, 160 and n. 
EUis, R. L., editor of Bäcon. 
Elmo's Fire, St., 249. 
Elze, F. K., reprint of Rowley's play, 

ISS^ and n 5; ed. of Hamlet, 195. 
Elyot, Sir Thomas, 16 n 1; 279. 
Emblem Writers, 117. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 197, 225 n 2, 

226 n 3, 236 n 1. 
'Enganos', 70. 
Engel, E-, 291«. 
*Eiigelische Comedien und Tragedien' 

(1620), 82 n 3. 
Englische Studien, 66 n 1, 82 n 2, 136 

n 3, 145 n 1. 
Epicurus, referred to by Sh., 279. 
Erasmus, 13. 

Errors, Comedy of, based on Plautus's 
Jdenaechmi, 1, 32: probable existence 
of an older play, 32, 33, 70, 146; in- 
fluence of Plautus's Amphitruo^ 33; the 
name Monaphon in, 107 and n 3; s. v. 
Daemonologica, 113; s. v. contempo- 
rary history, 118 n; reg. 'rubies, car- 
buncles', etc., 159 «; s. v. Elizabethan 
Bibles, 198; Lapland, 232; the Indies, 
232; 'heaven's eye', 243; played in 
Gray's Inn Hall in 1594, 251 »2; 
s. Y. globes, 261; elm and vine like 
hiisband and wife, 282. 
*Error, Historie of, 32 and n. 
Eschenburg, 74. 
Eslava, Ant. de, 75. 
Espafiola en Florencia, La, cf. 70. 
Essex, Earl of, engages Saviolo; allusion 
by Sh. to, 118 n; s. v. Richard IL, 150. 
Ethiopia, 236. 
Eton, the gram mar of, 13. 
Euripides, Hecuba, 285; Alcestis 286. 
Europa, the continent, 254 f. 
Eusebius, 275. 
Evans, Dr. M. B., 128 n 2. 
Eversley Edition of Sh., The, see Herford. 
Ewaipanoma, The, 229. 
Ewig, Dr., 29 and n, 85 f., 89. 



Fables, Beast, 195. 

Fahre, Jacques, 225. 

Fabyan's Chronicle, possibly used by 

Sh., 118. 
'Fading', 190. 

Fairfax, E., translation of Tasso, 73 »2. 
'Fairies, The King of, 163. 
'Farewell, Dear Love', 171. 



'Farmer, Dr. Richard, 7, 23, 40, 69—70, 

137 n 1, 223. 
Faustus, Dr., cf. Mario we; bailad of, 173, 

269. 
Feis, Jacob, 53, 54 n. 
'Felix and Philismena, History of, 145. 
Fian, Dr., alleged wizard, 1 15 and n 3. 
Ficinus, 244. 
Field, Rieh., 40 n 2, 41. 
'Fire, Fire', 172. 

Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, The, 169, 187. 
Fleay, F.G., 5, 33 n; 43«; 119; 126 nl; 

136 n 1 ; 140 and n; 143 n 1, 2; 144 

n2; 146, 148 n; 150 n 2; 151; 163 

n 1; 187; 265. 
Fletcher, Francis, Account of Drake's 

Voyage, 226 n 3. 
Fletcher, John, and Sh., 138—9; and 

Percy's 'Friar of Orders Gray', 168; 

reg. 'Take, 0, take those Ups away', 

188. (cf. Beaumont.) 
Florio, cf. Montaigne. Second Frutes, 

287, 288. 
'Flying Farne', tune of, 158, 
Folk-lore, Sh. and, cf. 2, 272, 290. 
Ford, John, 181. 

Fortnightly Review, The, see Collins. 
'Fortune my foe', 172. 
Foxe, John, 1, 118. 
France Antarctique, 228. 
Fränkel, J. L., 80 n 1; 82 n 2, 83 L 
Franz, W., 291 n. 
Fraser^s Magazine, 7, 22, 38 n. 
Fraunce, Abraham, 44 n 1. 
Frederyke of Jennen, 63. 
French, G. R., 'Shakespeareana Genealo- 

gica', 160 n. 
French Literature, Sh. and, 50 f.; 2; 

French Bible, 203. 
Friesen, von, see Hertzberg. 
Frobisher, 222. 

Froissart, his Ghronicle, 162 and n 1. 
Fry, John, Ancient Poetry, 181. 
Füller, Mr., on Titus Andronicus, 149 n 3. 
Furius Bibaculus, 39. 
Furness, Dr., Horace Howard, variorum 

editor, xv, 4, 65, 68, 69, 75, 101 n 2, 

107, 117, 129 n2, 131, 134 n, 138 
n 3, 140, 145 « 1, 146 n 2, 150, 167, 

108, 1C9 n 1, 171, 178, 179, 183, 186, 
187, 194, 241 n 2, 246 n, 279, 280, 287. 

Furnivall, Dr. F. J., xiii, (cL Liddell, 5); 
on Sh. the boy, 7, 8 n 1, cf. n 2; Sh.'s 
school-books 8 «3, 10; reg.Baynes. 11; 
reg. B. Googe, 29 n; reg. Frederyke of 
Jennen, 63; s. y. Books on Good Man- 
ners, 116: Knglish Miscellany present- 
ed to, 128 n 1; reg. A Shrew, 143 



300 



Index, 



n2; Laneham's Letter, 63, 160, 190, 
191 n, 192; Percy's Folio MS.. 169; 
Gillian of Brainford, 192; *Sh. and 
Holy Writ\ 196; on harmony of 
spheres, 241 n 2. 



Galen, 291. 

Galenis, M. John, see Googe, 29 n. 

Galileo, 238. 

^Gammer Gurton's Garland\ by Ritson, 

184. 
Gargantua, see Rabelais. 
Garland, see Crowne G., Golden G., 

Gammer Gurton^s G. 
«Garland of Good-will', 158, 186, 270 n 1. 
Garnett, R., xiii; reg. Angelo, 71; 8. v. 

Spenser, 90 n 1 ; on the date of Chari- 

ton, 266. 
Garnier, bis Antoine^ 89, 148. 
Gascoigne, George, 2, cf. 70, 137, 281. 
Gastaldi, map of India, 259. 
'Gentle llerdsman, 186, 269. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 59 n 2, 1 18 n, 231. 
Gentleraen of Verona, see Two G. 
Gcoffrey of Monmouth, 141 and n 1, n 2; 

158. 
Gericke and Moltke, Sh.'s Hamlet Quellen, 

128 fi 1. 
Germania, 195. 

Gernutus, the Jew of Venice, 167. 
Gervinus, 291 n, 
*Gosta Grayorum' the Comedy of Errors 

mentioned in, 33. 
'Gesta Romanorum', 38, 65, 141 n 1. 
Gilbert, IL, on Seliraus, 136 n 3. 
Gillian of Brainford, 67 n 2, 192. 
Ginsburg, C. D., 271. 
Giovanni Fiorentino, the bond story of 

'Merch. of Ven.' based on, 67, cf. 124; 

and 'Merry Wives', 67. 
Globes, 261. 

Globe Edition of Sh., xvi, 5, 16 n 2, 264. 
Globe Theatre, its motto, 279. 
'Gods of Love, The', 173. 
Godefroy, bis Loxicon, 63 n 4. 
Goethe, on infiuence and originality 

XVII f.; Die Sterne, die begehrt man 

nicht, 134 n; he copies the clown's 

song in Hamlet, 168; Lass es ein, etc., 

188 n; a Couplet by, 250; a saying 

of, 260. 
*GoldenGarlandofPrincelyDelight,The', 

by R. Johnson, 172. 
Golding, translation of Ovid, 22, etc., 

79, 273. 
Goldsinith, Goethe's debt to, xix. 
(loliancz, Professor, xv, 195 n 1, 266. 



Gomara, 223. 

Gonzaga, bis 'GP Inganni^ 71. 

Goodfellow, Robin, Tales of, 191. 

Googe, Bamabe, 29 n. 

'Gorgeous Gallery, A', 181. 

Gosse, E. W., 97. 

Gosson Stephen, 44, 59, 7!» 144, 145, 
148, 276. 

Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 34 n 4, 
120 n. 

Gower, John, indebtedness of Sh.'s Pe- 
ricies to, 2, 81; allusion to his Tale 
of Florent, 80. 

Grabau, C, 138 n 2. 

Graces, 219. 

Graf, Hermann, 267. 

Grafton, probably referred to by Sh., 
l n, 118, 8. V. K. John, 142 and n 2. 

^Grande Eucyclopedie, La\ 225 n 2. 

Grange, John, his «Garden', 184. 

Graves, Mr., 269. 

Gray's Inn, Comedy of Errors acted at, 
33, 251 n 2. 

Greek, reg. Goethe's debt to the Greeks; 
reg. Sh.'s acquaintance with, 40; Greek 
Literature, 40 f.; 272 f. 

»Green Sleeves', 174; cf. 179; 269. 

Green, Henry, 17, 19, 117, 281, 283. 

Greene Robert, Pandosto and *Wint. 
Tale', 2, 107; attack on Sb., 18; his 
reference to the Venus and Adonis 
story, 26; Menaphon(containingNash's 
Epistle), 36, 127, 192; alludes to Helio- 
dorus, 44 n 1 ; s. v. Hero and L., 100: 
his works read and utilized by Sh., 
107; 8. v. Campaspe, 134 n 1: reg. 
infiuence of his dramatic work on Sh., 
136; his plays to be edited by Mr. 
Collins, 136 n 3: perhaps alludes to 
the Pre-Merchant, 144; refers to The 
King of Fairies, 163 n 1; his Oberon 
»6; allusion to *Bell my Wife', 169; 
*When Adam delved', 184; the sea- 
shore of Bohemia, 255; «a woman and 
therefore to be won', 289. 

Greenock Library, 40 n 3. 

Grcg,W. W., od. ofHenslowe'sDiary,268. 

Grissel, cf. 157. 

Grosart, cf. Huth Library; 85 n 2, 282, 
283 n 1 and n 2, 289. 

Groto, Luigi, 84, 85. 

Grove, Dict. of Music, 169. 

Guiana, 228 seq, 

Guinea, 227 n 2. 

Guy of Warwick, read by school- boy 
8 n 1; alluded to by Putteuham, 156: 
allusions in Sh. to, 160, 2. 

Guyon, 84. 



Index. 



301 



Gwinne, Dr., dialogue at St John's Col- 
lege, 150. 



, translation ofThevet, 227 n2. 

Hakluyt, Rieh., *Principal Nayigations', 
222, 226 n 3, 228, 229 and n, 234 and 
n 2, 258, 260, 276. 

Haklayt Society's Publications, 225 n 1, 
326 and n 3, 229 and n, 230 n 2, 231 
n 3, 232, 234 n 5, 236 n, 237 n 1, 
249, 258 and n. 

Haies, John W., 159, 169, 186. 

Hall, Arthur, translation of the first ten 
books of the Iliad, 42. 

Hall, Edward, (cf. Grafton), 1, 117, 158. 

Hall, Joseph, allusion to Rabelais, 56; 
the waters washing offtheguilt, 284; 
reg. the farmer that hangs himself 
when good times retum, 288. 

HaUiwell-Phülipps, 4, 13 n 1, 47, 56 n 2, 
69, 161 n3, 167, 170 n. 172, 178, 
188, 191, 192, 193 n 2, 200 and n, 
250 «, 251 «, 290. 

^Hanalet', based on an old play 1, 127, 
128; 8. V. Ovid, 30; reference to Plau- 
tus and Seneca, 34; the Pre- Hamlet 
and Seneca, 86; s. v. Plutarch, 41; 
Montaigne and, 54; possible influence 
of Lyly, 106; Nash alludes to the Pre- 
Hamlet, 107; ghost, 118; Gonzaga's 
murder, 118 n; Dido, 127; allusion to 
Caesar on the stage, 148; s. v. Myste- 
ries, etc., 152—153; 'Jephthah, judge 
of Israel', 167; reg. Percy's *Friar of 
Orders Gray', 168, 270; *1 loathe that 
I did love', 168; 'Bonny sweet Robin', 
178; *When Adam delved', 184; 'How 
should I your true love know?' 186, 
270; 'To-morrow is St. Valentine's Day', 
188; 'a-down a-down', etc., 189, 190 n; 
•hey nonny, nonny', 190; Cain's jaw- 
bone, 194; Hhe owl was a baker's 
daughter', 194; catechism, 206; Mar- 
riage Service, 209; Burial Service, 210; 
8. V. Psalms, 214, 215, 217; Sphere, 
241; the moon and the tides, 242; 
the firmament, 244 n 1; 'the pole', 247; 
substance of stars, 248, cf. 244 n 1; 
sphere of fire, 248; s. v. Maps, 260; reg. 
*claw', 268; the monologue (III, i) and 
Plato, 274 — 5; *the undiscovered coun- 
try', etc., 282; violets springing from 
graves, 284; *sea of troubles\ 284, 
punishments of the dead, 289; pun on 
effect and defect, 290. 
'Handefall of pleasant delites', see 0. Ro- 
binson. 
Hanmer, 56. 



*IIans Beer Pof, 270. 

*Hanskin', 187. 

Hardyng, s. v. Arthurian legends, 158. 

Harington, 65. 

Harleian Miscellany The, 174 n. 

Harrisse, Henry, 226 n 1. 

Harsnett, 2, 109 seq. 

Hart, H. C, xv, 66 n 2, 146, 265. 

Harting, J. E., 290. 

Harvey, Gabriel, 144, 262. 

*Have I caught my heavenly Jewel', 174. 

Hawkins, s. v. Tbou Enave, 183. 

Hazlitt, W., 291 n. 

Hazlitt, W. C, ed. of 'Sh.'s Library' and 
of Dodsley, 3; of Gosson, 60 n 1, 276 n; 
Bibl. Collections, 63 n 2, 74, 81 n 3; 
ed. of *Sh.'s Jestbooks', 157, 191 ; Early 
Populär Poetry, 161; s. v. The God(s) 
of Love, 173 n 3; English Proverbs 
184, 195; *Hundred Merry Tales^ re- 
printed by, 191; Populär Antiquities, 
194; ed. of Gascoigne, 281 n 2; Sh.'s 
Fairy Tales, etc., 290. 

*Heart's Ease', 175. 

Heath, D. D., ed. of Bacon. 

^Heigh ho! for a husband', 175. 

Heinrich Julius, Duke of Braunschweig, 
persecutes 'witches', 115 n 3. 

'Helicon, England's', contained Con- 
stable's poem, 26; and ^Come live 
with me', 179. 

Heliodorus, 2, 43, 44 and n. 

Hengist and Horsa, xvii. 

Henley, a comment by, 183. 

*Henry IV., First Part of : its source 
(Holinshed and old play), zx, 1, 142; 
Lily's Grammar, 15; the word *geld', 
38; s. v. Sent. Pueriles, 48; reg. Cala- 
horra, 75; euphuism, 104 and n 1; 
s. V. Daemonologica, 113 n 3; Mar- 
io we, 125; Preston, 137; Moralities, 
153; reg. ballads, 156; s. v. Arthurian 
romances, 158; MaidMarian,mentioned 
in, 164; *Partlett, the hen', 195; s. v. 
Genevan Bible, 199; s. v. Bible used 
in the church, 201 ; s. v. Ecclesiasticus, 
203; s. V. Metrieal Psalms, 219; s. v. 
Graces, 220; Bible reminiscences, 221 ; 
sphere, 241; 'Charles' Wain', 246; *the 
seven stars', 247; meteor, 248; a map 
of England in, 260; reg. earthquakes, 
262; an error in the Globe ed., 264; 
a forgery (?) reg., 286 ; *what is hon- 
our', etc., 288; call the spirits, but 
will they come? 289. 

*Henry IV., Second Part of: its source 
(Holinshed and old plav), ix, 1, 142; 
a. V. Ovid, 31; Daniel's *Rosamond', 



302 



Index. 



88; Daniel's ^Civil Wars', 89; allusion 
to contemporary history, 118 n; bur- 
lesque allusion to 'Tamburlalne*, 123 ; 
to Peele, 135; reg. Hiren, 136; s. v. 
Moralities, 153; reg. ballads, 156; 
*Arthur's show\ 158; ballad on Arthur, 
159; reg. 'the Boy and the Mantle' i*.; 
Robin Ilood ballad, 163; 'Kin^ Coplie- 
tua', 165; ^Monsieur Mingo', 177; "Thcn 
death rock me asleep", 1 78 ; "Hem boys", 
180; *Where is the Life', 181; Skogan, 
191; s.v. Hible used in the church, 
201; Psalm, 214; anthems, 219; the 
planet Venus, 243; the planet Saturn, 
244; *the fiery Trigon', 245; *the alma- 
nacs', 246 n; *the seven stars', 247; 
thou globe of sinful continents', 261; 
Cotswold, 264; the many-headed mon- 
ster, 275; devour the way, 284. 

Ilenry IV. of France, allusion to, in 
Love's Lab. L., 118 n. 

*Ilenry V.', its source üolinshed and old 
play, 1, 142; iEsop, 19; Quintilian, 
Horace, and, 38 — '9; French scenes in, 
50; Troilus story, 79; s. v. Lyly's 
Euphues, 106; s. v. Daemonologica, 
113 n 3; allusion to Queen Elizabeth, 
118 n; s. V. Marlowe, 126 n 1; s. v. 
Jonson, 138; based on an old play, 
142; s.v. Moralities, 153; reg. "Arthur s 
bosom", 158; *Calen o Custure me', 
169; French Bible, 203; s. v. Prayer- 
Book, 205; the decalogue, 206; Psalms, 
215, 217; Te Deum, 218; Russia,231; 
"maps of the *orld", 260; reg. Bouci- 
qualt, 265; Government compared to 
music, 278; contra Reed, 286; Falstaff 
not to think of God yet, 287; a simile, 
289. (cf. 268.) 

Henry V., The Famous Victories of, 
embryo of Henry IV. and Henry V., 
K, 1, 142. 

*Uenry VI.' (3 parts), the source Holins- 
hed and Hall, 1; cf. 120, 126 n 1. 

*Henry VI., Firt Part of : Sh. probably 
wrote only part of, xvi, 149 n 1 ; s. v. 
Ovid, 30; Daemonologica, 112, 113 n 3; 
influence of 'Taraburlaine', 121, 122; 
of 'Jew of Malta', 124; Arthurian le- 
gends, 158; Charlemagne, 162; a Robin 
Hood motif, 164 n 3; Cain's murder, 
194; Bible allusion, 221; the planet 
Venus, 243; the planet Mars, 243; 
comets, 249; Gloster, 265; s.v.Borrow- 
ed Ideas, 288. 

*Henry VL, Second Part of : ^sop, 17, 
18, 19: Caesar, 20; Cicero, 21; s.v. 
Ovid, 28; Virgil, 31; note on "geld 



the Commonwealth", 38; Daemonolo- 
gica, 112, 113 n 3; supposed relation 
to 1. Contenthn, 122, 148, cf. 265; 
Marlowe, 125, 127; s.v. Bevis, 161 
and n2; *When Adam delved', 184; 
a Bible allusion, 198, cf. 200; pitch 
defiles, 203 ; Medice teipsum^ 204 ; Lord's 
Prayer, 206; Psalms 212—213. 216; 
reg. ^Hume', 265; the flower and the 
serpent,28 1 ; ^ Ajax' of Sophocies, 285 n 1 . 

'Henry VL, Third Part of : .Esop, 17; 
Ovid, 21, 29, 30; supposed relation 
to The True Tragedie of Richard, Duke 
ofYorke, 122, 148, cf. 265; Tambur- 
laine', 122; *Jew of Malta', 124; 'Ed- 
ward IL', 125; *Spanish Tragedy', 130; 
'My Mind to me a Kingdom is', 177; 
s. V. Bible used in the Church, 201 : 
the decalogue, 205; Marriage Service, 
209; Psalms, 212, 216; the body the 
soul's prison, 274. 

*Henry VlIL', Sh. wrote part of, xvi; its 
source Holinshed and Foxe, 1, 118; 
s. V. Ovid, 30; s. V. Daemonologica, 
113; contemporary personages, 118n; 
Jonson, 138; Rowley, 138; s.v. Masks, 
153; allusion to Sir Guy, 160; allusion 
to Bevis, 160; Bible allusion, 198; 
Prayer Book, 205; Paternoster, 207; 
Psalm, 212, 213, 215, 216; Te Deum, 
218; Bible reminiscences , 221; Vir- 
ginia, 230; "dog-days", 247; fixed 
stars, 247; exhalation, 248; s.v. Mete- 
ors, 249; the spelling "Powle's". 264; 
"write in water", 282; Fletcher and, i6. 

Henryson, Robert, 80. 

Hense, reg. Sh. and Euphues, 105 n 1. 

Henslowe's Diary: *Troy' and 'Agamem- 
non', 42; 'Troilus and Cressida', 42, 
79 n 2, 147, 148; 'Jerusalem', 43; 
'tittus and Vespacia' i6., 149; 'Harn 
let', 127; 'king leare', 140; 'Harry V.', 
142, cf. n 4; Taming of a Shrew, 143; 
s. V. Richard III., 143 n; 'venesyan 
comodey', 144; 'gelyous comedy\ 146; 
'Caesar and Pompey', 147; 'titus and 
ondronicus', 149, 167, 268; 'Malcolm 
King of Scottes', 150; reg. Huon of 
Bordeaux, 163; 'fryer Fox and gyllen 
of Branforde', 192; the Diary to be 
edited by Mr. Greg, 268. 

Hentzner, Paul, 219. 

Heraclitus referred to by Sh., 279. 

Heraldry, reg., 117 n 4. 

Herford, Professor, xv; s. v. Boccaccio, 
62 f., 64 n 3; s. v. Daemonologica, 113 
n 4; on Timon and Lucian, 143; s. v. 
A Shrew, 143 n 2. 



Index, 



303 



Herodotus, 229 n 1. 
Hertzberg, 44, 266. 
Hexapla, The English, 198. 
Heywood, John, rroverbs, 290. 
Heywood, Thomas *First Part of the Iren 
Age\ 43; ballad of Arthur quoted by, 
159; s. V. Gods of Love, 174. 
Hieronymus, 284. 

Hippocrates, the seven ages of life, 279 ; 
Cardan and Galen on, 286; medical 
anthority, 291. 
*History of George a Green', 164 n 2. 
History, Books on English, 117—8. 
Holinshed^s *Chronicle.s\ materials taken 
by Sh. from, xx, 1, 117; reg. Cymbe- 
line, 64; Lear story, 141; King John, 
141, 142 and n 1; s. v. Arthurian Le- 
gends, 158; 'When Adam delved', 184; 
Non nobis, 216; 'Calabre', 255; cf. 265 
(cf. Boswell Stone). 
Holland, Phllemon, 36, 235, 275, 280. 
HoUeck-Weithmann, 65. 
Holme, Rändle, 113 n 2. 
Homen, Diego, his map, 259 n. 
Homer, in:fla6nce of, 42; the Pigmies in, 

237. 
Hondius, Jod., 261, 262 and n 1. 
Hood, Robin, 2, 102, 156, 163 seg,, 178, 

190 n, 268. 
Hooker, Miss, on Montaigne and Sh., 266. 
Hoole, school-books, 10 n 4. 
Hopkins, John, 218, 219. 
Horace, read in highest class, 10 n 4, 
11, cf. n; s. V. Lily's Grammar, 16; 
signs of H. in Sh. 32; reg. Jupiter 
spitting on the Alps, 39; belua mul- 
torum capitum, 276; immortality of 
Terse, 281; amabilis insania, ib.; 
^rougher than the Adriatic', i6. 
Hom-Book, 2, 8 n 3, 9, 12. 
Houtman, 259, 260. 
*How should I your true love know?' 

186, 270. 
Hübener, Einfluss von Mario we's Tambur- 

laine, 120. 
Hues, Robert, 236. 

Hughes, Mr., ed. of *Sh.'s Europe', 256 w. 
Hulsius, Voyage, 235 n. 
Humboldt, 229. 
Hume, 196. 
*Humour of forty fancies, the', a note on, 

195. 
*Hundred Merry Tales, A', 191. 
Hunsdon, Lord, his Players, 140 n 1. 
'Hunt is up, The', 175. 
Hunt, Thomas, Sh.'s teacher, 11. 
Hunter, Joseph, 7, 61 n, 69, 71, 72. 
Huon of Bordeaux, 162. 



Huth Library, (Greene) 44 n, 184, 192: 
(Dekker) 116 n 2; (Nash) 179, 192, 
193 n 1, 194 n 1, 195, 217 n, 243, 
246 n 1, n 2, 270 n 1; (Harvey) 202 
n 2. (cf. Grosart). 

lluxley, 275 n. 

'Hystorie of Hamblet', 128. 

*I cannot come every day to woo', 176. 

'I loathe that I did love', 168. 

'I mun be married a Sunday', 189. 

*In Carleile dwelt King Arthur*, 159. 

'In Commendation of Slusicke', 180. 

Incas, 226. 

Indies, 231—233, 257 f. 

'Ingannati, Gli', and the source of 

Twelfth Night, 67 etc. 
'Inganni, Gli'. 70, 71. 
Ingleby, 117 n 3. 

Ipswich, school-books used at, 11 n. 
Irish war and Essex, 118n. 
Isaac, Hermann, 102, 276 n 2. 
Isidore of Seville, reg. 'molljs aer', 267. 
'It is not so', etc., 194. 
Italian Literature, Sh. and the, 2, 59 seq, 
Italy in Sh.'s plays, 255 f. 

'Jack, boy! ho! boy', 182. 

'Jack the Giant-Killer', 193. 

'Jack the Juggler', 265. 

James, King, s. v. Daemonologica, 114 f.; 
alluded tobySh., 118«; s. v. Alexan- 
der, 139; fond of masks, 153; s. v. 
England's first colonies, 230. 

Jamieson, Robt., 193, 194. 

Janson's Atlas, 259. 

Jeffes, Humphrey, in the Folio of 1623, 
118 n. 

Jenkins, Thos., teacher at Stratford, 11. 

'Jephthah, Judge of Israel' 2, 167. 

'Jerusalem', a play, 43. 

'Jesphas Dowgther' 167. 

'Jest-Books', 157, 191 f. 

Jode, De, his Atlas, 235, 259, 261. 

'Jog on, Jog on', 187. 

*John, King', founded on an old play 1, 
141; ABC-book, 12; ^sop, 18; Ovid, 
22; Josephus, 42; s. v. Kyd 130; 
Grafton, 142 n 2; allusion to 'Guy of 
Warwick', 160; the decalogue, 206; 
Psalm, 214; Bible reminiscence, 221; 
Sphere, 241; reg. travels, 254; the 
body the grave of the soul, 274. 

'John wooinge of Joane', 176. 

Johnson, Richard, A Crowne-Garland of 
Goulden Roses, 165; The Golden Gar- 
land of Princely Delight, 172. 



304 



Index. 



Johasoüf Dr. Samuel, 244. 

*Jolly Pinder of Wakefield, The', 163. 

Jones, Hobt., *First Booke of Songes or 
Ayres', 171, 172. 

Jonge, De, 'Opkomst', 235 n, 257 n, 262 n. 

Jonson, Ben, on Sh.'s learning, 6, 39, 
40; mentions 'Tom o' Bethlem', 25; 
presents Florio with a copy of bis 
'Volpone', 55 n; used Scott's *Di8- 
covery', 114; compares Sh. with Lyly, 
Kyd, and Marlowe, 119; Sh. and, 
137 ff.; et tu Brüte, 147 n 2; bis 
Masque of Oberonand 'Winter's Tale', 
154; refers to King Cophetua, 166; 
reg. "lady, lady", 166 n 5; s. v. *Dol- 
phin my boy', 186; calls cats 'Tiberts', 
195; reg. Ilabelais, 266; "devour the 
way", 284. 

Josephus, traces in Sh. of, 42; Hens- 
lowe's Hittus and Vespacia', 149. 

Josippon or Joseph ben Gorion, 43. 

Jourdan, Silvester, 230. 

Jowett, Professor, translation of Plato, 
274 f. 

Joy of Virginitie, The, 174. 

'Julius und Hyppolita", not connected 
with Sh., 82 n 3. 

Jupiter, the planet, 243. 

Jusserand, 98 n 1. 

Juvenal, read in highest class, 10 n 4, 
11 ; a probable allusion to, 38; cf. 48; 
s. V. Borrowed Ideas, 284. 



Kahle, the actor, 267. 

Kant, 196. 

Kawerau, Herr, xin, 219. 

Keightley, T., Fairy Mythology, 290. 

Keller, Professor, a note on Plautus, 

266, 267. 
Kemp's Nine Days' Wonder, 150 and 

n2. 
Kendall, Tim., 280, 281. 
Kcnilwortb, 118 n, 152. 
Kepler, 238, 243. 
Keymis, Lawrence, 228, 229. 
'King of Fairies, The', 163 n 1. 
King's Players, 113 n 4; 140; (cf. Cham- 

berlain's Men). 
Kittredge, 187. 

Klebs, E., Apoll onius aus Tyrus, 81. 
Klein, J. L., 69, 71, 136 n 1, 136 n 5. 
Knight, 'Pictorial Shakspere', 182, 253, 

254, 271. 
Koch, Max, 29 n, 

Koenen, Mrs. v., xm, 134 n, 143 n 4. 
Kolbing, 42 n 1; 160, 161 n 1. 



Koeppel , s. ▼. Boccaccio , 64 n 2 ; s. t. 

ßandello, 66 n l ; reg. 'TryaJl of che- 

valry', 151. 
Kongehl, 65. 
Kranich, 65. 

Krantz, s. t. Pre-Hamlet, 128. 
Kemp, the name in the Folio of 1623, 

118 n. 
Kreyssig, 291 n. 
Kyd, Thomas, 2; prosecution of9l; re- 

ferred to by Jonson, 119; Sh. and, 

127 seq.; cf. 132 n, 217 n; elm and vizie, 

283. 



'I^abandalashot', 190 n 1. 

'Laelia', 69, 70. 

*Lamentations of llecuba, etc., The\ 188. 

Landmann, s. t. Lyly's Euphues, 103 and 
n 3, 104. 

Laneham, Robert, ^Gargantua', 56; 'Old 
Simon the King', 190; s. v. Hundred 
Merry Tales, 191 n; 'Gillian of Brain- 
ford', 192; 'book of riddels', 193. (cf. 
Cox.) 

Langbaine, Gerard, 3. 

Langeren, yan, 261. 

Langham=Laneham, 193. 

Law, T. G., 109. 

Layamon, 141 n. 

'Lear, King', founded on an old play, 1, 
cf. 140— '1; ÜYid, 27; PI in y, 37; Ra- 
belais, 57; pseudo-Chaucerian 'Pro- 
phecy', 80; Cordelia, the name, derived 
from Spencer; Sidney's Arcadia and, 
103; 8. Y. Camden, 108; the diablerie 
derived from Harsnett, 109 ff.; 'Spa- 
nish Tragedy', 129; 'Mother Bombie', 
134, 267; an echo from Peele, 135; 
the sources of, 140— 1 ; Merlin and 
Camelot mentioned in, 158; 'Then they 
for sudden joy did weep', 159; Bevis 
of Hamptoun, 160; the ballad of King 
Leir, 167; Percy's 'Friar of Orders 
Gray', 168; 'Come o'er the Boume, 
Bessy', 170; 'Pillicock saton Pillicock- 
hill, 184: a spell (S. Withold, etc.), 
185; 'Dolphin my boy', 186; 'Sleepest 
or wakest thou?', 187; reg. 'hey nonny, 
nonny', 190; 'Child Rowland', 193; s. 
V. Astrology, 239—240 n: moon and 
the tides, 242; «*ürsa major", 246; 
the dragon, 247; "the seven stars", 
ib; a map of Britaln, 261; "we came 
crying hither", 280; "But to the girdle 
do the gods inherit", etc., 287. 

Lee, Sidney, bis Life of Sh., 4 ; on Ron- 
sard, 58 n; on the circulation of MSS., 



Index» 



305 



92 n: on Sh.'s Sonnets, 102; a note 
on Bacon, 108; reg. Saviolo, 117 n 3; 
his Facsitniie of the Folio, 118 n; s. v. 
Jonson, 138 n 1 ; an error by, 148 n; 
his edition of Bemer's 'Huon of Bor- 
deaui\ 162 n 2; Russian-English con- 
nexions, 231 ; on LowelPs Greek pa- 
rallelisms, 273; reg. immortälity of 
-verse, 281. 
Lefroy, Memorials of the Bermudas, 235 n. 
Leicester, Lord, his Players, 140; at 

Kenilworth, 152. 
*Leir, The True Chronicle Distorie of 

Kinjr', 140. 
'Leir, King', bailad of, 167. 
Leland, C. G., English Gipsies, 195. 
Lenox, James, 258. 
Lennox, Mrs., 'Sh. Illustrated', 3. 
Leo, History of Africa, 37, 235. 
Leopold Sbakspere, the, see Furnivall. 
Lery, De, 227 and n 2. 
Lessiak, Dr., 267. 
Library, Royal, of Berlin, xm. 
Liddell, Professor, 5, 264. 
^Liepliche History . . . von Vier Kauf- 

mennem, ein', 63 n 1. 
'Light o' Love', 176. 
Light literature, 191 f. 
Lilly, cf. Ancient Bds. and Broadsides. 
Lily's, William, Latin Grammar, 2, 10; 
cf. 11 n; Sh.'s use and knowledge of 
it, 13 seq,; Reprint of opening pages 
of, 45 — 47; copies of, 47 n; a sen- 
tence occurring in, 48. 
Lindesiana, Bibliotheca, 176. 
Linschoten, 234, 249, 258, 259. 
Linton, Mrs. Lynn, Witch Stories, 115 

n 3. 
Lippincotfs Magazine, 290. 
^Literatur, Die', 33 n 1. 
*Literature, The', 90 n 1. 
'Litteratur, Magazin für die', 54 n, 75. 
Litzmann, Theatergeschichtliche For- 
schungen, 128 n 2. 
Livy, source of Lucrece, 2, 29; 36. 
Lloyd's Essays on Sh., 143 n 3; 231 n 2. 
Lodge, Thomas, Sh.'s debt to, 2, 107, 
cf. 117 n 3; his *Scillaes Metam.', 26 
his acquaintance mXh Ronsard, 58 
his notice of the Pre-Hamlet, 127 
s. V. Borrowed Ideas, 280. 
Loftie, Hist. of London, 250. 
London, 250 seq, 

Longayille, in Love's L. L., 118 n, 
Lop, Desert of, 237. 
Lope de Vega dramatized the story of 

Romeo and Juliet, 84. 
*Lover*8 Complaint, A', 2, 85, 95. 

Anders, Shakespeare's books. 



'Love's Labour's Lost', its plot not bor- 
rowed, 2; copy-books, 9; Horn-book, 
12; Lily's Grammar, 15, 16; Latin vo- 
cabulary and dialogue, 16; iEsop, 19; 
Mantuanus, 20; Ovid, 25; Horace, the 
name, mentioned in, 32; the word 
'geld', 38 ; Sh.'s French pronunciation, 
51 n; Rabelais, 56; Daniers 'Rosa- 
mond', 86; *Hero and Leander', 100; 
no parody of Euphuism in, 104, s. v. 
Duelling, 117 n 2; incident of earlier 
French history, 118 n; allusions to 
contemporary history, ib ; the play in 
direct Imitation of Lyly's comedies, 
132; not a 7>n(/enz-drama, 132 n; mask 
in, 153; allusion to minstrels, 156 n 1 ; 
s. V. Arthurian legends, 158; King 
Cophetua referred to in, 165; 'Canst 
thou not hit it?' 170; *pitch that de- 
üles', 203; Judas Maccabaeus, 203; 
s. V. Prayer-book, 204; s. v. Oatechism, 
206; Russia, 231: s.v. Indies, 233; 
»influence', 239; fixed stars, 247; the 
Bishops' Bible, 271. 

Lowell, J. R., 273 and n. 

Lowndes, Bibliography, 74. 

Lucan, 31 and n 1, u 3; 37. 

Lucian, 44, 143. 

*Lucrece', its source Livy, Ovid, and 
perhaps Chaucer, 2, 29, 30; s. v. Ovid 
27, discussions of the poem 29 n 1, 
31; Virgil, 31; printed by R. Field, 
41; story of the Trojan war, 42; ap- 
parent allusion to The Canterbury 
Tales, 77; allusion to the Troilus story, 
79; Daniel's 'Complaint of Rosamond', 
85,86,87; Daniel's 'Delia', 89; Mar- 
lowe's 'llero and Leander', 91, 97 — 
100; Watson's influence, 102; s. v. 
Contemporary Personages, 1 18 n; allu- 
sion to minstrels, 156 n 1; "the lode- 
star", 247; s. v. Maps, 260; s. v. Globes, 
261 ; "sea of care", 284. 

Lucretius, the earth the womb and the 
tomb, 283. 

Lund, T., 291. 

Lupton, J. U., on Sh.'s books, 8 «3, 10. 

'Lust's Dominion', 127 n 2; 267. 

Luther, Dr. M., 74, 287. 

Lydgate, John, his Troyebook' not used 
by Sh. for 'Troilus and Gress.', 81; 
the "moist.moon", 242 n. 

Lyly, John, 2; his allusion to Lily's 
Grammar, 15: s. v. Caesar; some af- 
finity with Montaigne, 54 n 1 ; the Ita- 
lian pastoral drama and, 73 n 2; Sh.'s 
obligations to his Euphues, 103 ff.; his 
plays and his skirmishes of wit, 105; 

20 



306 



Index. 



fairies inEndymion pinch, 113; refcr- 
ence by Ben Jonson, 119; influence 
of bis plays, 131 seqr, s. v. Peele, 136 
n 1; a Statue brought to life, 151; 
s. V. Corrigenda, 265; the pun Stoic 
and stock, 288. 



JH., R., 166 and n 4. 

Maas, Dr., 119 n. 

Macaulay, G. C, ed. of Gower, 81 n 1. 

'Macbeth', interpolation in, xvi, 113 n4; 
based on Uolinshed, 1 ; Ovid, 28 and 
n; 29; Seneca, 35; Plutarch, 41; s. v. 
*Sententiae Pueriles', 48; Daemonolo- 
gica, 112 f.; ghost, 113; allusion to 
King James, 118 n; s. v. Marlowe, 120; 
no Pre-Macbeth, 150; Psalm, 214; 
Russia, 231; Aleppo and Hbe Tiger', 
233; *'the shipman's card", 260; ed. 
by Liddell, 264; More borrowed ideas, 
280, 281, 284, 288. 

MacCallura, of Sydney, reg. Kyd, 128 n 1. 

MacMillan's Magazine, 271. 

MacMillan, Michael, 151. 

Ma^on, Anton le, transl. of 'Decameron', 
60 n 2. 

*Mad Tom', 24, 25, 177. 

Magcllan, 223 fF. 

Maginn, Dr., 7. 

*Maid's Complaint for Want of a Dil 
doul, The', 190. 

'Maid's Metamorphosis, The', 173. 

Maine, Duc du, and Love's L. L., 118 n. 

Malone and bis Yariorum Edition, xv, 
4, 21, 22 and n, 26, 32, 36, 37, 39, 43, 
47, 64 «, 66 n 1, 78, 81 and n, 84, 92 n, 
101, 103, 117, 127, 131, 137 n, 138 n 5, 
140 n 3, 147 n 2, 148, 166 and n 5, 
168, 169, 172, 175, 179, 195, 224, 226 
n 3, 231 n 1, 235, 237 n 2, 262 n 3, 266, 
285, 287, 290. 

Malory, Le Morte Darthur, 158, 159. 

*Man shall have bis mare again, The', a 
proverb, 187, cf. 270. 

Mandevillc, headless men, 229 n. 

Manners, Books on Good, 116, [S. R(ob- 
son) wrote a Court of civill Courtesie, 
1591]. 

Manningbam, John, refers to ''G\' In- 
ganni', 71. 

Mantuanus, 2, 11, 20. 

Maps, 257 seq. 

Marianus, and Sb.'s last two sonnets, 44. 

Marlowe, Cbristo|)her, 2, bis translation 
of Ovid's *Amores\ 22; alludes to tlie 
Venus and Adonis story, 26; trans- 
lation of the first book of the 'Phar- 



salia', 37 and n; Benvolio com}>ared 
with Malvolio, 71 «3; influence of 
Hero and Leander, 90 seq. ; *£dward IL' 
and 'Richard IL', 92; the name Mena- 
phon, 107 w3; Daemonologica, 112 — 3; 
s.v. Contemporary Personages, 118 n; 
referred to by Jonson, 119; influence 
of his dramatic works, 120 seq.^ cf. 
132 n; reg. *Caesar and Pompey', 14^; 
'Come live with me', 179; the undis- 
covered country, etc., 282; "sea of 
tears", 284; reg. FastafTs argumea- 
tation on honour, 288. 

Marocco, the dancing horse, 1 18 n. 

Mar-Prelate Controversy, the, 118». 

Mars, the planet, 243. 

Marston, quotes bailad of Arthur, 159; 
s. V. borrowed ideas, 280. 

Martorell, s. v. Bandello, 65. 

Martyr, Peter, 223, 226 n 1. 

Masks, Q2, 153—4. 

Masson, Dr., ed. of Milton, 6, 238. 

Masuccio, s. v. Brooke, 84. 

Matkowsky, 267. 

Mauntz, von, 117 n 4. 

'Measure for Measure', its source a play 
by Wbetstone, 1, 136; s. v. Ovid, 30; 
names of the source altered, 04; s. v. 
Cinthio, ^Q-, s. v. Brooke, 83; *Hero 
and Leander', 93, 96, 101 ; the duke 
in the play probably modelled after 
King James, 1 1 8 n ; a motif perbaps 
taken from *Gambyses', 137; s. v. 
Moralities, 153; 'Take, 0, take those 
lips away', 187; the decalogue, 206; 
Paternoster, 207; Graces, 220; Bible 
reminiscence , 221; Russia, 231; 
Zodiac, 244; death = sleep, 275; 
"tooth of time", 285; "Go to your 
bosoin", etc., 287; punishments of the 
soul, 289. 

Meissner, Programme on Twelfth Night, 
69«. 

Melanchthon, 17. 

Mendoza, Diego Hurtado de, 74. 

Mendoza, Lopez de, 29 n. 

Mercator, 237, 257 and n, 258—261. 

'Merchant of Venice', based on an old 
play, 1, 144, cf. 255; s. v. Ovid, 28, 
30; s. V. Plutarch, 41; s. v. Boccaccio, 
65; allusion to Troilus story, 79; 
ducats, 84; s. v. Lyly's Euphues, 104 
and n; Marlowe, 120, 123 and n, 124; 
Kyd, 131; the name Stephano, 138; 
s. V. Masks, 153; 'Gernutus', 167; 
Geneva Bible, 200; s. v. Apocrypha, 
202, 203; the decalogue, 206; s. v. 
Graces, 220; Mexico, 233; harmony 



Index, 



307 



of spheres, 241; Maps, 260; metem- 
psychosis, 279; the weeping philo- 
sopher, 279; the world a stage, 279. 
Mercury, The Planet, 243. 
Meres, Palladis Tamia by, 25 n, 131 n, 

149. 
Mermaid Tavem, witcombats at, 105. 
Meiry Wives of Windsor, its plot drawu 
from Italian tales, 2, 67; Lily's Oram- 
mar, 14; Ovid and 'Mad Tom', 24—5: 
Giovanni Fiorentino and Straparola, 
67 and n; fairies, etc., 113, 132, cf. 
113 n; s. V. Contemporary personages, 
118 n; Dr. Faustus, 126; possible in- 
fluence of Jonson, 138; hypothesis of 
an cid play, 145, 146; s. v. Mysteries 
and Moralities, 162; s. v. 'Robin 
Hood', li)3; s. V. 'Constancy of Su- 
sanna\ 166; "Songs and sonnets", 
168 n 1 ; 'Fortune my foe', 172; ^Green- 
8leeves\ 174; Havel caught my hea- 
venly jewel?' 174; 'Come live with 
me', 179; 'Peer out, peer out', 1H3; 
*And down, down, adown-a', 189; 
'Gillian of Brainford', 192: 'The Book 
of Riddles', 192, 193; 137th metrical 
Psalm, 218; the 'Old llundredth', 219; 
Guiana, 228; the Indies, 233; the 
spelling 'Etna', 264; cf. n 2; 'Cotsall', 
265; the word baille, 268. 
Merseburger Zaubersprüche, 185. 
Metellus, his Atlas, 259. 
Meteors, 248. 
Mexico, 233. 
Middle Temple, Twelfth Night played 

in the hall of, in 1602, 251. 
Middleton, Thomas, his 'Witch' and 'Mac- 
beth', 113 n 4, cf. 114; s. v. More 
borrowed ideas, 286. 
'Midsummer Night's Dream', apparently 
not founded on any plot-source, 2; 
Ovid, 22, 23, 27, 30; Plutarch, 41; 
resemblance with the Diana and GVIn- 
tricQti^ 73; Chaucer and, 77, 78, 80; 
Spenser's 'Tears of the Muses', 90; 
8. V. Marlowe's 'Ilero', etc., 93, 101 n 2; 
fairies, 113; "the imperial votaress", 
118 n; Southampton's mother, 118 n; 
'Spanish Tragedy', 129; Puck's fore- 
runner is Lyly's Cupido, 132; Puck's 
apology in the epilogue of, 134; s. v. 
Mysteries and Moralities, 152; s. v. 
Masks, 153; Huon of Bordeaux, 162; 
'The man shall have his mare again' 
(a proverb) 187, 270; Robin Good- 
fellow, 191; s. v. Sphere, 241; the 
planet moon, 242; 'watery raooii', 242; 
the planet Venus, 243; the lode-star, 



247; *lanthorn', 265; Puck is a fairy, 
267; the poet's "line frenzy", 281; 
ivy and the elm, 283; reg. the "rose 
distill'd", 287. 

Milton, John, on Sh.'s lack of learning 
and art, 6. 

Mirabeau, xvii, xviii. 

Miracle de Oton, s. v. Boccaccio, 60. 

Mirror for Magistrates, 85, 141, 285. 

Misogonus, 175, 190 n 1. 

Mitchell, A. F., 49. 

Modem Language Association of America, 
63 n4, 128 n2, 149 n 3, 266. 

Moestlinus, Mich., 238. 

Moltke, sce Gericke. 

Molyneux, 257 n, 258, 261, 262 n 1. 

Mompelgard, Count, alluded to by Sh., 
118 Tl. 

Monarcho (Love's L. L.) 118 n. 

*Monsieur Mingo', 177. 

Montaigne, iniluence of, 2, 51 seq,; reg. 
the pedant of the Italian comedy, 71 
n 1 ; s. V. Cannibals, 228 ; Miss Hooker's 
article and Mr. Ilazlitt's view, 266; 
Socrates's thoughts on death, 275, 54. 

Montemayor, Jorge de, 2, 70, 72 — 73, 
145, 156. 

Moon, the planet, 242. 

Moralities, 2, 152. 

More, Sir Thomas, and Lily's Grammar, 13. 

Morley, Henry, 52 n. 

Morley, Lord, translation of Petrarch, 
72 n 2. 

Morley Thoraas, First Booke of Balletts, 
172; Consort Lessons, 178. 

Mornay, Ph. de, 275. 

Morsbach, Professor, 119. 

Moryson, Fynes, Itinerary, 256 n. 

Messe and ins mare, 187, 270 (nothing 
more is known of the ballad). 

Mothe, La, in Love's L. L., 118 ». 

Moulton, 291 n. 

'Much Ado about Nothing', its souroe, 2, 
65, 72; Lily's grammar, 15; s. v. Ovid, 
30; alleged aliusion toMendoza's'Laza- 
rillo', 74; aliusion to Troilus story, 
79; 'Hero and Leander', 93; SSpauish 
Trag.', 129 and n2; Lyly's watchmen, 
132; reg. a Pre-Much-Ado, 145, 146; 
s. v. Masks, 153; reg. Huon of Bor- 
deaux, 163; reg. Adam Bell, 164; 
Percy's *Friar of Orders Gray' and, 
168; ^The god of love', 173—4; 'lleigh 
hol for a husbandl' 175; 'Light o' 
Love', 177; 'Sick, sick', 180; *hey 
nonny, nonny', 190; 'A Hundred Merry 
Tales', 191; "it is not so", etc., 194; 
Bei and the Dragon, 202; s.v. Ecde- 

20» 



308 



Index, 



siasticus, 203; Marriage Service, 207 f.; 

reg. Prester John, the Great Cham, 

and the Pigmies, 236; s. v. Astrology, 

239; "born under Saturn", 244; "the 

north Star" 247; "bears will not bite 

one another", 284. 
Mulliner, Thomas, 180. 
Münchener Beiträge, 102 n 2. 
Munster, his Cosmography, 226, 227 n. 
Murray, Dr. J. A. U., see New English 

Dictionary. 
'Musselburgh Field*, 187, 270. 
*My heart is füll of woe', a quotatiou, 

175, 180. 
*My Miud to me a Kingdom is*, 177. 
*My Robin is to the Greenwood gone', 

163, 178. 
Mysteries, 2. 152, 
Mythology, Shakespeare's Knowledge of, 

29, 30, 40. 



Nares, Glossary, 245 n. 

Nash, Thomas, his mentiou of the Pre- 
Haralet, 36, 127; Joint author with 
Marlowe of 'Dido', 127; refers to ^King 
of Fairies', 163 n 1; quotes ^Monsieur 
Mingo', 177; mentions *Green Sleeves' 
and *Peg-a Ramsey', 179; *Gillian 
of Brainford' referred to by, 192; 
quotes 'Fe, fa, furo', etc., 193; poss- 
ible allusion to Child Rowland story, 
by, 194 n 1 ; Tibault, 195; *Corn, wine, 
and oil', 217 n 2; on the puzzling 
motions of Mars, 243; astrologicaJ 
notions, 246, cf. n 1 and n 2 ; notice 
of The Garland of Goodwill, 270 n 1; 
s. V. Borrowed Ideas, 289. 

Natal, 249. 

^Nation The', a forgery (?), 286. 

Navarre, Novels of the Queen of, 8 n 1. 

Navarre, Henry, alluded to in Love's L. 
L., 118 n. 

Naylor, E. W., 'Shakespeare and Music', 
157 n 2 and n 3; 174, 183, 190, 291. 

Nevill, A., translated Livy, 36. 

'New Courtly Sonet, of the Lady Green- 
sleeves, A', 174. 

'Newe Ballad, A', 166 n 4, 167 «. 

Newington Butts, 127 n 3, 143. 

'News from Scotland', 115. 

Newton, Sir Isaac, 238. 

Nichuls, John,'Progresses', 22»^ 78, 153 n. 
'Six Old Plays', published by, 3. 

Nicholson, Dr., ed. Scott's 'Discovery', 
44 n 1; 113 n2 and n 4. 

'Nineteenth Century', s. v. Harsnett, 109. 

.Noble Acts of Arthur, The', 158. 



Noctes Shaksperianae, 4 n. 
Nordenskiöld, 231, 258 n. 
North, see Plutarch. 
Notes and Queries, 13 n I, 38, 151 
194 n 2, 267, 279, 280, 290 n 2. 
Nowell, his Small Catechism, 48 n. 



2, 



'O death, rock me asleep\ 178. 

'0 dere Lady Elysabeth', 166 n 4. 

'0 mistress mine', 178. 

'0 sweet Oliver', 179. 

'0 the twelfth day of December', 187, 270- 

Oeftering, 44 n 1. 

üesterley, his reprint of the C Merry 
Tales, 191. 

*0h doe me no härme', 181. 

'OhI oh! for a husband', 175. 

Ohle, his work on *Cymbeline', xxv, 60ff. 

'Cid Ballads, The' (1723), 66. 

*01d Simon the King', 190. 

Olivetan, 203. 

'On the twelfth day of December, 187,270. 

Ordish, T. F., 'Shakespeare's London^ 
219 f., 250, 264. 

Ortelius, his maps, 259, 261. 

'Othello', XIV, the plot derived from 
Cinthio, 2, 66; 'counters', 10 n 1; 
Ovid, 30; Pliny, 37; 'anthropophagi% 
40, 227 229; Rabelais, 57; s. v. Mar- 
lowe, r20; Kyd, 131; supposition of 
an old play, 145, 146, 255; quotation 
from 'Take thy old cloak about ihee', 
169; 'Willow, willow', 181; Pater- 
noster, 207; Psalms, 212; s. v. Canni- 
bals, 227; Ewaipanoma, 229; s. v. 
Indies, 232; Aleppo, 233: abiogenesis, 
236; the bear and the guards of the 
pole, 246—7; the pole-star, 247 ; Hart-s 
edition of, 265; s. v. More borrowed 
ideas, 276, 286, 289. 

Ovid, 'Venus and Adonis' and, 2; 'Lu- 
crece' and, t6,, cf. 7; read at school, 
1 1 and n ; a favourite author with Sh , 
21, cf. p. XX ; many traces of 21 seq.; 
s. V. Virgil, 31 ; Fama drawn by, 79; 
s. V. Chaucer, 80; s. v. earthquakes, 
262; on sleep, 280; immortality of 
verse, 281; reg. ivy and elm, 283; 
s. V. 'tooth of time', 285; reg. Hecuba 
and Ajax, 285, 286 ; Mr. CoUins on, 286. 

Oviedo, 223. 

Owl, the baker's daughter, 194. 



'Paedantius', a Latin play, 267. T 

Painter, William, and source of 'AlPs 

Well', 2, 65; and Lucrece, 7; not 



Index, 



309 



used for 'Timoii', 41, 143; and the 

Romeo story, 83—5; and Titus An- 

dronicus, 66 n, 266. 

Palaestns 135 n, 268, (Eckhardt) 152 n. 

^Palamon and Arsetf, mentioned by 

Henslowe, 78. 
Pallas, 244 n 2. 
'Pandosto', see Greene. 
'Panges of Love' 166, 167 n. 
Paracelsus, 291. 
'Paradise of Dainty Devises, The', 180. 

Parker Society, 219, 262 n 3. 

Pasqiialigo, 73. 

^Passionate PUgrim, The', 2 ; the Venus 
and Adonis sonnets in, 26; Ovid, 27; 
Dowland and Spenser, 118 n; s.v. 
'Come live with me', 179. 

Paston, Edward, translates a few leaves 
of Montemayor, 72 n 3. 

Patagonia, cf. 224, 271. 

Paulis, School of St., 13; (Powles) 32 n; 
its fine organ, 219, 264. 

Peckham, Sir George, 109 ff. 

'Peer out, peer out', 183. 

Peele, George, 2, a probable lapsus of, 
48; traces in Sh. of, 135 f.; 'Three 
merry men*, 183; s. v. Child Kowland, 
193. 

Peg-a Ramsey, 179. 

Pembroke, Mary, Countess of, her * An- 
tonie' bad no influence on Sh., 89, 
148; translated Ph. de Mornay's Dis- 
course of Life and Death, 275. 

Pembroke, Lord, bis Players 143. 

Pepysian Collection 175, 182. 

Percy, Bishop, bis Keliques, 25, 159, 
165, 167, 170, 172, 177, 180, 182, 
186; bis Triar of Orders Gray', 168, 
270; bis Folio MS., 159, 160, 161 n 3: 
169, 186. 

'Percy and Douglas, Song of, 156. 

Percy Society, 64 n 1: 159, 186, 270: 
165; 166; 190 n 1. 

'Pericles', Sh. wrote part of, xvi; its 
source Gower and Twine, 2, 81; Sid- 
ney's Arcadia, 103; s. v. Daemonolo- 
gica, 115; emblems in, 117; s v. Flet- 
cher and Beaumont, 139; whether 
there was a Pre-Pericles, 146; 
Bible reminiscence, 221; harmony of 
spheres, 241. 

Perrett, W., 143 n 1. 

Persius, read in high est class, 10, n 4, 
11; violets springing from the grave, 
284. 

Peru, 225. 

Petrarca, indirect influence of, 72 cf. 
n 2, 102. 



Pbaer, translation of Virgü, 32. 

•Pbilaster' 138, 282. 

Philetas, 282. 

Pbillip's translation of de Veer's *Voy- 

age' 232. 
Phillips, Edw., *Tbeatrum Poetarum', 6. 
'Phoenix', 65 n. 
^Phoenix and the Turtle, The', 2; 40; 

117 n4. 
Piers the Plowman, 150. 
Pigafetta, 225, 226 and n 3. 
Pigmies, 236, 237. 
Pilate, Pontius, 284. 
'Pills to purge Melancholy', 175, 179, 

187 
»Pillycock', etc., 183. 
'Pimlyco', its date is not 1596, 81 n 2. 
Pinkie, Battle of, 187. 
Pitcairn, R., Criminal Trials, 115 n 1 

and n 3. 
Plancius, Petrus, 257 and n, 259, 260. 
Plato, cf. 44; 'Alcibiades', 44 n 3, 277; 

harmony of spheres, 241 and n 2; 

parallels from, 274 seq, ; cf. Socrates. 
Plautus, cf. 1, 2; read in highest class, 

11; influence of, 32 — 34; fountain 

head of mistaken identities, 70; bis 

'Amphitruo' the basis of Jack the 

Juggler, 265; the braggart and the 

pedant, 266. 
Playford, s. v. Three Merry Men, 183. 
'Pleasant New^ Ballad of Two Lovers, A', 

175 n, 180. 
Tleasant Song made by a Souldier, A\ 

170. 
'Please one and please all', 171. 
Pliny, 2; influence of, 36, 37; cf. 265; 

reg.headless men, 229 «1; bis 'Morals', 

275. 
Plummer, Elizabetban Oxford, 78. 
Plutarch, source of Caesar, Coriolanus, 

Antony, Timon, 1; influence generally 

on Sh., 40, 41; the word 'misanthro- 

pos', 40; Mids. N. Dreara and, 77, 78; 

s. v. Camden, 108; s. v. Pre-Tiraon, 

143; Supplied basis of 'Caesar', 148; 

aud of*Antony', iö.; reg. bis geography, 

256; Socrates's thoughts on death, 275. 
Poggio, wrote 'Facetiae', 56 n. 
Pole-Star, the, 247. 
Polo, Marco, 237. 
Poole, bis Index, 77 n; 264 n 1. 
Populär Literary Productions, xx; 

Ibbseg. 
Porto, Luigi da, 84, 85. 
Pory, John, see Leo. 
Pottinger, Mr., of Worcester College 48. 
Praetorius, Facsimiles by 81 n, 142 n 3. 



310 



Index, 



Prayer Book, The, see Common Prayer. 
Premierfait, Laurens du, transl. of De- 

cameron, 60 n 2. 
Prester John, 163, 236. 
Preston, Thomas, 2, 137. 
Prichard, H. H., on Setebos, 271. 
Proclus, 279. 
Proescholdt, cf. Warnke. 
Proverbs, reg. 2, 272, 290. 
Psalms, taken from the Great Bible, 197; 

echoes from, 211, etc. 
Psalms, Metrical, 2, 217 f.; Evans sings 

first line of the 137 th Psalm, 166; 

the Old Hundredth, 174; still sung 

in Scotland, 271. 
Pseudo-Shakespearean Plays, 151. 
Ptolemy, 260 «, 'Ptolemaic system', 237. 
Pueriles Confabulatiunculae, 10. 
Purchas, His Pilgrims, 226 n3; 227 

«2; 229 II 1; 234 n5; 235 n and 

nl; 249 n2; Uis Pilgrimage, 232, 

234 n 1. 
Puritans 118 n; 219. 
Puttenham, refers to Southern, 58 n 2; 

a pseudo-Chaucerian 'Prophecy' and, 

80 and n 3; on ballad-singers, 155; 

refers to *Topas', 156, 162; s. v. '1 

cannot come every day to woo', 176; 

s. V. More Borrowed Ideas, 287. 
Pynson prints books on destnictiou of 

Jerusalem, 43. 
Pythagoras, harmony of spheres, 241; 

metempsyehosis 279. 

Quarterly Review, 77 n; 103, 104, 105 

n 1. 
Queen's Meu, 140 and n 3; 141; 142. 
'Quellen des weltlichen Dramas', cf. 

Brandl, 190 n I. 
Quiney, Richard, and sons, their know- 

ledge of Latin, 39 ; the eider Q. wrote 

a letter to Sh., 39 n. 
Quintilian, reg. *geld the commonwealth\ 

38: Jupiter spitting on the Alps, 39. 

Rabelais, XIV ; 2; 55 seq.-, cf. 266, 288. 
Racine knew Heliodorus, 44 n. 
Ralegh, Sir W., 2, 222; Guiana and co- 

lonial enterprizes, 228—230; the seven 

ages of man's life, 279. 
'Ralph Roister Doister', 188. 
Ramusio, 223, 225. 

Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune, 151. 
Ravenscroft, Edward, his 'Paraelia', 182, 

183; his 'Deuteromelia', 182. — Tho- 

mas R., on Titus Andronicus, 149. 
Ray's Proverbs, 290. 



Reclam, ed. of 'Lazarillo de Tonnes', 
74 n. 

Reed, Edwin, 273, 282, 286, 290. 

Reed, Isaac, 4, 235 

Registers of the Stationers' Comp&ny, 
7, 36, 47, 48, 49, 55, 56 and «, 64 « 1, 
66, 74, 81, 82 n 1, 84 n 1, 91, 140, 142, 
148, 150 and n 2, 161 and n 4, 164, 
166, 167, 169, 170 n, 171, 173, 176, 
178, 179, 181, 188, 191, 192, 232, 269, 
270 (cf. also Arber). 

Rhodes, Hugh, Boke of Nurture, 116. 

Rhymes, Populär. 2, 183 f. 

^Richard II.', founded on Holinshed, 1 ; 
iEsop, 17, 19; s. V. Ovid, 29; the word 
*geld', 38; reg. Sh.'s French promm- 
ciation, 51 n; compared with 'Edward 
IL', 92; s.v. Marlowe, 120, 124; no 
Pre-Richard IL, 150; reference to King 
Cophetua, 165; s. v. Bible used in the 
Church, 201; The Catechism, 205; 
Lord's Prayer, 206; **eye of heaven'\ 
243: Lyly's Euphues. 105, 106; Psalm, 
213; fixed Stars, 247: 'shooting star\ 
249; reg. Anaxarchus, 279; the flower 
and the serpent, 281. 

'Richard IIL\ based on Holinshed and 
Hall, 1; "cross-row", 12; Caesar's 
'Commentaries\ 20; Seneca, 35: the 
Word cacodemon, 40; ghost, 113; Mar- 
lowe, 120, 121, r23;'Spani8hTragedy\ 
129; a probable reminiscence of Lyly, 
133; The True Tragedie of Richard 
the Third, 142; s.v. Elizabethan Bibles, 
199; watery moon, 242. 

Riche, Barnabe, and the source ofTwelfth 
Night, 1, 68-70. 

Riddles, The Book of, 192, 290. 

Rimbault, Musical lUustrations of Percy's 
Reliques, 168, 172, 177, 180 n; Songs 
and Bajlads, 176; s. v. 'A Song to the 
Lute', 180. 

Rio de Janeiro, 228. 

Ritson, Collection of nursery rhymes, 
183. 

Ritter, Dr., 187. 

Robert of Brunne, 141 n 1. 

Robert of Gloucester, 141 n 1. 

Robertson, J. M., 34 n 2, 53 and n, 54, 
72 n 2. 

Robertson, T., and Lily's Grammar, 13. 

Robin, see Hood, and Goodfellow^. 

Robinson, Clement, A Handefull of plca- 
sant delites, 166 n 4, 169, 173, 174, 
181, 190 n 1, 269. 

Roche, Walter, teacher at Stratford, 11. 

Rochford, Viscount, 178. 

Rohde, der Griechische Roman, 44 n 1. 



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